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1.  Structure of Yellow Fever Virus Envelope Protein Domain III 
Virology  2009;394(1):12-18.
The structure of recombinant domain III of the envelope protein (rED3) of yellow fever virus (YFV), containing the major neutralization site, was determined using NMR spectroscopy. The amino acid sequence and structure of the YFV-rED3 shows differences from ED3s of other mosquito-borne flaviviruses; in particular, the partially surface-exposed BC loop where methionine-304 and valine-324 were identified as being critical for the structure of the loop. Variations in the structure and surface chemistry of ED3 between flaviviruses affect neutralization sites and may affect host cell receptor interactions and play a role in the observed variations in viral pathogenesis and tissue tropism.
PMCID: PMC2787094  PMID: 19818466
2.  Impact of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitor Drug Resistance Mutation Interactions on Phenotypic Susceptibility 
AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses  2008;24(10):1291-1300.
The role specific reverse transcriptase (RT) drug resistance mutations play in influencing phenotypic susceptibility to RT inhibitors in virus strains with complex resistance interaction patterns was assessed using recombinant viruses that consisted of RT-PCR-amplified pol fragments derived from plasma HIV-1 RNA from two treatment-experienced patients. Specific modifications of key RT amino acids were performed by site-directed mutagenesis. A panel of viruses with defined genotypic resistance mutations was assessed for phenotypic drug resistance. Introduction of M184V into several different clones expressing various RT resistance mutations uniformly decreased susceptibility to abacavir, lamivudine, and didanosine, and increased susceptibility to zidovudine, stavudine, and tenofovir; replication capacity was decreased. The L74V mutation had similar but slightly different effects, contributing to decreased susceptibility to abacavir, lamivudine, and didanosine and increased susceptibility to zidovudine and tenofovir, but in contrast to M184V, L74V contributed to decreased susceptibility to stavudine. In virus strains with the nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI) mutations K101E and G190S, the L74V mutation increased replication capacity, consistent with published observations, but replication capacity was decreased in strains without NNRTI resistance mutations. K101E and G190S together tend to decrease susceptibility to all nucleoside RT inhibitors, but the K103N mutation had little effect on nucleoside RT inhibitor susceptibility. Mutational interactions can have a substantial impact on drug resistance phenotype and replication capacity, and this has been exploited in clinical practice with the development of fixed-dose combination pills. However, we are the first to report these mutational interactions using molecularly cloned recombinant strains derived from viruses that occur naturally in HIV-infected individuals.
PMCID: PMC2721781  PMID: 18844463
3.  A Critical Role for CD63 in HIV Replication and Infection of Macrophages and Cell Lines 
Virology  2008;379(2):191-196.
HIV infection typically involves interaction of Env with CD4 and a chemokine coreceptor, either CCR5 or CXCR4. Other cellular factors supporting HIV replication have also been characterized. We previously demonstrated a role for CD63 in early HIV infection events in macrophages via inhibition by anti-CD63 antibody pretreatment. To confirm the requirement for CD63 in HIV replication, we decreased CD63 expression using CD63-specific short interfering RNAs (siRNA), and showed inhibition of HIV replication in macrophages. Surprisingly, pretreatment with CD63 siRNA not only silenced CD63 expression by 90%, but also inhibited HIV-1 replication in a cultured cell line (U373-MAGI) which had been previously shown to be insensitive to CD63 monoclonal antibody inhibition. Although the anti-CD63 antibody was previously shown to inhibit early HIV infection events only in macrophages, we now show a potential role for CD63 in later HIV replication events in macrophages and cell lines. Further delineation of the role of CD63 in HIV replication may lead to development of novel therapeutic compounds.
PMCID: PMC2697030  PMID: 18682304
Tetraspanin; CD63; HIV-1; siRNA; macrophages
4.  Potential Role for CD63 in CCR5-Mediated Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Infection of Macrophages 
Journal of Virology  2003;77(6):3624-3633.
Macrophages and CD4+ lymphocytes are the principal target cells for human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection, but the molecular details of infection may differ between these cell types. During studies to identify cellular molecules that could be involved in macrophage infection, we observed inhibition of HIV-1 infection of macrophages by monoclonal antibody (MAb) to the tetraspan transmembrane glycoprotein CD63. Pretreatment of primary macrophages with anti-CD63 MAb, but not MAbs to other macrophage cell surface tetraspanins (CD9, CD81, and CD82), was shown to inhibit infection by several R5 and dualtropic strains, but not by X4 isolates. The block to productive infection was postfusion, as assessed by macrophage cell-cell fusion assays, but was prior to reverse transcription, as determined by quantitative PCR assay for new viral DNA formation. The inhibitory effects of anti-CD63 in primary macrophages could not be explained by changes in the levels of CD4, CCR5, or β-chemokines. Infections of peripheral blood lymphocytes and certain cell lines were unaffected by treatment with anti-CD63, suggesting that the role of CD63 in HIV-1 infection may be specific for macrophages.
PMCID: PMC149503  PMID: 12610138

Results 1-4 (4)