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1.  A Potent Combination Microbicide that Targets SHIV-RT, HSV-2 and HPV 
PLoS ONE  2014;9(4):e94547.
Prevalent infection with human herpes simplex 2 (HSV-2) or human papillomavirus (HPV) is associated with increased human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) acquisition. Microbicides that target HIV as well as these sexually transmitted infections (STIs) may more effectively limit HIV incidence. Previously, we showed that a microbicide gel (MZC) containing MIV-150, zinc acetate (ZA) and carrageenan (CG) protected macaques against simian-human immunodeficiency virus (SHIV-RT) infection and that a ZC gel protected mice against HSV-2 infection. Here we evaluated a modified MZC gel (containing different buffers, co-solvents, and preservatives suitable for clinical testing) against both vaginal and rectal challenge of animals with SHIV-RT, HSV-2 or HPV. MZC was stable and safe in vitro (cell viability and monolayer integrity) and in vivo (histology). MZC protected macaques against vaginal (p<0.0001) SHIV-RT infection when applied up to 8 hours (h) prior to challenge. When used close to the time of challenge, MZC prevented rectal SHIV-RT infection of macaques similar to the CG control. MZC significantly reduced vaginal (p<0.0001) and anorectal (p = 0.0187) infection of mice when 106 pfu HSV-2 were applied immediately after vaginal challenge and also when 5×103 pfu were applied between 8 h before and 4 h after vaginal challenge (p<0.0248). Protection of mice against 8×106 HPV16 pseudovirus particles (HPV16 PsV) was significant for MZC applied up to 24 h before and 2 h after vaginal challenge (p<0.0001) and also if applied 2 h before or after anorectal challenge (p<0.0006). MZC provides a durable window of protection against vaginal infection with these three viruses and, against HSV-2 and HPV making it an excellent candidate microbicide for clinical use.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0094547
PMCID: PMC3989196  PMID: 24740100
2.  Improvement of thermal stability of polypropylene using DOPO-immobilized silica nanoparticles 
Colloid and polymer science  2012;290(14):1371-1380.
After the surface silylation with 3-methacryloxypropyltrimethoxysilane, silica nanoparticles were further modified by 9,10-dihydro-9-oxa-10-phosphaphenanthrene-10-oxide (DOPO). The immobilization of DOPO on silica nanoparticles was confirmed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, UV–visible spectroscopy, magic angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance, and thermogravimetric analysis. By incorporating the DOPO-immobilized silica nanoparticles (5 wt%) into polypropylene matrix, the thermal oxidative stability exhibited an improvement of 62 °C for the half weight loss temperature, while that was only 26 °C increment with incorporation of virgin silica nanoparticles (5 wt%). Apparent activation energies of the polymer nanocomposites were estimated via Flynn–Wall–Ozawa method. It was found that the incorporation of DOPO-immobilized silica nanoparticles improved activation energies of the degradation reaction. Based on the results, it was speculated that DOPO-immobilized silica nanoparticles could inhibit the degradation of polypropylene and catalyze the formation of carbonaceous char on the surface. Thus, thermal stability was significantly improved.
doi:10.1007/s00396-012-2631-0
PMCID: PMC3981559  PMID: 24729654
Polypropylene; DOPO; Silica; Nanocomposites; Kinetic
3.  A Polycarbonate/Magnesium Oxide Nanocomposite with High Flame Retardancy 
Journal of applied polymer science  2012;123(2):1085-1093.
A new flame retardant polycarbonate/magnesium oxide (PC/MgO) nanocomposite, with high flame retardancy was developed by melt compounding. The effect of MgO to the flame retardancy, thermal property, and thermal degradation kinetics were investigated. Limited oxygen index (LOI) test revealed that a little amount of MgO (2 wt %) led to significant enhancement (LOI = 36.8) in flame retardancy. Thermogravimetric analysis results demonstrated that the onset temperature of degradation and temperature of maximum degradation rate decreased in both air and N2 atmosphere. Apparent activation energy was estimated via Flynn–Wall–Ozawa method. Three steps in the thermal degradation kinetics were observed after incorporation of MgO into the matrix and the additive raised activation energies of the composite in the full range except the initial stage. It was interpreted that the flame retardancy of PC was influenced by MgO through the following two aspects: on the one hand, MgO catalyzed the thermal-oxidative degradation and accelerated a thermal protection/mass loss barrier at burning surface; on the other hand, the filler decreased activation energies in the initial step and improved thermal stability in the final period.
doi:10.1002/app.34574
PMCID: PMC3970200  PMID: 24696526
polycarbonates; flame retardance; thermal properties; activation energy
4.  Exposure to MIV-150 from a High-Dose Intravaginal Ring Results in Limited Emergence of Drug Resistance Mutations in SHIV-RT Infected Rhesus Macaques 
PLoS ONE  2014;9(2):e89300.
