PMCC PMCC

Search tips
Search criteria

Advanced
Results 1-14 (14)
 

Clipboard (0)
None

Select a Filter Below

Journals
more »
Year of Publication
1.  The Impact of Sex Work Interruption on Blood-Derived T Cells in Sex Workers from Nairobi, Kenya 
AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses  2016;32(10-11):1072-1078.
Abstract
Background: Unprotected sexual intercourse exposes the female genital tract (FGT) to semen-derived antigens, which leads to a proinflammatory response. Studies have shown that this postcoital inflammatory response can lead to recruitment of activated T cells to the FGT, thereby increasing risk of HIV infection.
Objective: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the impact of sex work on activation and memory phenotypes of peripheral T cells among female sex workers (FSW) from Nairobi, Kenya.
Subjects: Thirty FSW were recruited from the Pumwani Sex Workers Cohort, 10 in each of the following groups: HIV-exposed seronegative (at least 7 years in active sex work), HIV positive, and New Negative (HIV negative, less than 3 years in active sex work). Blood was obtained at three different phases (active sex work, abstinence from sex work–sex break, and following resumption of sex work). Peripheral blood mononuclear cells were isolated and stained for phenotypic markers (CD3, CD4, CD8, and CD161), memory phenotype markers (CD45RA and CCR7), activation markers (CD69, HLA-DR, and CD95), and the HIV coreceptor (CCR5). T-cell populations were compared between groups.
Results: In HIV-positive women, CD8+CCR5+ T cells declined at the sex break period, while CD4+CD161+ T cells increased when returning to sex work. All groups showed no significant changes in systemic T-cell activation markers following the interruption of sex work, however, significant reductions in naive CD8+ T cells were noted. For each of the study points, HIV positives had higher effector memory and CD8+CD95+ T cells and lower naive CD8+ T cells than the HIV-uninfected groups.
Conclusions: Interruption of sex work had subtle effects on systemic T-cell memory phenotypes.
doi:10.1089/aid.2015.0332
PMCID: PMC5067831  PMID: 26879184
HIV; sex work; T cell memory; immune activation; HIV-exposed seronegative; peripheral blood mononuclear cells
2.  Improving Adherence to Post‐Cervical Biopsy Sexual Abstinence in Kenyan Female Sex Workers 
Problem
Cervical biopsies offer a unique opportunity for studying local immune response. To investigate hormonally induced immune fluctuations in cervical tissues of Kenyan female sex workers, we improved biopsy sampling protocol safety. Here, we report on steps taken to minimize exposure to HIV following two cervical biopsies.
Methods of study
Women were asked to abstain from vaginal intercourse to limit HIV exposure during wound healing with financial compensation. A comprehension tool for informed consent, on‐site detection of prostate‐specific antigens indicating unprotected intercourse within 48 hr, and bi‐weekly text message reminders were implemented.
Results
The implemented methods improved compliance with post‐procedure abstinence by two times (P = 0.013). Fourteen days following a cervical biopsy, no sign of genital inflammation or change in HIV T‐cell target proportion were observed.
Conclusions
This study provides new tools for limiting HIV exposure in studies requiring biopsy sampling among women at risk of acquiring HIV.
doi:10.1111/aji.12520
PMCID: PMC5089664  PMID: 27221472
Female genital tract; HIV; immunology; mucosal; prostate‐specific antigens; safety
3.  Afri-Can Forum 2 
Mukudu, Hillary | Martinson, Neil | Sartorius, Benn | Coetzee, Jenny | Dietrich, Janan | Mokgatswana, Kgaugelo | Jewkes, Rachel | Gray, Glenda E. | Dugas, Marylène | Béhanzin, Luc | Guédou, Fernand A. | Gagnon, Marie-Pierre | Alary, Michel | Rutakumwa, Rwamahe | Mbonye, Martin | Kiwanuka, Thadeus | Nakamanya, Sarah | Muhumuza, Richard | Nalukenge, Winfred | Seeley, Janet | Atujuna, Millicent | Wallace, Melissa | Brown, Ben | Bekker, Linda Gail | Newman, Peter A. | Harryparsad, Rushil | Olivier, Abraham J. | Jaspan, Heather B. | Wilson, Douglas | Dietrich, Janan | Martinson, Neil | Mukudu, Hillary | Mkhize, Nonhlanhla | Morris, Lynn | Cianci, Gianguido | Dinh, Minh | Hope, Thomas | Passmore, Jo-Ann S. | Gray, Clive M. | Henrick, Bethany M. | Yao, Xiao-Dan | Rosenthal, Kenneth L. | Henrick, Bethany M. | Yao, Xiao-Dan | Drannik, Anna G. | Abimiku, Alash’le | Rosenthal, Kenneth L. | Chanzu, Nadia | Mwanda, Walter | Oyugi, Julius | Anzala, Omu | Mbow, Moustapha | Jallow, Sabelle | Thiam, Moussa | Davis, Alberta | Diouf, Assane | Ndour, Cheikh T. | Seydi, Moussa | Dieye, Tandakha N. | Mboup, Souleymane | Goodier, Martin | Rilley, Eleanor | Jaye, Assan | Yao, Xiao-Dan | Omange, RW. | Henrick, Bethany