Factors explaining why human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) enhances the risk of reactivated tuberculosis (TB) are poorly understood. Unfortunately, experimental models of HIV-induced reactivated TB are lacking. We examined whether cynomolgus macaques, which accurately model latent TB in humans, could be used to model pathogenesis of HIV infection in the lungs and associated lymph nodes. These experiments precede studies modeling the effects of HIV infection on latent TB. We infected two groups of macaques with chimeric simian–human immunodeficiency viruses (SHIV-89.6P and SHIV-KU2) and followed viral titers and immunologic parameters including lymphocytes numbers and phenotype in the blood, bronchoalveolar lavage cells, and lymph nodes over the course of infection. Tissues from the lungs, liver, kidney, spleen, and lymph nodes were similarly examined at necropsy. Both strains produced dramatic CD4+ T cell depletion. Plasma titers were not different between viruses, but we found more SHIV-89.6P in the lungs. Both viruses induced similar patterns of cell activation markers. SHIV-89.6P induced more IFN-γ expression than SHIV-KU2. These results indicate SHIV-89.6P and SHIV-KU2 infect cynomolgus macaques and may be used to accurately model effects of HIV infection on latent TB.
The optimization of immune responses (IR) induced by HIV DNA vaccines in humans is one of the great challenges in the development of an effective vaccine against AIDS. Ideally, this vaccine should be delivered in a single dose to immunize humans. We recently demonstrated that the immunization of mice with a single dose of a DNA vaccine derived from pathogenic SHIVKU2 (Δ4SHIVKU2) induced long-lasting, potent, and polyfunctional HIV-specific CD8+ T-cell responses (G. Arrode, R. Hegde, A. Mani, Y. Jin, Y. Chebloune, and O. Narayan, J. Immunol. 178:2318-2327, 2007). In the present work, we expanded the characterization of the IR induced by this DNA immunization protocol to rhesus macaques. Animals immunized with a single high dose of Δ4SHIVKU2 DNA vaccine were monitored longitudinally for vaccine-induced IR using multiparametric flow cytometry-based assays. Interestingly, all five immunized macaques developed broad and polyfunctional HIV-specific T-cell IR that persisted for months, with an unusual reemergence in the blood following an initial decline but in the absence of antibody responses. The majority of vaccine-specific CD4+ and CD8+ T cells lacked gamma interferon production but showed high antigen-specific proliferation capacities. Proliferative CD8+ T cells expressed the lytic molecule granzyme B. No integrated viral vector could be detected in mononuclear cells from immunized animals, and this high dose of DNA did not induce any detectable autoimmune responses against DNA. Taken together, our comprehensive analysis demonstrated for the first time the capacity of a single high dose of HIV DNA vaccine alone to induce long-lasting and polyfunctional T-cell responses in the nonhuman primate model, bringing new insights for the design of future HIV vaccines.
Live-attenuated viruses derived from SIV and SHIV have provided the most consistent protection against challenge with pathogenic viruses, but concerns regarding their long-term safety and efficacy have hampered their clinical usefulness. We report a longitudinal study in which we evaluated the long-term safety and efficacy of ΔvpuSHIVPPC, a live virus vaccine derived from SHIVPPC. Macaques were administered two inoculations of ΔvpuSHIVPPC, three years apart, and followed for eight years. None of the five vaccinated macaques developed an AIDS-like disease from the vaccine. At eight years, macaques were challenged with pathogenic SIV and SHIV. None of the four macaques with detectable cellular-mediated immunity prior to challenge had detectable viral RNA in the plasma. This study demonstrates that multiple inoculations of a live vaccine virus can be used safely and can significantly extend the efficacy of the vaccine, as compared to a single inoculation, which is efficacious for approximately three years.
Live-attenuated vaccine; SIV; SHIV; Safety; immune response; correlates of protection
Using background data that live vaccines against several viral pathogens are effective in inducing life-long protection against disease, we undertook studies in macaques to determine the duration of protection that two live SHIV vaccines could induce against AIDS. Earlier studies had established that macaques immunized once with a live vaccine and challenged 6 months later were protected, and that other macaques given two sequential inoculations of live vaccines were protected for at least one year. Protection was associated with persistence of the vaccine viruses. In this study, we sought to determine whether the duration of protection in macaques given a single inoculation of replication competent live vaccines would extend beyond three years. Two groups of four rhesus macaques were inoculated with two live SHIV vaccines, respectively. The viruses replicated transiently in all animals but at the 3 year time point, PCR analysis of PBMC did not detect DNA of either virus in any of the animals, and all were negative for CMI responses in the blood. All 8 animals succumbed to disease when challenged with pathogenic viruses.