When microbicides used for HIV prevention contain antiretroviral drugs, there is concern for the potential emergence of drug-resistant HIV following use in infected individuals who are either unaware of their HIV infection status or who are aware but still choose to use the microbicide. Resistant virus could ultimately impact their responsiveness to treatment and/or result in subsequent transmission of drug-resistant virus. We tested whether drug resistance mutations (DRMs) would emerge in macaques infected with simian immunodeficiency virus expressing HIV reverse transcriptase (SHIV-RT) after sustained exposure to the potent non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI) MIV-150 delivered via an intravaginal ring (IVR). We first treated 4 SHIV-RT-infected animals with daily intramuscular injections of MIV-150 over two 21 day (d) intervals separated by a 7 d drug hiatus. In all 4 animals, NNRTI DRMs (single and combinations) were detected within 14 d and expanded in proportion and diversity with time. Knowing that we could detect in vivo emergence of NNRTI DRMs in response to MIV-150, we then tested whether a high-dose MIV-150 IVR (loaded with >10 times the amount being used in a combination microbicide IVR in development) would select for resistance in 6 infected animals, modeling use of this prevention method by an HIV-infected woman. We previously demonstrated that this MIV-150 IVR provides significant protection against vaginal SHIV-RT challenge. Wearing the MIV-150 IVR for 56 d led to only 2 single DRMs in 2 of 6 animals (430 RT sequences analyzed total, 0.46%) from plasma and lymph nodes despite MIV-150 persisting in the plasma, vaginal fluids, and genital tissues. Only wild type virus sequences were detected in the genital tissues. These findings indicate a low probability for the emergence of DRMs after topical MIV-150 exposure and support the advancement of MIV-150-containing microbicides.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0089300
PMCID: PMC3937329  PMID: 24586674
5.  Estimation of Recurrence Interval of Large Earthquakes on the Central Longmen Shan Fault Zone Based on Seismic Moment Accumulation/Release Model 
The Scientific World Journal  2013;2013:458341.
Recurrence interval of large earthquake on an active fault zone is an important parameter in assessing seismic hazard. The 2008 Wenchuan earthquake (Mw 7.9) occurred on the central Longmen Shan fault zone and ruptured the Yingxiu-Beichuan fault (YBF) and the Guanxian-Jiangyou fault (GJF). However, there is a considerable discrepancy among recurrence intervals of large earthquake in preseismic and postseismic estimates based on slip rate and paleoseismologic results. Post-seismic trenches showed that the central Longmen Shan fault zone probably undertakes an event similar to the 2008 quake, suggesting a characteristic earthquake model. In this paper, we use the published seismogenic model of the 2008 earthquake based on Global Positioning System (GPS) and Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) data and construct a characteristic seismic moment accumulation/release model to estimate recurrence interval of large earthquakes on the central Longmen Shan fault zone. Our results show that the seismogenic zone accommodates a moment rate of (2.7 ± 0.3) × 1017 N m/yr, and a recurrence interval of 3900 ± 400 yrs is necessary for accumulation of strain energy equivalent to the 2008 earthquake. This study provides a preferred interval estimation of large earthquakes for seismic hazard analysis in the Longmen Shan region.
doi:10.1155/2013/458341
PMCID: PMC3710655  PMID: 23878524
6.  Determination of cidofovir in human plasma after low dose drug administration using high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry 
Journal of pharmaceutical and biomedical analysis  2010;53(4):10.1016/j.jpba.2010.06.034.