M. | Lester, Richard T. | Kimani, Joshua | Ball, T. Blake | Plummer, Francis A. | Rosenthal, Kenneth L. | Béhanzin, Luc | Guédou, Fernand A. | Geraldo, Nassirou | Mastétsé, Ella Goma | Sossa, Jerôme Charles | Zannou, Marcel Djimon | Alary, Michel | Osawe, Sophia | Okpokoro, Evaezi | Okolo, Felicia | Umaru, Stephen | Abimiku, Rebecca | Audu, Sam | Datong, Pam | Abimiku, Alash’le | Nyange, Jacquelyn | Olenja, Joyce | Mutua, Gaudensia | Jaoko, Walter | Omosa-Manyonyi, Gloria | Farah, Bashir | Khaniri, Maureen | Anzala, Omu | Cockcroft, Anne | Tonkin, Kendra | Girish, Indu | Mhati, Puna | Cunningham, Ashley | Andersson, Neil | Farah, Bashir | Indangasi, Jackton | Jaoko, Walter | Mutua, Gaudensia | Khaniri, Maureen | Nyange, Jacquelyn | Anzala, Omu | Diphoko, Thabo | Gaseitsiwe, Simani | Maiswe, Victoria | Iketleng, Thato | Maruapula, Dorcas | Bedi, Keabetswe | Moyo, Sikhulile | Musonda, Rosemary | Wainberg, Mark | Makhema, Joseph | Novitsky, Vladimir | Marlink, Richard | Essex, Max | Okoboi, Stephen | Ssali, Livingstone | Kalibala, Sam | Birungi, Josephine | Egessa, Aggrey | Wangisi, Jonathan | Okullu, Lyavala Joanne | Bakanda, Celestin | Obare, Francis | Boer, I. Marion Sumari-de | Semvua, Hadija H. | van den Boogaard, Jossy | Kiwango, Krisanta W. | Ngowi, Kennedy M. | Nieuwkerk, Pythia T. | Aarnoutse, Rob E. | Kiwelu, Ireen | Muro, Eva | Kibiki, Gibson S. | Datiri, Ruth | Choji, Grace | Osawe, Sophia | Okpokoro, Evaezi | Okolo, Felicia | Umaru, Stephen | Abimiku, Rebecca | Audu, Samuel | Datong, Pam | Abimiku, Alash’le | Fomsgaard, A. | Karlsson, I. | Jensen, K. J. | Jensen, S. S. | Leo-Hansen, C. | Jespersen, S. | Da Silva Té, D. | Rodrigues, C. M. | da Silva, Z. J. | Janitzek, C. M. | Gerstoft, J. | Kronborg, G. | Okpokoro, Evaezi | Osawe, Sophia | Daitiri, Ruth | Choji, Grace | Umaru, Stephen | Okolo, Felicia | Datong, Pam | Abimiku, Alash’le | Emily, Nyariki | Joyce, Olenja | Robert, Lorway R. | Anzala, Anzala | Viljoen, Katie | Wendoh, Jerome | Kidzeru, Elvis | Karaoz, Ulas | Brodie, Eoin | Botha, Gerrit | Mulder, Nicola | Gray, Clive | Cameron, William | Stintzi, Alain | Jaspan, Heather | Levett, Paul N. | Alexander, David | Gulzar, Naveed | Grewal, Prabvir S. | Poon, Art F. Y. | Brumme, Zabrina | Harrigan, P. Richard | Brooks, James I. | Sandstrom, Paul A. | Calvez, Stryker | Sanche, Stephen E. | Scott, Jamie K. | Swartz, Leslie | Kagee, Ashraf | Lesch, Anthea | Kafaar, Zuhayr | De Wet, Anneliese | Okpokoro, Evaezi | Osawe, Sophia | Daitiri, Ruth | Choji, Grace | Umaru, Stephen | Okolo, Felicia | Datong, Pam | Abimiku, Alash’le | Dietrich, Janan | Smith, Tricia | Cotton, Laura | Hornschuh, Stefanie | van der Watt, Martin | Miller, Cari L. | Gray, Glenda | Smit, Jenni | Jaggernath, Manjeetha | Ndung’u, Thumbi | Brockman, Mark | Kaida, Angela | Akolo, Maureen | Kimani, Joshua | Gelmon, Larry | Chitwa, Michael | Osero, Justus | Cockcroft, Anne | Marokoane, Nobantu | Kgakole, Leagajang | Maswabi, Boikhutso | Mpofu, Neo | Ansari, Umaira | Andersson, Neil | Nakinobe, Elizabeth | Miiro, George Mukalazi | Zalwango, Flavia | Nakiyingi-Miiro, Jessica | Kaleebu, Potiano | Semwanga, John Ross | Nyanzi, Emily | Musoke, Saidat Namuli | Nakinobe, Elizabeth | Miiro, George | Mbidde, Edward Katongole | Lutalo, Tom | Kaleebu, Pontiano | Handema, Ray | Chianzu, Graham P. | Thiam, Moussa | Diagne-Gueye, Diabou | Ndiaye, Mame K. | Mbow, Moustapha | Ndiaye, Birahim P. | Traore, Ibrahima | Dia, Mamadou C. | Thomas, Gilleh | Tour-Kane, Coumba | Mboup, Souleymane | Jaye, Assan | Nyanzi, Emily | Mbidde, Edward Katongole | Kaleebu, Pontiano | Mpendo, Juliet | Kimani, Joshua | Birungi, Josephine | Muyindike, Winnie | Kambugu, Andrew | Sebastian, Hachizovu | Ray, Handema | Mike, Chaponda | Bertin, Kabuya Jean | Modest, Mulenga | Thiam, Moussa | Janha, Omar | Davis, Alberta | Amambua-Ngwa, Alfred | Nwakanma, Davis C. | Mboup, Souleymane | Jaye, Assan | Jespersen, Sanne | Hønge, Bo Langhoff | Esbjörnsson, Joakim | Medina, Candida | Da Silva TÉ, David | Correira, Faustino Gomes | Laursen, Alex Lund | Østergaard, Lars | Andersen, Andreas | Aaby, Peter | Erikstrup, Christian | Wejse, Christian | Dieye, Siry | Sarr, Moussa | Sy, Haby | Mbodj, Helene D. | Ndiaye, Marianne | Ndiaye, Amy | Moussa, Seydi | Jaye, Assan | Mboup, Souleymane | Nyombi, Balthazar M. | Shao, Elichilia R. | Chilumba, Innocent B. | Moyo, Sikhulile | Gaseitsiwe, Simani | Musonda, Rosemary | Datong, Pam | Inyang, Bucky | Osawe, Sophia | Izang, Abel | Cole, Chundung | Okolo, Felicia | Cameron, Bill | Rosenthal, Kenneth | Gray, Clive | Jaspan, Heather | Abimiku, Alash’le | Seraise, Boitumelo | Andrea-Marobela, Kerstin | Moyo, Sikhulile | Musonda, Rosemary | Makhema, Joseph | Essex, Max | Gaseitsiwe, Simani
BMC Infectious Diseases  2016;16(Suppl 2):315.
Table of contents
A1 Introduction to the 2nd synchronicity forum of GHRI/CHVI-funded Canadian and African HIV prevention and vaccine teams
O1 Voluntary medical male circumcision for prevention of heterosexual transmission of HIV in adult males in Soweto: What do indicators and incidence rate show?
Hillary Mukudu, Neil Martinson, Benn Sartorius
O2 Developing a peer-led community mobilization program for sex workers in Soweto: HIV risk and demographics
Jenny Coetzee, Janan Dietrich, Kgaugelo Mokgatswana, Rachel Jewkes, Glenda E. Gray
O3 Salient beliefs about adherence: A qualitative survey conducted as part of the demonstration study on "treatment as prevention" (TasP) and "pre-exposure prophylaxis" (PrEP) among female sex workers (FSWS) in Cotonou, Benin
Marylène Dugas, Luc Béhanzin, Fernand A. Guédou, Marie-Pierre Gagnon, Michel Alary
O4 Relative perception of risk as a driver of unsafe sexual practices among key populations: Cases of fisherfolk and women and their partners involved in multiple sexual partnerships in Uganda
Rwamahe Rutakumwa, Martin Mbonye, Thadeus Kiwanuka, Sarah Nakamanya, Richard Muhumuza, Winfred Nalukenge, Janet Seeley
O5 Exploring the acceptability of new biomedical HIV prevention technologies among MSM, adolescents and heterosexual adults in South Africa
Millicent Atujuna, Melissa Wallace, Ben Brown, Linda Gail Bekker, Peter A. Newman
O6 HIV-susceptible target cells in foreskins after voluntary medical male circumcision in South Africa
Rushil Harryparsad, Abraham J. Olivier, Heather B. Jaspan, Douglas Wilson, Janan Dietrich, Neil Martinson, Hillary Mukudu, Nonhlanhla Mkhize, Lynn Morris, Gianguido Cianci, Minh Dinh, Thomas Hope, Jo-Ann S. Passmore, Clive M. Gray
O7 HIV-1 proteins activate innate immune responses via TLR2 heterodimers
Bethany M. Henrick, Xiao-Dan Yao, Kenneth L. Rosenthal, the INFANT Study Team
O8 Characterization of an innate factor in human milk and mechanisms of action against HIV-1
Bethany M. Henrick, Xiao-Dan Yao, Anna G. Drannik, Alash’le Abimiku, Kenneth L. Rosenthal, the INFANT Study Team
O9 Secretor status and susceptibility to HIV infections among female sex workers in Nairobi, Kenya
Nadia Chanzu, Walter Mwanda, Julius Oyugi, Omu Anzala
O10 Natural Killer cell recall responsiveness to Gag-HIV-1 peptides of HIV-1 exposed but uninfected subjects are associated with peripheral CXCR6+ NK cell subsets
Moustapha Mbow, Sabelle Jallow, Moussa Thiam, Alberta Davis, Assane Diouf, Cheikh T. Ndour, Moussa Seydi, Tandakha N. Dieye, Souleymane Mboup, Martin Goodier, Eleanor Rilley, Assan Jaye
O11 Profiles of resistance: Local innate mucosal immunity to HIV-1 in commercial sex workers
Xiao-Dan Yao, RW. Omange, Bethany M. Henrick, Richard T. Lester, Joshua Kimani, T. Blake Ball, Francis A. Plummer, Kenneth L. Rosenthal
O12 Early antiretroviral therapy and pre-exposure prophylaxis for HIV prevention among female sex workers in Cotonou, Benin: A demonstration project
Luc Béhanzin, Fernand A. Guédou, Nassirou Geraldo, Ella Goma Mastétsé, Jerôme Charles Sossa, Marcel Djimon Zannou, Michel Alary
O13 Building capacity for HIV prevention trials: Preliminary data from a Nigerian cohort of HIV exposed sero-negatives (HESN)
Sophia Osawe, Evaezi Okpokoro, Felicia Okolo, Stephen Umaru, Rebecca Abimiku, Sam Audu, Pam Datong, Alash’le Abimiku
O14 Equipping healthcare professionals with skills required for the conduct of clinical trials in an effort to build capacity. Lessons learned
Jacquelyn Nyange, Joyce Olenja, Gaudensia Mutua, Walter Jaoko, Gloria Omosa-Manyonyi, Bashir Farah, Maureen Khaniri, Omu Anzala
O15 Educational technology to support active learning for HIV researchers and planners
Anne Cockcroft, Kendra Tonkin, Indu Girish, Puna Mhati, Ashley Cunningham, Neil Andersson
O16 From Lake Kivu (Rwanda) and Lake Malawi (Tanzania) to the shores of Lake Victoria (Uganda): Strengthening laboratory capacity through Good Clinical Laboratory Practice training
Bashir Farah, Jackton Indangasi, Walter Jaoko, Gaudensia Mutua, Maureen Khaniri, Jacquelyn Nyange, Omu Anzala
O17 Rilpivirine and etravirine resistance mutations in HIV-1 subtype C infected patients on a non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor-based combination antiretroviral therapy in Botswana
Thabo Diphoko, Simani Gaseitsiwe, Victoria Maiswe, Thato Iketleng, Dorcas Maruapula, Keabetswe Bedi, Sikhulile Moyo, Rosemary Musonda, Mark Wainberg, Joseph Makhema, Vladimir Novitsky, Richard Marlink, Max Essex
O18 From home-based HIV testing to initiation of treatment: The AIDS Support Organization (TASO) Experience with Home-based HIV Counselling and Testing (HBHCT) among Adolescents in Uganda, 2005-2011
Stephen Okoboi, Livingstone Ssali, Sam Kalibala, Josephine Birungi, Aggrey Egessa, Jonathan Wangisi, Lyavala Joanne Okullu, Celestin Bakanda, Francis Obare41
O19 Feasibility study on using real time medication monitoring among HIV infected and Tuberculosis patients in Kilimanjaro, Tanzania
I. Marion Sumari-de Boer, Hadija H. Semvua, Jossy van den Boogaard, Krisanta W. Kiwango, Kennedy M. Ngowi, Pythia T. Nieuwkerk, Rob E. Aarnoutse, Ireen Kiwelu, Eva Muro, Gibson S. Kibiki
O20 Deaths still among sero-discordant cohort in Nigeria despite Access to treatment
Ruth Datiri, Grace Choji, Sophia Osawe, Evaezi Okpokoro, Felicia Okolo, Stephen Umaru, Rebecca Abimiku, Samuel Audu, Pam Datong, Alash’le Abimiku
O21 Therapeutic HIV-1 vaccine trials in Denmark and Guinea-Bissau
Fomsgaard A, Karlsson I, Jensen KJ, Jensen SS, Leo-Hansen C, Jespersen S, Da Silva Té D, Rodrigues CM, da Silva ZJ, Janitzek CM, Gerstoft J, Kronborg G, the WAPHIR Group
O22 Willingness to participate in a HIV vaccine Trial among HIV exposed sero-negative (HESN) persons in Jos, Nigeria
Evaezi Okpokoro, Sophia Osawe, Ruth Daitiri, Grace Choji, Stephen Umaru, Felicia Okolo, Pam Datong, Alash'le Abimiku
O23 Clinical research volunteers’ perceptions and experiences of screening for enrolment at KAVI-Institute of Clinical Research, Kenya
Nyariki Emily, Olenja Joyce, Lorway R. Robert, Anzala Anzala
O24 Gut microbiome, HIV-exposure, and vaccine responses in South African infants
Katie Viljoen, Jerome Wendoh, Elvis Kidzeru, Ulas Karaoz, Eoin Brodie, Gerrit Botha, Nicola Mulder, Clive Gray, William Cameron, Alain Stintzi, Heather Jaspan, for the INFANT study team
O25 Analysis of HIV pol diversity in the concentrated HIV epidemic in Saskatchewan
Paul N. Levett, David Alexander, Naveed Gulzar, Prabvir S. Grewal, Art F. Y. Poon, Zabrina Brumme, P. Richard Harrigan, James I. Brooks, Paul A. Sandstrom, Stryker Calvez, Stephen E. Sanche, Jamie K. Scott
P1 Evaluating a HIV vaccine research community engagement programme at two HIV prevention research centres in the Western Cape
Leslie Swartz, Ashraf Kagee, Anthea Lesch, Zuhayr Kafaar, Anneliese De Wet
P2 Validating HIV acquisition risk score using a cohort HIV exposed sero-negative persons in a discordant relationship in Jos, Nigeria, West Africa
Evaezi Okpokoro, Sophia Osawe, Ruth Daitiri, Grace Choji, Stephen Umaru, Felicia Okolo, Pam Datong, Alash'le Abimiku
P3 Bridging the gap between adults and adolescents and youth adults (AYA) – Employing a youth-centred approach to investigate HIV risk among AYA in Soweto and Durban, South Africa
Janan Dietrich, Tricia Smith, Laura Cotton, Stefanie Hornschuh, Martin van der Watt, Cari L. Miller, Glenda Gray, Jenni Smit, Manjeetha Jaggernath, Thumbi Ndung’u, Mark Brockman, Angela Kaida, on behalf of the AYAZAZI study teams
P4 Neighbours to sex workers: A key population that has been ignored
Maureen Akolo, Joshua Kimani, Prof Larry Gelmon, Michael Chitwa, Justus Osero
P5 Young women’s access to structural support programmes in a district of Botswana
Anne Cockcroft, Nobantu Marokoane, Leagajang Kgakole, Boikhutso Maswabi, Neo Mpofu, Umaira Ansari, Neil Andersson
P6 Voices for action from peri-urban Ugandan students, teachers and parents on HIV/STI prevention: Qualitative research results
Nakinobe Elizabeth, Miiro George Mukalazi, Zalwango Flavia, Nakiyingi-Miiro Jessica, Kaleebu Potiano
P7 Engaging Social Media as an education tool on the fly: The use of Facebook for HIV and Ebola prevention and awareness amongst adolescents in Uganda
John Ross Semwanga, Emily Nyanzi, Saidat Namuli Musoke, Elizabeth Nakinobe, George Miiro, Edward Katongole Mbidde, Tom Lutalo, Pontiano Kaleebu
P8 Circulating HIV-1 subtypes among sexual minority populations in Zambia
Ray Handema, Graham P. Chianzu
P9 The Development of HIV Bio-bank resource management to support clinical trial and Intervention research: WAPHIR experience
Moussa Thiam, Diabou Diagne-Gueye, Mame K. Ndiaye, Moustapha Mbow, Birahim P. Ndiaye, Ibrahima Traore, Mamadou C. Dia, Gilleh Thomas, Coumba Tour-Kane, Souleymane Mboup, Assan Jaye
P10 Capacity building for clinical trials as a novel approach for scaling up HIV prevention research initiatives in East Africa: achievements and challenges
Emily Nyanzi, Edward Katongole Mbidde, Pontiano Kaleebu, Juliet Mpendo, Joshua Kimani, Josephine Birungi, Winnie Muyindike, Andrew Kambugu