The encephalopathy caused by HIV, known clinically as HIV-associated dementia (HAD) and pathologically as HIV encephalitis (HIVE), results from intense infiltration of mononuclear cells, productive replication of the virus in monocyte-derived macrophages/microglia, abortive replication in astrocytes and activation of macrophages/microglia and astrocytes leading to neuronal degeneration in the brains of infected persons. Recent findings have suggested that development of HAD is based more on the activation process than on direct evidence of virus replication in the brain. Since HAD is based on the encephalitic process, major studies have been directed to the mechanisms regulating the inflammatory process. Monocyte chemoattractant protein 1, MCP-1, is a chemokine that is implicated in this process and also in the development of activation in the brain. In this review, we have attempted to identify mechanisms that induce expression of MCP-1 in the brain and the role that it plays in recruitment of mononuclear cells from blood to brain and in the activation processes of inflammatory and neural cells that lead to development of degenerative changes in the neuronal population.
HIV-1; HAD; Neurons; Astrocytes; Macrophages; Blood Brain Barrier; Review
Gag-CD8+ T cell responses are associated with immune control of HIV infection. Since during HIV infection Nef impairs T cell responses, we evaluated whether deletion of nef from a non-infectious HIV DNA vaccine (Δ4 Nef(+)), creating Δ5 Nef(-), would affect his immunogenicity. When compared with Δ4, mice injected m with Δ5 developed significantly lower CD8+ T cell responses to Gag, but no significant change in the responses to Env. In vitro, deletion of Nef abrogated the induced cell death, production of virus-like particles and release of Gag from transfected cells. Thus the effect of Nef in causing extrusion of Gag might adjuvant the CD8+ T cell responses to Gag in DNA vaccine.
HIV; DNA vaccine; Nef; Apoptosis; CD8 T cells
Caprine Arthritis Encephalitis Virus (CAEV) is the natural lentivirus of goats, well known for its tropism for macrophages and its inability to cause infection in lymphocytes. The viral genome lacks nef, tat, vpu and vpx coding sequences. To test the hypothesis that when nef is expressed by the viral genome, the virus became toxic for lymphocytes during replication in macrophages, we inserted the SIVsmm PBj14 nef coding sequences into the genome of CAEV thereby generating CAEV-nef. This recombinant virus is not infectious for lymphocytes, but is fully replication competent in goat macrophages in which it constitutively expresses the SIV Nef. We found that goat lymphocytes co-cultured with CAEV-nef-infected macrophages became activated, showing increased expression of the interleukin-2 receptor (IL-2R). Activation correlated with increased proliferation of the cells. Interestingly, a dual effect in terms of apoptosis regulation was observed in exposed goat lymphocytes. Nef was found first to induce a protection of lymphocytes from apoptosis during the first few days following exposure to infected macrophages, but later, it induced increased apoptosis in the activated lymphocytes. This new recombinant virus provides a model to study the functions of Nef in the context of infection of macrophages, but in absence of infection of T lymphocytes and brings new insights into the biological effects of Nef on lymphocytes.
Nef; Apoptosis; Activation; Bystander
In a previous report we demonstrated that three injections of an rt-deleted noninfectious genome of the simian-human immunodeficiency virus SHIVKU2 induced protection against AIDS in macaques (D. K. Singh, Z. Liu, D. Sheffer, G. A. Mackay, M. Smith, S. Dhillon, R. Hegde, F. Jia, I. Adany, and O. Narayan, J. Virol 79:3419-3428, 2005). To make this DNA safer, we deleted two more genes, the integrase gene and vif, along with the 3′ long terminal repeat. We also replaced the gag, pro, and nef genes (SIVmac239 origin) with those of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) type 1 strain SF2. The resultant construct, designated Δ4SHIVKU2 DNA, was used in this study to evaluate gene expression and immunogenicity in BALB/c mice. DNA-transfected human embryonic kidney epithelial cells (HEK 293) produced all of the major viral proteins and released p24 in the supernatant for 12 days. Inoculation of the vaccine DNA into the gastrocnemius muscles resulted in intense mononuclear cell infiltration at the inoculated sites and the production of viral p24 in myocytes, in infiltrating mononuclear cells, and in cells in the spleen and draining lymph nodes between 3 and 10 days postinoculation. Expression of p24 in the muscle cells peaked at day 7 and became undetectable after day 12. The same 12-day period of expression of p24 was observed in mice that were given a second injection 4 weeks after the first. Evaluation of immune responses in BALB/c mice revealed that the DNA induced enzyme-linked immunospot and antigen-specific proliferative cell-mediated immunity responses. The responses were stronger in mice that were coinjected with a second plasmid expressing granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor. Since new waves of viral antigen production could be induced with each boosting injection of the vaccine DNA, this DNA could be a safe and efficient agent to induce long-term protection against HIV.