A sensitive and specific method for the determination of cidofovir (CDV) in human plasma using high-performance liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) was developed and validated. Plasma samples were processed by a solid phase extraction (SPE) procedure using Varian® SAX extraction cartridges prior to chromatography. The internal standard was 13C5-Folic acid (13C5-FA). Chromatography was performed using a Luna C8(2) analytical column, 5 μm, 150 mm × 3.0 mm, using an isocratic elution with a mobile phase consisting of 43% methanol in water containing 12 mM ammonium acetate, at a flow rate of 0.3 mL/min. The retention times of CDV and 13C5-FA were 2.1 min and 1.9 min, respectively, with a total run time of 5 min. The analytes were detected by a Micromass Quattro Micro triple quadrupole mass spectrometer in positive electron spray ionization (ESI) mode using multiple reaction monitoring (MRM). The extracted ions monitored following MRM transitions were m/z 280.0 → 262.1 for CDV and m/z 447.0 → 294.8 for 13C5-FA (IS). The assay was linear over the range 20 - 1000 ng/mL. Accuracy (101.6 - 105.7%), intra-assay precision (4.1 - 5.4%), and inter-assay precision (5.6 - 6.8%) were within FDA limits. No significant variation in the concentration of CDV was observed with different sample storage conditions. This method is simple, adaptable to routine application, and allows easy and accurate measurement of CDV in human plasma.
doi:10.1016/j.jpba.2010.06.034
PMCID: PMC3654809  PMID: 20673618
cidofovir; BK virus; liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry
7.  A Single Dose of a MIV-150/Zinc Acetate Gel Provides 24 h of Protection Against Vaginal Simian Human Immunodeficiency Virus Reverse Transcriptase Infection, with More Limited Protection Rectally 8–24 h After Gel Use 
AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses  2012;28(11):1476-1484.
Abstract
Previously we showed that repeated vaginal application of a MIV-150/zinc acetate carrageenan (MIV-150/ZA/CG) gel and a zinc acetate carrageenan (ZA/CG) gel significantly protected macaques from vaginal simian human immunodeficiency virus reverse transcriptase (SHIV-RT) infection. Gels were applied either daily for 2 weeks or every other day for 4 weeks, and the animals were challenged 4–24 h later. Herein, we examined the effects of a single vaginal dose administered either before or after virus challenge. Encouraged by the vaginal protection seen with MIV-150/ZA/CG, we also tested it rectally. Vaginal applications of MIV-150/ZA/CG, ZA/CG, and CG gel were performed once 8–24 h before, 1 h after, or 24 h before and 1 h after vaginal challenge. Rectal applications of MIV-150/ZA/CG and CG gel were performed once 8 or 24 h before rectal challenge. While vaginal pre-challenge and pre/post-challenge application of MIV-150/ZA/CG gel offered significant protection (88%, p<0.002), post-challenge application alone did not significantly protect. ZA/CG gel reduced infection prechallenge, but not significantly, and the effect was completely lost post-challenge. Rectal application of MIV-150/ZA/CG gel afforded limited protection against rectal challenge when applied 8–24 h before challenge. Thus, MIV-150/ZA/CG gel is a highly effective vaginal microbicide that demonstrates 24 h of protection from vaginal infection and may demonstrate efficacy against rectal infection when given close to the time of HIV exposure.
doi:10.1089/aid.2012.0087
PMCID: PMC3484818  PMID: 22737981
8.  In Vitro and In Vivo Studies of Monoclonal Antibodies with Prominent Bactericidal Activity against Burkholderia pseudomallei and Burkholderia mallei▿ 
Our laboratory has developed more than a hundred mouse monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) against Burkholderia pseudomallei and Burkholderia mallei. These antibodies have been categorized into different groups based on their specificities and the biochemical natures of their target antigens. The current study first examined the bactericidal activities of a number of these MAbs by an in vitro opsonic assay. Then, the in vivo protective efficacy of selected MAbs was evaluated using BALB/c mice challenged intranasally with a lethal dose of the bacteria. The opsonic assay using dimethyl sulfoxide-treated human HL-60 cells as phagocytes revealed that 19 out of 47 tested MAbs (40%) have prominent bactericidal activities against B. pseudomallei and/or B. mallei. Interestingly, all MAbs with strong opsonic activities are those with specificity against either the capsular polysaccharides (PS) or the lipopolysaccharides (LPS) of the bacteria. On the other hand, none of the MAbs reacting to bacterial proteins or glycoproteins showed prominent bactericidal activity. Further study revealed that the antigenic epitopes on either the capsular PS or LPS molecules were readily available for binding in intact bacteria, while the epitopes on proteins/glycoproteins were less accessible to the MAbs. Our in vivo study showed that four MAbs reactive to either the capsular PS or LPS were highly effective in protecting mice against lethal bacterial challenge. The result is compatible with that of our in vitro study. The MAbs with the highest protective efficacy are those reactive to either the capsular PS or LPS of the Burkholderia bacteria.
doi:10.1128/CVI.00533-10
PMCID: PMC3122519  PMID: 21450976
9.  COMPARISON OF VARIOUS LAZAROID COMPOUNDS FOR PROTECTION AGAINST ISCHEMIC LIVER INJURY1,2 
Transplantation proceedings  1997;29(1-2):1333-1334.