P11 Community and media perspective of research; an advocacy workshop on HIV prevention research
Hachizovu Sebastian, Handema Ray, Chaponda Mike, Kabuya Jean Bertin, Mulenga Modest
P12 Development of a quantitative HIV-1 and HIV-2 real time PCR (qRT-PCR) viral load assay
Moussa Thiam, Omar Janha, Alberta Davis, Alfred Amambua-Ngwa, Davis C. Nwakanma, Souleymane Mboup, Assan Jaye
P13 Differential effects of sex in a West African Cohort of HIV-1, HIV-2 and HIV-1/2 dual infected patients: Men are worse off
Sanne Jespersen, Bo Langhoff Hønge, Joakim Esbjörnsson, Candida Medina, David Da Silva TÉ, Faustino Gomes Correira, Alex Lund Laursen, Lars Østergaard, Andreas Andersen, Peter Aaby, Christian Erikstrup, Christian Wejse, for the Bissau HIV Cohort study group
P14 HIV-infected adolescents in transition from pediatric to adult HIV care in Dakar, Senegal: sample characteristics and immunological and virological profiles
Siry Dieye, Moussa Sarr, Haby Sy, Helene D Mbodj, Marianne Ndiaye, Amy Ndiaye, Seydi Moussa, Assan Jaye, Souleymane Mboup100
P15 Molecular characterization of vertically transmitted HIV-1 among children born to HIV-1 seropositive mothers in Northern Tanzania
Balthazar M. Nyombi, Elichilia R. Shao, Innocent B. Chilumba, Sikhulile Moyo, Simani Gaseitsiwe, Rosemary Musonda
P16 Breast-fed HIV-1 exposed infants play catch up. A preliminary report
Pam Datong, Bucky Inyang, Sophia Osawe, Abel Izang, Chundung Cole, Felicia Okolo, Bill Cameron, Kenneth Rosenthal, Clive Gray, Heather Jaspan, Alash’le Abimiku, the INFANT study team
P17 The frequency of N348I mutation in patient failing combination antiretroviral treatment In Botswana
Boitumelo Seraise, Kerstin Andrea-Marobela, Sikhulile Moyo, Rosemary Musonda, Joseph Makhema, Max Essex, Simani Gaseitsiwe
doi:10.1186/s12879-016-1466-6
PMCID: PMC4943497  PMID: 27410689
4.  Building capacity in implementation science research training at the University of Nairobi 
Background
Health care systems in sub-Saharan Africa, and globally, grapple with the problem of closing the gap between evidence-based health interventions and actual practice in health service settings. It is essential for health care systems, especially in low-resource settings, to increase capacity to implement evidence-based practices, by training professionals in implementation science. With support from the Medical Education Partnership Initiative, the University of Nairobi has developed a training program to build local capacity for implementation science.
Methods
This paper describes how the University of Nairobi leveraged resources from the Medical Education Partnership to develop an institutional program that provides training and mentoring in implementation science, builds relationships between researchers and implementers, and identifies local research priorities for implementation science.
Results
The curriculum content includes core material in implementation science theory, methods, and experiences. The program adopts a team mentoring and supervision approach, in which fellows are matched with mentors at the University of Nairobi and partnering institutions: University of Washington, Seattle, and University of Maryland, Baltimore. A survey of program participants showed a high degree satisfaction with most aspects of the program, including the content, duration, and attachment sites. A key strength of the fellowship program is the partnership approach, which leverages innovative use of information technology to offer diverse perspectives, and a team model for mentorship and supervision.
Conclusions
As health care systems and training institutions seek new approaches to increase capacity in implementation science, the University of Nairobi Implementation Science Fellowship program can be a model for health educators and administrators who wish to develop their program and curricula.
doi:10.1186/s13012-016-0395-5
PMCID: PMC4782359  PMID: 26952719
Implementation science; Training; Fellowship program
5.  Hepatitis B infection is highly prevalent among patients presenting with jaundice in Kenya 
BMC Infectious Diseases  2016;16:101.
Background
Viral hepatitis is a major concern worldwide, with hepatitis A (HAV) and E (HEV) viruses showing sporadic outbreaks while hepatitis B (HBV) and C (HCV) viruses are associated with chronic hepatitis, cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. The present study determined the proportion, geographic distribution and molecular characterization of hepatitis viruses among patients seeking medical services at hospitals throughout Kenya.
