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1.  Molecular Epidemiology of HIV Type 1 CRF02_AG in Cameroon and African Patients Living in Italy 
AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses  2011;27(11):1173-1182.
Abstract
HIV-1 CRF02_AG accounts for >50% of infected individuals in Cameroon. CRF02_AG prevalence has been increasing both in Africa and Europe, particularly in Italy because of migrations from the sub-Saharan region. This study investigated the molecular epidemiology of CRF02_AG in Cameroon by employing Bayesian phylodynamics and analyzed the relationship between HIV-1 CRF02_AG isolates circulating in Italy and those prevalent in Africa to understand the link between the two epidemics. Among 291 Cameroonian reverse transcriptase sequences analyzed, about 70% clustered within three distinct clades, two of which shared a most recent common ancestor, all related to sequences from Western Africa. The major Cameroonian clades emerged during the mid-1970s and slowly spread during the next 30 years. Little or no geographic structure was detected within these clades. One of the major driving forces of the epidemic was likely the high accessibility between locations in Southern Cameroon contributing to the mobility of the population. The remaining Cameroonian sequences and the new strains isolated from Italian patients were interspersed mainly within West and Central African sequences in the tree, indicating a continuous exchange of CRF02_AG viral strains between Cameroon and other African countries, as well as multiple independent introductions in the Italian population. The evaluation of the spread of CRF02_AG may provide significant insight about the future dynamics of the Italian and European epidemic.
doi:10.1089/aid.2010.0333
PMCID: PMC3206741  PMID: 21453131
2.  Increased Carotid Thickness in Subjects with Recently-Diagnosed Diabetes from Rural Cameroon 
PLoS ONE  2012;7(8):e41316.
Background
We have recently shown a high prevalence of diabetes and obesity in rural Cameroon, despite an improved lifestyle. Diabetes in rural Africa remains underdiagnosed and its role in increasing risk of atherosclerosis in these populations is unknown. We investigated the prevalence of carotid atherosclerosis and cardiovascular risk factors in a population of subjects with recently-diagnosed diabetes from rural Cameroon.
Methodology/Principal Findings
In a case-control study, carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) was measured in 74 subjects with diabetes (diagnosed <2 years), aged 47–85 and 109 controls comparable for age and sex. Subjects were recruited during a health campaign conducted in April 2009. Blood glucose control (HbA1c, fasting blood glucose) and major cardiovascular risk factors (complete lipid panel, blood pressure) were also measured. Mean carotid IMT was higher in subjects with diabetes than healthy controls at each scanned segment (common, internal carotid and bulb) (P<0.05), except the near wall of the left bulb. Vascular stiffness tended to be higher and pressure-strain elastic modulus of the left carotid was increased in subjects with diabetes than controls (P<0.05), but distensibility was similar between the two groups. At least one plaque >0.9 mm was found in 4%, 45.9% and 20% of diabetic subjects at the common, bulb or internal carotid, respectively. Only 25% of patients had an HbA1c<7%, while over 41.6% presented with marked hyperglycemia (HbA1c>9%). The prevalence of diabetic subjects with abnormal levels of LDL-cholesterol, triglycerides, HDL-cholesterol or blood pressure was 45%, 16.6%, 15% and 65.7%, respectively.
Conclusions
Carotid thickness is increased in subjects with diabetes from a rural area of Cameroon, despite the relatively recent diagnosis. These findings and the high rate of uncontrolled diabetes in this population support the increasing concern of diabetes and cardiovascular diseases in African countries and indicate the need for multifaceted health interventions in urban and rural settings.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0041316
PMCID: PMC3423396  PMID: 22916106

Results 1-2 (2)