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Draft Genome Sequence of the Formaldehyde-Resistant Fungus Byssochlamys spectabilis No. 5 (Anamorph Paecilomyces variotii No. 5) (NBRC109023)
Byssochlamys spectabilis no. 5 (anamorph Paecilomyces variotii no. 5) (NBRC109023) was isolated from a soil sample in 2001 in Kumamoto Prefecture, Japan. This fungus is highly resistant to formaldehyde. Here, we report a draft genome sequence of P. variotii no. 5; this draft was produced with the intent of investigating the mechanism of formaldehyde resistance. This is the first report of the genome sequence of any Paecilomyces species.
Purification and properties of S-hydroxymethylglutathione dehydrogenase of Paecilomyces variotii no. 5, a formaldehyde-degrading fungus
S-hydroxymethylglutathione dehydrogenase from Paecilomyces variotii No. 5 strain (NBRC 109023), isolated as a formaldehyde-degrading fungus, was purified by a procedure that included ammonium sulfate precipitation, DEAE-Sepharose and hydroxyapatite chromatography and isoelectrofocusing. Approximately 122-fold purification was achieved with a yield of 10.5%. The enzyme preparation was homogeneous as judged by sodium dodecyl polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). The molecular mass of the purified enzyme was estimated to be 49 kDa by SDS-PAGE and gel filtration, suggesting that it is a monomer. Enzyme activity was optimal at pH 8.0 and was stable in the range of pH 7.0–10. The optimum temperature for activity was 40°C and the enzyme was stable up to 40°C. The isoelectric point was pH 5.8. Substrate specificity was very high for formaldehyde. Besides formaldehyde, the only aldehyde or alcohol tested that served as a substrate was pyruvaldehyde. Enzyme activity was enhanced by several divalent cations such as Mn2+ (179%), Ba2+ (132%), and Ca2+ (112%) but was completely inhibited by Ni2+, Fe3+, Hg2+, p-chloromercuribenzoate (PCMB) and cuprizone. Inactivation of the enzyme by sulfhydryl reagents (Hg2+ and PCMB) indicated that the sulfhydryl group of the enzyme is essential for catalytic activity.
S-hydroxymethylglutathione dehydrogenase; Enzyme purification; Formaldehyde metabolism; Paecilomyces variotii; SH enzyme
Engineering of Polyploid Saccharomyces cerevisiae for Secretion of Large Amounts of Fungal Glucoamylase
Applied and Environmental Microbiology
We engineered Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells that produce large amounts of fungal glucoamylase (GAI) from Aspergillus awamori var. kawachi. To do this, we used the δ-sequence-mediated integration vector system and the heat-induced endomitotic diploidization method. δ-Sequence-mediated integration is known to occur mainly in a particular chromosome, and the copy number of the integration is variable. In order to construct transformants carrying the GAI gene on several chromosomes, haploid cells carrying the GAI gene on different chromosomes were crossed with each other. The cells were then allowed to form spores, which was followed by dissection. Haploid cells containing GAI genes on multiple chromosomes were obtained in this way. One such haploid cell contained the GAI gene on five chromosomes and exhibited the highest GAI activity (5.93 U/ml), which was about sixfold higher than the activity of a cell containing one gene on a single chromosome. Furthermore, we performed heat-induced endomitotic diploidization for haploid transformants to obtain polyploid mater cells carrying multiple GAI genes. The copy number of the GAI gene increased in proportion to the ploidy level, and larger amounts of GAI were secreted.
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