Simian/human immunodeficiency virus SHIVKU2 replicates with extremely high titers in macaques. In order to determine whether the DNA of the viral genome could be used as a vaccine if the DNA were rendered noninfectious, we deleted the reverse transcriptase gene from SHIVKU2 and inserted this DNA (ΔrtSHIVKU2) into a plasmid that was then used to test gene expression and immunogenicity. Transfection of Jurkat and human embryonic kidney epithelial (HEK 293) cells with the DNA resulted in production of all of the major viral proteins and their precursors and transient export of a large quantity of the Gag p27 into the supernatant fluid. As expected, no infectious virus was produced in these cultures. Four macaques were injected intradermally with 2 mg of the DNA at 0, 8, and 18 weeks. The animals developed neutralizing antibodies and low enzyme-linked immunospot assay (E-SPOT) titers against SHIVKU2. These four animals and two unvaccinated control animals were then challenged with heterologous SHIV89.6P administered into their rectums. The two control animals developed viral RNA titers exceeding 106 copies/ml of plasma, and these titers were accompanied by the loss of CD4+ T cells by 2 weeks after challenge. The two control animals died at weeks 8 and 16, respectively. All four of the immunized animals became infected with the challenge virus but developed lower titers of viral RNA in plasma than the control animals, and the titers decreased over time in three of the four macaques. The fourth animal remained viremic and died at week 47. Whereas the control animals failed to develop E-SPOT responses, all four of the immunized animals developed anamnestic E-SPOT responses after challenge. The animal that died developed the highest E-SPOT response and was the only one that produced neutralizing antibodies against the challenge virus. These results established that noninfectious DNA of pathogenic SHIV could be used as a vaccine to prevent AIDS, even though the immunological assays used did not predict the manner in which the challenge virus would replicate in the vaccinated animals.
Using the simian immunodeficiency virus/human immunodeficiency virus (SHIV)-macaque model of AIDS, we had shown in a previous report that a live, nonpathogenic strain of SHIV, further attenuated by deletion of the vpu gene and inoculated orally into adult macaques, had effectively prevented AIDS following vaginal inoculation with pathogenic SHIVKU. Examination of lymph nodes from the animals at 18 weeks postchallenge had shown that all six animals were persistently infected with challenge virus. We report here on a 2-year follow-up study on the nature of the persistent infections in these animals. DNA of the vaccine virus was present in the lymph nodes at all time points tested, as far as 135 weeks postchallenge. In contrast, the DNA of SHIVKU became undetectable in one animal by week 55 and in three others by week 63. These four macaques have remained negative for SHIVKU DNA as far as the last time point examined at week 135. Quantification of the total viral DNA concentration in lymph nodes during the observation period showed a steady decline. All animals developed neutralizing antibody and cytotoxic-T-lymphocyte responses to SHIVKU that persisted throughout the observation period. Vaccine-like viruses were isolated from two animals, and a SHIVKU-like virus was isolated from one of the two macaques that remained positive for SHIVKU DNA. There was no evidence of recombination between the vaccine and the challenge viruses. Thus, immunization with the live vaccine not only prevented disease but also contributed to the steady decline in the virus burdens in the animals.
Barriers to replication of viruses in potential host cells may occur at several levels. Lack of suitable and functional receptors on the host cell surface, thereby precluding entry of the virus, is a frequent reason for noninfectivity, as long as no alternative way of entry (e.g., pinocytosis, antibody-dependent adsorption) can be exploited by the virus. