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1.  Titration of an SIVmac251 Stock by Vaginal Inoculation of Indian and Chinese Origin Rhesus Macaques: Transmission Efficiency, Viral Loads, and Antibody Responses 
AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses  2001;17(15):1455-1466.
The purpose of this study was to determine whether rhesus monkeys of Chinese origin are suitable for studies of mucosal lentivirus transmission by comparing the relative ability of these animals and rhesus macaques of Indian origin to become infected by vaginal (IVAG) inoculation with SIVmac251. In addition, we sought to test the hypothesis that differences in viral load during the first few weeks after inoculation were due to the relative strength of the anti-SIV immune responses in the two populations of rhesus macaques. Significant difference was not observed between the number of Indian and Chinese origin monkeys that were infected after IVAG SIV inoculation in this study. For 8–9 weeks after infection there was considerable overlap in the range of viral loads among the Indian and Chinese animals and the variation among the Indian origin animals was greater than the variation among the Chinese origin monkeys. By 6 weeks postinfection, viral loads in SIV-infected Chinese origin monkeys tended to be at the lower end of the range of viral loads observed in SIV-infected Indian origin monkeys. The strength of the anti-SIV antibody response was also more variable in the Indian origin rhesus macaques, but at 6–8 weeks postinfection, Chinese and Indian origin rhesus macaques had similar titers of anti-SIV antibodies. Microsatellite allele frequencies differed between Chinese and Indian rhesus macaques; however, the majority of alleles present in Indian-origin animals were also found in Chinese macaques. Together these results show that host factors, other than geographic origin, determine the ability of a rhesus macaque to be infected after IVAG SIV exposure and that geographic origin does not predict the viral load of SIV-infected animals during the first 8–9 weeks after IVAG inoculation.
PMCID: PMC3401017  PMID: 11679158
2.  Immunogenetic Management Software: a new tool for visualization and analysis of complex immunogenetic datasets 
Immunogenetics  2011;64(4):329-336.
Here we describe the Immunogenetic Management Software (IMS) system, a novel web-based application that permitsmultiplexed analysis of complex immunogenetic traits that are necessary for the accurate planning and execution of experiments involving large animal models, including nonhuman primates. IMS is capable of housing complex pedigree relationships, microsatellite-based MHC typing data, as well as MHC pyrosequencing expression analysis of class I alleles. It includes a novel, automated MHC haplotype naming algorithm and has accomplished an innovative visualization protocol that allows users to view multiple familial and MHC haplotype relationships through a single, interactive graphical interface. Detailed DNA and RNA-based data can also be queried and analyzed in a highly accessible fashion, and flexible search capabilities allow experimental choices to be made based on multiple, individualized and expandable immunogenetic factors. This web application is implemented in Java, MySQL, Tomcat, and Apache, with supported browsers including Internet Explorer and Firefox onWindows and Safari on Mac OS. The software is freely available for distribution to noncommercial users by contacting Leslie. A demonstration site for the software is available at, user name: and password: imsdemo.
PMCID: PMC3514553  PMID: 22080300
Genetics; Visualization; Web services; Next-generation sequencing; MHC
3.  Who’s behind that mask and cape? The Asian leopard cat’s Agouti (ASIP) allele likely affects coat colour phenotype in the Bengal cat breed 
Animal Genetics  2014;45(6):893-897.
Coat colours and patterns are highly variable in cats and are determined mainly by several genes with Mendelian inheritance. A 2-bp deletion in agouti signalling protein (ASIP) is associated with melanism in domestic cats. Bengal cats are hybrids between domestic cats and Asian leopard cats (Prionailurus bengalensis), and the charcoal coat colouration/pattern in Bengals presents as a possible incomplete melanism. The complete coding region of ASIP was directly sequenced in Asian leopard, domestic and Bengal cats. Twenty-seven variants were identified between domestic and leopard cats and were investigated in Bengals and Savannahs, a hybrid with servals (Leptailurus serval). The leopard cat ASIP haplotype was distinguished from domestic cat by four synonymous and four non-synonymous exonic SNPs, as well as 19 intronic variants, including a 42-bp deletion in intron 4. Fifty-six of 64 reported charcoal cats were compound heterozygotes at ASIP, with leopard cat agouti (APbe) and domestic cat non-agouti (a) haplotypes. Twenty-four Bengals had an additional unique haplotype (A2) for exon 2 that was not identified in leopard cats, servals or jungle cats (Felis chaus). The compound heterozygote state suggests the leopard cat allele, in combination with the recessive non-agouti allele, influences Bengal markings, producing a darker, yet not completely melanistic coat. This is the first validation of a leopard cat allele segregating in the Bengal breed and likely affecting their overall pelage phenotype. Genetic testing services need to be aware of the possible segregation of wild felid alleles in all assays performed on hybrid cats.
PMCID: PMC4211939  PMID: 25143047
charcoal; domestic cat; felid; Felis silvestris catus; hybrid; jungle cat; pelage; serval

Results 1-3 (3)