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2.  Dectin-1 Is Essential for Reverse Transcytosis of Glycosylated SIgA-Antigen Complexes by Intestinal M Cells 
PLoS Biology  2013;11(9):e1001658.
This work reports the long-awaited identification of Dectin-1 and Siglec-5 as the M cell co-receptors that mediate the reverse transcytosis of secretory IgA molecules to mount a gut immune response.
Intestinal microfold (M) cells possess a high transcytosis capacity and are able to transport a broad range of materials including particulate antigens, soluble macromolecules, and pathogens from the intestinal lumen to inductive sites of the mucosal immune system. M cells are also the primary pathway for delivery of secretory IgA (SIgA) to the gut-associated lymphoid tissue. However, although the consequences of SIgA uptake by M cells are now well known and described, the mechanisms whereby SIgA is selectively bound and taken up remain poorly understood. Here we first demonstrate that both the Cα1 region and glycosylation, more particularly sialic acid residues, are involved in M cell–mediated reverse transcytosis. Second, we found that SIgA is taken up by M cells via the Dectin-1 receptor, with the possible involvement of Siglec-5 acting as a co-receptor. Third, we establish that transcytosed SIgA is taken up by mucosal CX3CR1+ dendritic cells (DCs) via the DC-SIGN receptor. Fourth, we show that mucosal and systemic antibody responses against the HIV p24-SIgA complexes administered orally is strictly dependent on the expression of Dectin-1. Having deciphered the mechanisms leading to specific targeting of SIgA-based Ag complexes paves the way to the use of such a vehicle for mucosal vaccination against various infectious diseases.
Author Summary
Secretory IgA (SIgA) antibodies are secreted into the gut lumen and are considered to be a first line of defense in protecting the intestinal epithelium from gut pathogens. SIgA patrol the mucus and are usually known to help immune tolerance via entrapping dietary antigens and microorganisms and other mechanisms. SIgA, in complex with its antigens, can also be taken back up by the intestinal epithelium in a process known as reverse transcytosis. SIgA can thereby promote the uptake and delivery of antigens from the intestinal lumen to the Gut-Associated Lymphoid Tissues (GALT), influencing inflammatory responses. This reverse transcytosis of SIgA is mediated by specialized epithelial M cells. Because M cells possess the ability to take up antigens and are therefore important to the local immune system, they are a key target for the specific delivery of novel mucosal vaccines against various diseases. M cell receptors that take up the SIgA-antigen complexes, which serve as mucosal vaccine vehicles, represent an important aspect of this vaccine strategy. The identification of SIgA receptor(s) on the surface of M cells has, however, remained elusive for more than a decade. In this study, we now identify Dectin-1 and Siglec-5 as the key receptors for M cell–mediated reverse transcytosis of SIgA complexes. We further find that the glycosylation modification, and particularly sialylation, of SIgA is required for its uptake by M cells. We show that, when administered orally in complex with SIgA, the HIV p24 antigen is taken up in a strictly Dectin-1-dependent manner to stimulate a mucosal and systemic antibody response. These findings are considered important for understanding gut immunity.
PMCID: PMC3775721  PMID: 24068891
3.  Up-Regulation of TLR2 and TLR4 in Dendritic Cells in Response to HIV Type 1 and Coinfection with Opportunistic Pathogens 
AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses  2011;27(10):1099-1109.
The ability to trigger an innate immune response against opportunistic pathogens associated with HIV-1 infection is an important aspect of AIDS pathogenesis. Toll-like receptors (TLRs) play a critical role in innate immunity against pathogens, but in HIV-1 patients coinfected with opportunistic infections, the regulation of TLR expression has not been studied. In this context, we have evaluated the expression of TLR2 and TLR4 in monocytes, plasmacytoid dendritic cells, and myeloid dendritic cells of HIV-1 patients with or without opportunistic infections. Forty-nine HIV-1-infected individuals were classified according to viral load, highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), and the presence or absence of opportunistic infections, and 21 healthy subjects served as controls. Increased expression of TLR2 and TLR4 was observed in myeloid dendritic cells of HIV-1 patients coinfected with opportunistic infections (without HAART), while TLR4 increased in plasmacytoid dendritic cells, compared to both HIV-1 without opportunistic infections and healthy subjects. Moreover, TLR2 expression was higher in patients with opportunistic infections without HAART and up-regulation of TLR expression in HIV-1 patients coinfected with opportunistic infections was more pronounced in dendritic cells derived from individuals coinfected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The results indicate that TLR expression in innate immune cells is up-regulated in patients with a high HIV-1 load and coinfected with opportunistic pathogens. We suggest that modulation of TLRs expression represents a mechanism that promotes HIV-1 replication and AIDS pathogenesis in patients coinfected with opportunistic pathogens.
PMCID: PMC3482873  PMID: 21406030

Results 1-3 (3)