Lazaroids are a group of 21 -aminosteroids that lack steroid action but have a potent cytoprotective effect by inhibiting iron-dependent lipid peroxidation. However, there have been conflicting reports on the effectiveness and potency of the various lazaroid compounds. In this study, we compared the effectiveness of three major lazaroids on warm liver ischemia in dogs using a 2-hr hepatic vascular exclusion model. The agents were given to the animals intravenously for 30 min before ischemia. The animals were divided into 5 groups: Control (n=10), no treatment; Group F (n=6), U-74006F (10 mg/kg); Group G (n=6), U-74389G (10 mg/kg); Group A1 (n=6), U-74500A (10 mg/kg); Group A2 (n=6), U-74500A (5 mg/kg). The effect of treatment was evaluated by two-week animal survival, hepatic tissue blood flow, liver function tests, blood and tissue biochemistry, and histological analyses. Animal survival in all treated groups was significantly improved compared with the control (83–100% versus 30%). Elevation of liver enzymes after reperfusion was markedly attenuated in treated groups, except for an early significant increase in Group G. Postreperfusion hepatic tissue blood flow was much higher in all treated animals (50% of the preischemic level vs. 25% in the control). Lazaroids, particularly U-74500A at 5 mg/kg (Group A2), suppressed adenine nucleotide degradation during ischemia and enhanced the resynthe-sis of high-energy phosphates after reperfusion. Although structural abnormalities in postreperfusion liver tissues were markedly ameliorated in all treated groups, Group A2 showed significantly less neutrophil infiltration. Liver injury from warm ischemia and reperfusion was attenuated with all lazaroid compounds, of which U-74500A at 5 mg/kg exhibited the most significant protective activity.
PMCID: PMC3022504  PMID: 9123329
10.  Protective Role of Nitric Oxide in Ischemia and Reperfusion Injury of the Liver 
Background
The suppressed production of nitric oxide (NO), associated with endothelial dysfunction, is thought to be a cause of ischemia and reperfusion injury of the liver. But findings of the salutary effects of NO enhancement on such injury have been conflicting. In this study, we tested our hypothesis that NO enhancement would attenuate ischemic liver injury. For this purpose, an NO precursor, L-arginine, and a novel NO donor, FK409, were applied to a 2-hour total hepatic vascular exdusion model in dogs.
Study Design
L-arginine was administered IV at a dose of 100 mg/kg twice (n = 5), while 300 mg/kg twice of FK409 was infused continuously into the portal vein (n = 5). The drugs were given to the animals for 30 and 60 minutes before and after ischemia, respectively. Nontreated animals were used as the control (n = 10). Two-week survival, systemic and hepatic hemodynamics indices, liver function tests, energy metabolism, and histopathology were analyzed.
Results
Both treatments comparably augmented hepatic tissue blood flow, decreased liver enzyme release, and increased high-energy phosphate restoration during the reperfusion period, all of which contributed to rescuing all of the treated animals from the 2-hour total hepatic ischemia. In contrast, ischemia caused 70% mortality in the control group. Histologically, structural abnormality and neutrophil infiltration were markedly attenuated by the treatments. Systemic hypotension was observed in the animals treated with FK409, however.
Conclusions
Our data demonstrate that NO enhancement alleviates the liver injury caused by ischemia and reperfusion. The supplementation of L-arginine, rather than FK409, is considered more applicable to clinical use because of the absence of systemic adverse effects.
PMCID: PMC3018864  PMID: 9915241
11.  LAZAROID U-74389G FOR 48-HOUR CANINE LIVER PRESERVATION1,2 
Transplantation  1996;61(2):189-194.