Methods
Patients presenting with jaundice at four selected hospitals were recruited (n = 389). Sera were tested for the presence of antibody to hepatitis viruses A through E, and HBV surface antigen (HBsAg). Nucleic acid from anti-HAV IgM antibody and HBsAg positive samples was extracted, amplified and sequenced.
Results
Chronic HBV infection was the leading cause of morbidity among patients with symptoms of liver disease seeking medical help. Incident HCV, HEV and HDV infection were not detected among the patients in this study, while the proportion of acute HAV was low; HAV IgM positivity was observed in 6.3 % of patients and sequencing revealed that all cases belonged to genotype 1B. HCV seropositivity upon initial screening was 3.9 % but none were confirmed positive by a supplementary immunoblot assay. There was no serological evidence of HDV and acute HEV infection (anti-HEV IgM). HBsAg was found in 50.6 % of the patients and 2.3 % were positive for IgM antibody to the core protein, indicating probable acute infection. HBV genotype A was predominant (90.3 %) followed by D (9.7 %) among HBV DNA positive specimens. Full genome analysis showed HBV/D isolates having similarity to both D4 and D6 subgenotypes and D/E recombinant reference sequences. Two recombinant sequences demonstrated > 4 % nucleotide divergence from other previously known D/E recombinants.
Conclusions
HBV is highly prevalent among patients seeking care for symptoms consistent with hepatitis, compared to the general population. Molecular characterization of HBV isolates indicated recombinant strains that may give rise to new circulating variants. There is a need to document the prevalence, clinical manifestation and distribution of the variants observed. HAV genotype 1B, prevalent in Africa, was observed; however, the absence of HCV, HDV and acute HEV in this study does not rule out their presence in Kenya.
doi:10.1186/s12879-016-1409-2
PMCID: PMC4774020  PMID: 26932656
Genotype; HAV; HBV; HCV; HDV; HEV; Mutant; Kenya
6.  Mucosal Blood Group Antigen Expression Profiles and HIV Infections: A Study among Female Sex Workers in Kenya 
PLoS ONE  2015;10(7):e0133049.
Background
The ABO blood group antigens are carbohydrate moieties expressed on human red blood cells however; these antigens can also be expressed on some other cells particularly the surface of epithelial cells and may be found in mucosal secretions. In many human populations 80% secrete ABO antigens (termed ‘secretors’) while 20% do not (termed ‘non-secretors’). Furthermore, there are disease conditions that are associated with secretor status.
Objective
To investigate correlations between secretor status and HIV infection among female sex workers in Nairobi, Kenya.
Methodology
This cross-sectional study recruited 280 female sex workers aged 18–65 years from the Pumwani Majengo cohort, Kenya. Blood typing was determined by serological techniques using monoclonal antibodies to the ABO blood group antigens. Secretor phenotyping was determined using anti-H specific lectins specific to salivary, vaginal and cervical blood group H antigen using the agglutination inhibition technique and correlated to individual HIV sero-status. Participants were additionally screened for Bacterial vaginosis, Neisseria gonorrhoea and Trichomonas vaginalis.
Results
Out of the 280 participants, 212 (75.7%) were secretors and 68 (24.3%) were non-secretors. The incidence of all infections: HIV, Bacterial vaginosis, Neisseria gonorrhoea and Trichomonas vaginalis was higher among secretors compared to non-secretors. However, this difference was only statistically significant for HIV infection incidence rates: HIV infected secretors (83.7%) versus HIV un-infected secretors (71.8%) (p = 0.029) Based on ABO phenotype stratification, the incidence of HIV infection was higher among blood group A secretors (26/52 = 50%), in comparison to B (12/39 = 33.3%: p = 0.066), AB (3/9 = 33.3%: p = 0.355), and O secretors (36/112 = 32.1%: p = 0.028).
Conclusion
This is the first report to document the variable expression of the ABH blood group antigens profiling secretor and non-secretor phenotypes in the female genital tract among a high-risk population in a Kenyan population. These findings suggest the non-secretor phenotype may confer a certain degree of protection against HIV infection.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0133049
PMCID: PMC4505875  PMID: 26186209
7.  Effects of HIV-1 infection on malaria parasitemia in milo sub-location, western Kenya 
BMC Research Notes  2015;8:303.
Background
Malaria and HIV infections are both highly prevalent in sub-Saharan Africa, with HIV-infected patients being at higher risk of acquiring malaria. HIV-1 infection is known to impair the immune response and may increase the incidence of clinical malaria. However, a positive association between HIV-1 and malaria parasitaemia is still evolving. Equally, the effect of malaria on HIV-1 disease stage has not been well established, but when fever and parasitemia are high, malaria may be associated with transient increases in HIV-1 viral load, and progression of HIV-1 asymptomatic disease phase to AIDS.
Objective
To determine the effects of HIV-1 infection on malaria parasitaemia among consented residents of Milo sub-location, Bungoma County in western Kenya.
Study design
Census study evaluating malaria parasitaemia in asymptomatic individuals with unknown HIV-1 status.
Methods
After ethical approvals from both Moi University and MTRH research ethics committees, data of 3,258 participants were retrieved from both Webuye health demographic surveillance system (WHDSS), and Academic Model Providing Access to Healthcare (AMPATH) in the year 2010. The current study was identifying only un-diagnosed HIV-1 individuals at the time the primary data was collected. The data was then analysed for significant statistical association for malaria parasitemia and HIV-1 infection, using SPSS version 19. Demographic characteristics such as age and sex were summarized as means and percentages, while relationship between malaria parasitaemia and HIV-1 (serostatus) was analyzed using Chi square.
Results
Age distribution for the 3,258 individuals ranged between 2 and 94 years, with a mean age of 26 years old. Females constituted 54.3%, while males were 45.8%. In terms of age distribution, 2–4 years old formed 15.1% of the study population, 5–9 years old were 8.8%, 10–14 years old were 8.6% while 15 years old and above were 67.5%. Of the 3,258 individuals whose data was eligible for analysis, 1.4% was newly diagnosed HIV-1 positive. Our findings showed a higher prevalence of malaria in children aged 2–10 years (73.4%), against the one reported in children in lake Victoria endemic region by the Kenya malaria indicator survey in the year 2010 (38.1%). There was no significant associations between the prevalence of asymptomatic malaria and HIV-1 status (p = 0.327). However, HIV-1/malaria co-infected individuals showed elevated mean malaria parasite density, compared to HIV-1 negative individuals, p = 0.002.
Conclusion
HIV-1 status was not found to have effect on malaria infection, but the mean malaria parsite density was significantly higher in HIV-1 positive than the HIV-1 negative population.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/s13104-015-1270-1) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
doi:10.1186/s13104-015-1270-1
PMCID: PMC4501056  PMID: 26173396
HIV-1; Malaria; Malaria density
8.  Elevated expression of LAG-3, but not PD-1, is associated with impaired iNKT cytokine production during chronic HIV-1 infection and treatment 
Retrovirology  2015;12:17.
Background
LAG-3 is a potent negative regulator of the immune response but its impact in HIV infection in poorly understood. Unlike exhaustion markers such as PD-1, Tim-3, 2B4 and CD160, LAG-3 is poorly expressed on bulk and antigen-specific T cells during chronic HIV infection and its expression on innate lymphocyte subsets is not well understood. The aim of this study was to assess LAG-3 expression and association with cellular dysfunction on T cells, NK cells and iNKT cells among a cohort of healthy and HIV-infected female sex workers in Nairobi, Kenya.
Results
Ex vivo LAG-3 expression was measured by multiparametric flow cytometry, and plasma cytokine/chemokine concentrations measured by bead array. Although LAG-3 expression on bulk T cells was significantly increased among HIV-infected women, the proportion of cells expressing the marker was extremely low. In contrast, LAG-3 was more highly expressed on NK and iNKT cells and was not reduced among women treated with ART. To assess the functional impact of LAG-3 on iNKT cells, iNKT cytokine production was measured in response to lipid (αGalCer) and PMA/Io stimulation by both flow cytometry and cytokine bead array. iNKT cytokine production is profoundly altered by both HIV infection and treatment, and LAG-3, but not PD-1, expression is associated with a reduction in iNKT IFNγ production.
Conclusions
LAG-3 does not appear to mediate T cell exhaustion in this African population, but is instead expressed on innate lymphocyte subsets including iNKT cells. HIV infection alters iNKT cytokine production patterns and LAG-3 expression is uniquely associated with iNKT dysfunction. The continued expression of LAG-3 during treatment suggests it may contribute to the lack of innate immune reconstitution commonly observed during ART.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/s12977-015-0142-z) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
doi:10.1186/s12977-015-0142-z
PMCID: PMC4332911  PMID: 25810006
Exhaustion; iNKT cells; LAG-3 protein human; HIV; CD223; Immune dysfunction
9.  First Complete Genome Sequence of a Lineage III Peste des Petits Ruminants Virus 
Genome Announcements  2014;2(5):e01054-14.
We report the first complete genome sequence of a lineage III peste des petits ruminants virus (KN5/2011) using RNA extracted from goat lung tissue collected in Kenya in 2011. The genome shows the highest nucleotide sequence identity with lineage II peste des petits ruminants viruses (PPRVs) (86.1 to 87.2%) and the lowest with lineage IV PPRVs (82.5 to 83.8%).
doi:10.1128/genomeA.01054-14
PMCID: PMC4208322  PMID: 25342678
10.  Antagonistic effect of alkaloids and saponins on bioactivity in the quinine tree (Rauvolfia caffra sond.): further evidence to support biotechnology in traditional medicinal plants 
Background
The Quinine tree (Rauvolfia caffra) is used as a medicinal plant among traditional communities in many countries to manage tumors and other diseases associated with oxidative stress. To validate indigenous knowledge and possibly position this herb for technology uptake and utilization, we established the level of antioxidant activity in R. caffra, and probed for the presence of associated phytochemicals.
Methods
Antioxidant activity was determined on 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) while major phytochemicals were identified by multiple tests on methanol fractions.
Results
R. caffra showed promise as a cure, with antioxidant activity comparable to the commercially used drug quercetin (R. caffra = 79.7% ±1.9; quercetin = 82.6% ± 2.0). However, we found two phytochemicals with possible antagonistic effect: co-occurrence of alkaloids and saponins significantly reduced antioxidant activity (alkaloids only = 63%; alkaloids plus saponins = 15%; steroids, terpenoids and cardiac glycosides = 82%), thus alkaloids and saponins should be exclusive to each other in drug formulations.
