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1.  Urinary Tract Infections: Current and Emerging Management Strategies 
Urinary tract infections are often caused by strains of uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC), which are becoming increasingly resistant to antibiotics. This review considers UPEC pathogenic mechanisms along with current management strategies and emerging therapies.
Acute cystitis is one of the most commonly encountered bacterial infections and is responsible for substantial morbidity and high medical costs in the United States and across the globe. Though generally considered to be self-limiting and easily treated with antibiotics, urinary tract infections (UTIs) are often incompletely resolved by antibiotic therapy and frequently recur. This is in part due to the ability of uropathogenic bacteria to invade, replicate, and persist within host epithelial cells. The biological complexity of these infections combined with a dramatic rise in antibiotic-resistant pathogens highlight the need for alternative therapies. In this review we examine current management strategies for UTIs, as well as emerging treatments, including novel compounds that block bacterial interactions with the urothelium and vaccines focused on preventing both acute and recurrent infections.
PMCID: PMC3739462  PMID: 23645845
UPEC; antibiotic resistance; vaccine; cystitis; recurrent UTI
2.  Short Communication: Dynamic Constraints on the Second Phase Compartment of HIV-Infected Cells 
The cells responsible for the second phase decay of HIV-1 viremia following the initiation of antiretroviral therapy have yet to be identified. A dynamic model that considers where drugs act in the virus life cycle places constraints on candidate cell types. In this regard, the rapid drop in viremia in patients starting regimens containing the integrase inhibitor raltegravir is of particular interest. We show here that the time delay between reverse transcription and integration is short in differentiated macrophages, making these cells poor candidates for the second phase compartment under the assumptions of standard models of viral dynamics.
PMCID: PMC3123527  PMID: 21105850
3.  Sustained Elite Suppression of Replication Competent HIV-1 in a Patient Treated With Rituximab Based Chemotherapy 
The mechanism of elite control of HIV-1 replication is not fully understood. While immunosuppression due to rituximab based chemotherapy has been associated with increased replication of HBV, CMV, and HIV-1, control of replication-competent HIV-1 was maintained in an elite controller/suppressor treated with a regimen that included vincristine, cyclophosphamide, prednisone, four rounds of plasmapheresis and ten cycles of rituximab. The data suggests that de-novo antibody responses do not play a significant role in the control of viral replication in these patients.
PMCID: PMC3117974  PMID: 21550842
4.  Circulating Monocytes Are Not a Major Reservoir of HIV-1 in Elite Suppressors▿ 
Journal of Virology  2011;85(19):10399-10403.
Circulating HIV-1-infected monocytes have been identified in patients on highly active antiretroviral therapy and may represent an important barrier to viral eradication. The nature of these cells in HIV-1-infected patients who maintain undetectable viral loads and preserved CD4+ T cell counts without antiretroviral therapy (known as elite controllers or elite suppressors [ES]) is unknown. We describe here infrequent recovery of proviral HIV-1 DNA from circulating monocytes relative to CD4+ T cells in ES, despite permissiveness of these cells to HIV-1 viral entry ex vivo. Thus, monocytes do not appear to be a major reservoir of HIV-1 in ES.
PMCID: PMC3196433  PMID: 21795348
5.  A Case of Seronegative HIV-1 Infection 
Patients infected with HIV-1 typically seroconvert within weeks of primary infection. In rare cases, patients do not develop antibodies against HIV-1 despite demonstrable infection. We describe an HLA-B*5802 positive individual who presented with AIDS despite repeatedly negative HIV-1 antibody screening tests. Phylogenetic analysis of env clones revealed little sequence diversity, and weak HIV-1 specific CD8+ T cell responses were present to Gag epitopes. The patient seroconverted after immune reconstitution on HAART. Lack of an antibody response to HIV-1 is rare and appears to be due to a defect in HIV-1-specific immunity rather than infection with attenuated virus.
PMCID: PMC2821828  PMID: 20039801

Results 1-5 (5)