Lazaroids have been reported to attenuate preservation and reperfusion injury. In this study, we examined whether lazaroids can improve the outcome after 48-hr canine liver preservation and transplantation. Adult female beagle dogs were randomized into 4 dosage groups (5 animals each). Lazaroid U-74389G was intravenously administered at a dose of 0 mg/kg, 6 mg/kg, 10 mg/kg, or 15 mg/kg to donors 30 min before harvesting and also to recipients 30 min before revascularization. Control animals (0 mg/kg) were given the lazaroid vehicle. The liver grafts were orthotopically transplanted after 48 hr of hypothermic preservation in UW solution. Lazaroid treatment significantly improved outcome after transplantation. Five-day animal survival increased from 0% in the control to 60% in the 6 mg/kg group, 100% in the 10 mg/kg group, and 80% in the 15 mg/kg group. Lazaroid protected the hepatocytes from damage during preservation, and enhanced energy charge and hepatic blood flow after reperfusion. Histological alterations were significantly less severe in the lazaroid-treated groups. The area of necrotic hepatocytes decreased from 43.7±17.7 in the control to 13.5±3.0 in the lazaroid 10 mg/kg group. These results indicate that lazaroid U-74389G has potential for improvement of clinical liver preservation.
PMCID: PMC3006230  PMID: 8600621
12.  MUCOSAL DAMAGE AND RECOVERY OF THE INTESTINE AFTER PROLONGED PRESERVATION AND TRANSPLANTATION IN DOGS1 
Transplantation  2001;71(1):1-7.
Background
Although much is known about the mucosal damage that occurs after intestinal warm ischemia and reperfusion and its recovery, little is known about the effect of cold preservation and transplantation on the mucosa. We studied the electrophysiological, biochemical, and histological changes of the intestinal mucosa after preservation for 24 hr and subsequent transplantation.
Methods
The small intestines from adult mongrel dogs were harvested. The intestines were orthotopically autotransplanted immediately (control group) or after preservation for 24 hr (preservation group). Jejunal and ileal tissues were taken before harvesting, at the end of preservation, 1 hr after reperfusion, and on postoperative days 3, 7, 14, and 28. The Ussing chamber method was used to study the electrophysiologic changes. Tissue maltase, diamine oxidase, and ornithine decarboxylase were measured. A histological analysis was also performed.
Results
Control group grafts showed no evident deterioration in electrophysiology, biochemistry, or morphology. In contrast, preservation group grafts exhibited electrophysiological and biochemical degradation, complete denudation of the villi, and crypt injury (especially in the ileum) after reperfusion. Electrophysiologic function and the mucosa biochemical marker recovered within 3 days in the jejunum and within 7–14 days in the ileum; however, histological recovery of mucosal injury required 28 days in the jejunum and more than 28 days in the ileum.
Conclusions
Our study showed that despite severe destruction of mucosal integrity by prolonged preservation and transplantation, the intestinal mucosa has an enormous regenerative capacity. Our study also showed that regeneration was more pronounced in the jejunum than in the ileum.
PMCID: PMC2967181  PMID: 11211173
13.  MODIFIED SIMPLE COLD STORAGE OF RAT LIVERS WITH UW SOLUTION1 
Transplantation  1994;58(4):408-414.
Rat livers were preserved with the conventional use of UW solution for 30, 42, and 48 hr and compared with livers in which the vascular bed was expanded with an additional 10 to 60 ml UW/100 g liver. The extra UW, expressed as % liver weight, was entrapped during final portal infusion by tying off the supra- and infrahepatic inferior vena cava. A beneficial influence of the vascular expansion was most pronounced in the 40% group, with 10/10, 5/10, and 3/10 long-term survivors following transplantation after 30, 42, and 48 hr preservation versus 3/10 and 0/10 after 30 and 42 hr in the 0% controls. In separate experiments, surrogate indices of preservation quality following reperfusion explained this effect. The 40%—and, to a lesser extent, 20%—livers had higher and more uniformly distributed portal blood flow, better tissue oxygenation, smaller increases in postperfusion liver enzymes, higher adenine nucleotides and energy charge, and less histopathologic evidence of hemorrhage and congestion. Pressure changes in the vena cava fluid sump in additional experiments indicated that retrograde infusion of the trapped UW solution occurred in all of the 10–60% groups during the first 6 hr with stable pressures of 1.5 to 3 cm H20 thereafter. Collectively, these data suggest that the much discussed selective vulnerability of the microvasculature of stored allografts is due in part (or principally) to its selective lack of long-term exposure to the UW solution, which drains out of the open vessels but not from the parenchyma. The potential clinical exploitation of this concept is discussed.