Conclusions
Antagonistic relationship among phytochemicals would affect the efficacy of crude extracts as used in traditional medicine. Unlike in herbal medicine, use of modern biotechnology in extraction, purification and design of optimal combinations will ensure efficient drug formulations with optimum bioactivity and minimum toxicity. Metabolic pathway engineering under a controlled environment may optimize availability of desired compounds.
doi:10.1186/1472-6882-13-285
PMCID: PMC3816308  PMID: 24160735
Rauvolfia caffra; Antioxidant; Alkaloid; Quinine tree
11.  Characterization of Vibrio cholerae Bacteriophages Isolated from the Environmental Waters of the Lake Victoria Region of Kenya 
Current Microbiology  2013;68(1):64-70.
Over the last decade, cholera outbreaks have become common in some parts of Kenya. The most recent cholera outbreak occurred in Coastal and Lake Victoria region during January 2009 and May 2010, where a total of 11,769 cases and 274 deaths were reported by the Ministry of Public Health and Sanitation. The objective of this study is to isolate Vibriocholerae bacteriophages from the environmental waters of the Lake Victoria region of Kenya with potential for use as a biocontrol for cholera outbreaks. Water samples from wells, ponds, sewage effluent, boreholes, rivers, and lakes of the Lake Victoria region of Kenya were enriched for 48 h at 37 °C in broth containing a an environmental strain of V.cholerae. Bacteriophages were isolated from 5 out of the 42 environmental water samples taken. Isolated phages produced tiny, round, and clear plaques suggesting that these phages were lytic to V. cholerae. Transmission electron microscope examination revealed that all the nine phages belonged to the family Myoviridae, with typical icosahedral heads, long contractile tails, and fibers. Head had an average diameter of 88.3 nm and tail of length and width 84.9 and 16.1 nm, respectively. Vibriophages isolated from the Lake Victoria region of Kenya have been characterized and the isolated phages may have a potential to be used as antibacterial agents to control pathogenic V.cholerae bacteria in water reservoirs.
doi:10.1007/s00284-013-0447-x
PMCID: PMC4173113  PMID: 23982202
12.  C868T Single Nucleotide Polymorphism and HIV Type 1 Disease Progression Among Postpartum Women in Kenya 
Abstract
The C868T single nucleotide polymorphism in the CD4 receptor encodes an amino acid substitution of tryptophan for arginine in the third domain. Previous studies suggest that C868T increases the risk of HIV-1 acquisition; however, the influence of this single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) on disease progression has not been established. The presence of the C868T polymorphism was not statistically significantly associated with HIV-1 disease progression outcomes in a cohort of postpartum Kenyan women.
doi:10.1089/aid.2011.0095
PMCID: PMC3358105  PMID: 21902583
13.  Human Leukocyte Antigen (HLA) B*18 and Protection against Mother-to-Child HIV Type 1 Transmission 
Human leukocyte antigen (HLA) molecules regulate the cellular immune system and may be determinants of infant susceptibility to human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection. Molecular HLA typing for class I alleles was performed on infants followed in a Kenyan perinatal cohort. Early HIV-1 infection status was defined as infection occurring at birth or month 1, while late infection via breast milk was defined as first detection of HIV-1 after 1 month of age. Likelihood ratio tests based on a proportional hazards model adjusting for maternal CD4 T cell count and HIV-1 viral load at 32 weeks of gestation were used to test associations between infant allelic variation and incident HIV-1 infection. Among 433 infants, 76 (18%) were HIV-1 infected during 12 months of follow-up. HLA B*18 was associated with a significantly lower risk of early HIV-1 transmission [relative risk (RR) = 0.26; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.04–0.82], and none of the 24 breastfeeding infants expressing HLA B*18 who were uninfected at month 1 acquired HIV-1 late via breast milk. We observed a trend toward increased early HIV-1 acquisition for infants presenting HLA A*29 (RR = 2.0; 95% CI 1.0–3.8) and increased late HIV-1 acquisition via breast milk for both Cw*07 and Cw*08 (RR = 4.0; 95% CI 1.0–17.8 and RR = 7.2; 95% CI 1.2–37.3, respectively). HLA B*18 may protect breast-feeding infants against both early and late HIV-1 acquisition, a finding that could have implications for the design and monitoring of HIV-1 vaccines targeting cellular immune responses against HIV-1.
doi:10.1089/0889222041524616
PMCID: PMC3380108  PMID: 15307911
14.  CD8+ lymphocytes respond to different HIV epitopes in seronegative and infected subjects 
Journal of Clinical Investigation  2001;107(10):1303-1310.
HIV-1–specific cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) responses have been detected at a low frequency in many HIV-1–exposed, persistently seronegative (HEPS) subjects. However, it is unclear how CTLs could protect against HIV acquisition in HEPS subjects, when high levels of circulating CTL fail to prevent disease progression in most seropositive subjects. To address this issue we studied CD8+ lymphocyte responses to a panel of HIV-1 CTL epitopes in 91 HEPS and 87 HIV-1–infected Nairobi sex workers. HIV-specific responses in seropositive women focused strongly on epitopes rarely or never recognized in HEPS subjects, who targeted epitopes that were subdominant or unrecognized in infected women. These differences in epitope specificity were restricted by only those HLA class I alleles that are associated with a reduced risk of HIV-1 infection in this cohort. Late seroconversion in HEPS donors was associated with a switch in epitope specificity and/or immunodominance to those epitopes preferentially recognized by HIV-1–infected women. The likelihood of detecting HIV-1–specific responses in HEPS women increased with the duration of viral exposure, suggesting that HIV-1–specific CD8+ responses are acquired over time. The association between differential recognition of distinct CTL epitopes and protection from HIV-1 infection may have significant implications for vaccine design.
PMCID: PMC209302  PMID: 11375420

Results 1-14 (14)