PMCID: PMC2965475  PMID: 8073508
14.  Effect of Ischemia on the Canine Large Bowel: A Comparison with the Small Intestine1 
Mucosal injury caused by ischemia and reperfusion has been well documented with the small intestine, but little is known about the colon. In the present study, the effect of warm and cold ischemia on the canine colon was studied and compared to that on the small intestine. After in situ flushing, the small intestine and the colon from six beagle dogs were removed and stored for 0.5, 1.5, and 3 hr at 37°C (warm ischemia) or for 1, 6, 12, 24, 36, and 48 hr at 4°C (cold ischemia). Electrophysiology, permeability, biochemistry, and histopathology of the specimens at each ischemic period and after reperfusion in the Ussing chamber were determined. Warm and cold ischemia induced duration-dependent suppression of electrophysiology in both organs, but the colonic mucosa retained higher activity of absorptive enterocytes and cryptic cells than the small intestine. Only the colon showed increased permeability of FITC-conjugated Dextran from the mucosal surface to the submucosal layer after prolonged ischemia. Changes in adenine nucleotides and purine catabolites were not markedly different between the organs. Histopathologic abnormalities during ischemia and after reperfusion were more serious with the small intestine than with the colon. Compared to warm ischemia, hypothermia lessened or delayed these morphofunctional derangements in both organs, which became universally worsened after reperfusion. Colonic mucosa receives morphofunctional derangements from ischemia and reperfusion, but the severity of the damage was much less severe in the colon than in the small intestine.
doi:10.1006/jsre.1996.0170
PMCID: PMC2963939  PMID: 8606507
15.  ATTENUATION OF ISCHEMIC LIVER INJURY BY AUGMENTATION OF ENDOGENOUS ADENOSINE1,2 
Transplantation  1997;63(2):217-223.
Hepatic grafts from non-heartbeating donors may alleviate the organ shortage, but they inherently suffer from warm ischemia. In the present study, we tested our hypothesis that augmentation of endogenous adenosine by inhibition of nucleoside transport with R75231 attenuates ischemic liver injury. Adult female beagle dogs underwent 2-hr hepatic vascular exclusion with venovenous bypass. R75231 was given to the animals by continuous intravenous infusion for 30 min before ischemia at a dose of 0.1 mg/kg (Group 2, n=6), 0.05 mg/kg (Group 3, n=6), or 0.025 mg/kg (Group 4, n=6). Nontreated animals were used as the control (Group 1, n=10). Animal survival, hepatic tissue blood flow, liver function, and histopathology were analyzed. Two-week animal survival was 30% in Group 1, 88% in Group 2, 100% in Group 3, and 100% in Group 4. Postreperfusion hepatic tissue blood flow was markedly improved by the treatment. Treatment significantly attenuated liver enzyme release, lipid peroxidation, and changes in adenine nucleotides and purine catabolites. Structural abnormality of the liver after reperfusion was markedly improved by R75231 treatment, showing better architecture and less neutrophil infiltration. Preischemic administration of a nucleoside transport inhibitor ameliorated ischemic liver injury due to the positive effects of augmented endogenous adenosine, and is applicable clinically when the liver is procured from a controlled non-heartbeating donor.
PMCID: PMC2963471  PMID: 9020320
16.  Effect of Rejection on Electrophysiologic Function of Canine Intestinal Grafts: Correlation with Histopathology and Na–K-ATPase Activity 
To investigate whether electrophysiologic changes can detect the early onset and progress of intestinal rejection, changes in in vitro electrophysiologic function, intestinal histopathology, and Na–K-ATPase activity were studied in dogs. Adult mongrel dogs of both sexes, weighing 18–24 kg, were used for auto and allo small bowel transplantation. The entire small bowels, except for short segments at the proximal and distal ends, were switched between a pair of dogs (allograft). Animals receiving intestinal autotransplantation were used as controls. Allograft recipients were sacrificed 3, 4, 5, 7, or 9 days after transplantation, and autograft recipients were sacrificed 3, 7, or 14 days after transplantation. Immunosuppression was not used. Electrophysiologic measurements were done with an Ussing chamber. Histological analysis was performed blindly using whole thickness sections. Na–K–ATPase activity in the mucosal tissue, which is said to regulate the potential difference, was also measured. Potential difference, resistance, and Na–K-ATPase activity of the allograft intestine decreased with time and were significantly lower 7 and 9 days after transplantation compared to host intestine, normal intestine, and graft intestine of controls (autograft). Potential difference, resistance, and Na–K-ATPase activity of the native intestinal tissue and the autografts did not decrease with time. Detection of histologically mild rejection of the intestine, which is important for appropriate immunosuppressive treatment in clinical cases, could not be achieved based on electrophysiology or Na–K-ATPase activity. Deterioration of electrophysiologic function during rejection correlated with the histological rejection process and Na–K-ATPase activity; however, electrophysiology may not be a reliable tool for monitoring grafts, since it cannot detect early intestinal rejection.
PMCID: PMC2958662  PMID: 8519738
small bowel transplantation; Ussing chamber; electrophysiologic function; Na–K-ATPase; rejection
17.  LAZAROID U-74500A FOR WARM ISCHEMIA AND REPERFUSION INJURY OF THE CANINE SMALL INTESTINE 
BACKGROUND
Although lazaroids have been shown to protect various organs from ischemia/reperfusion injury, results obtained in the small intestine have been conflicting.
STUDY DESIGN
The canine small intestine was made totally ischemic for 2 hours by occluding the superior mesenteric artery and the superior mesenteric vein with interruption of the mesenteric collateral vessels. A lazaroid compound, U74500A, or a citrate vehicle was given intravenously to each of the six animals for 30 minutes before intestinal ischemia. Intestinal tissue blood flow, lipid peroxidation, neutrophil infiltration, adenine nucleotides and their catabolites, and histologic changes after reperfusion were determined.
RESULTS
Lazaroid treatment attenuated decline of the mucosal and serosal blood flow after reperfusion. Accumulation of lipid peroxidation products and neutrophils in mucosal tissues was markedly inhibited by the treatment. Postischemic energy resynthesis was also augmented by lazaroid. Morphologically, mucosal architectures were better preserved with lazaroid treatment after reperfusion, and recovered to normal by postoperative day 3 in the treated group and by post-operative day 7 in control animals.
CONCLUSIONS
Lazaroids protect the canine small intestine from ischemia/reperfusion injury by inhibiting lipid peroxidation and neutrophil infiltration. Dogs are tolerant of 2-hour normothermic complete intestinal ischemia.
PMCID: PMC2677968  PMID: 9100685
18.  Attenuation of Ischemic Liver Injury by Monoclonal Anti-Endothelin Antibody, AwETN40 
Background
Enhanced production of endothelin-1 (ET-1), vasoconstrictive 21 amino acids produced by endothelial cells during ischemia and after reperfusion of the liver, is known to cause sinusoidal constriction and microcirculatory disturbances, which lead to severe tissue damage. Using a 2-hour hepatic vascular exclusion model in dogs, we tested our hypothesis that neutralization of ET-1 by monoclonal anti-ET-1 and anti-ET-2 antibody (AwETN40) abates vascular dysfunction and ameliorates ischemia/reperfusion injury of the liver.
Study Design
After skeletonization, the liver was made totally ischemic by cross-clamping the portal vein, the hepatic artery, and the vena cava (above and below the liver). Veno-venous bypass was used to decompress splanchnic and inferior systemic congestion. AwETN40, 5 mg/kg, was administered intravenously 10 minutes before ischemia (treatment group, n = 5). Nontreated animals were used as controls (control group, n = 10). Animal survival, hepatic tissue blood flow, liver function tests, total bile acid, high-energy phosphate, ET-1 levels, and liver histopathology were studied.
Results
Treatment with AwETN40 improved 2-week animal survival from 30% to 100%. Hepatic tissue blood flow after reperfusion was significantly higher in the treatment group. The treatment significantly attenuated liver enzyme release, total bile acid, and changes in adenine nucleotides. Immunoreactive ET-1 levels in the hepatic venous blood of the control group showed a significant increase and remained high for up to 24 hours after reperfusion. Histopathologic alterations were significantly lessened in the treatment group.
Conclusions
These results indicate that ET-1 is involved in ischemia/reperfusion injury of the liver, which can be ameliorated by the monoclonal anti-ET-1 and anti-ET-2 antibody AwETN40.
PMCID: PMC2675945  PMID: 9328384
19.  Induction of Constitutive High-Level Expression of c-Myc in 32D Cells by Mycoplasmas is Associated with their Ability to Prevent Apoptosis and Induce Malignant Transformation 
Our previous studies showed that mycoplasmas prevented apoptosis and induced the malignant transformation of mammalian cells. Other studies indicate that c-Myc plays an important role in promoting apoptosis and malignant transformation of cells. To understand the role of c-Myc in the mycoplasma induced apoptosis prevention and malignant cell transformation, 32D cells, an IL-3 dependent cell line, were infected and transformed by different species of mycoplasmas. The expression of Myc and ras gene families, apoptosis and the cell cycle during the infection and transformation were examined. Results showed that c-Myc expression was significantly increased in mycoplasma transformed 32D cells. Withdrawal of IL-3 substantially decreased c-Myc expression and led to cell cycle arrest at the G1 phase followed by rapid apoptosis. Infection by M. fermentans or M. penetrans not only alleviated the sharp decrease of c-Myc expression, rescued 32D cells from cell-cycle arrest and prevented apoptosis in IL-3-free culture, but also induced autonomous growth of 32D cells. Although M. hominis and M. salivarium had the ability neither to prevent apoptosis nor to induce malignant transformation, they were still able to rescue the cells from cell cycle arrest. The expression of ras family did not change significantly during the infection and transformation. These results suggest that constitutive expression of c-Myc appears to be associated with the continuous growth and malignant transformation of 32D cells induced by M. fermentans and M. penetrans, but not with rescuing the cell cycle arrest by the mycoplasmas.
PMCID: PMC3614640  PMID: 23675000
apoptosis; cell cycle; malignant transformation; Myc; mycoplasmal infection; ras
20.  Intrapulmonary Penetration of Voriconazole in Patients Receiving an Oral Prophylactic Regimen 
Voriconazole penetrated well into the pulmonary epithelial lining fluid (ELF) in lung transplant patients receiving oral prophylaxis. The ELF concentrations exceeded those of the plasma, with an average ELF-to-plasma ratio of 11 (±8). A strong association between plasma and ELF concentrations (r2 = 0.95) was noted.
doi:10.1128/AAC.50.5.1878-1880.2006
PMCID: PMC1472209  PMID: 16641467
21.  Alteration of gene expression profiles during mycoplasma-induced malignant cell transformation 
BMC Cancer  2006;6:116.
Background
Mycoplasmas are the smallest microorganisms capable of self-replication. Our previous studies show that some mycoplasmas are able to induce malignant transformation of host mammalian cells. This malignant transformation is a multistage process with the early infection, reversible and irreversible stages, and similar to human tumor development in nature. The purpose of this study is to explore mechanisms for this malignant transformation.
Methods
To better understand mechanisms for this unique process, we examined gene expression profiles of C3H cells at different stages of the mycoplasma-induced transformation using cDNA microarray technology. A total of 1185 genes involved in oncogenesis, apoptosis, cell growth, cell-cycle regulation, DNA repair, etc. were examined. Differences in the expression of these genes were compared and analyzed using the computer software AtlasImage.
Results
Among 1185 genes screened, 135 had aberrant expression at the early infection stage, 252 at the reversible stage and 184 at the irreversible stage. At the early infection stage, genes with increased expression (92 genes) were twice more than those with decreased expression (42 genes). The global gene expression at the reversible stage appeared to be more volatile than that at any other stages but still resembled the profile at the early infection stage. The expression profile at the irreversible stage shows a unique pattern of a wide range of expression levels and an increased number of expressing genes, especially the cancer-related genes. Oncogenes and tumor suppressors are a group of molecules that showed significant changes in expression during the transformation. The majority of these changes occurred in the reversible and irreversible stages. A prolonged infection by mycoplasmas lead to the expression of more cancer related genes at the irreversible stage.
Conclusion
The results indicate that the expression profiles correspond with the phenotypic features of the cells in the mycoplasma induced transformation process. The early mycoplasma infection stage shares a common phenomenon with many other acute infections, genes with increased expression significantly outnumbering those with decreased expression. The reversible stage is a transition stage between benignancy and malignancy at the molecular level. Aberrant expression of oncogenes and tumor repressors plays a key role in mycoplasma-induced malignant transformation.
doi:10.1186/1471-2407-6-116
PMCID: PMC1559712  PMID: 16674811

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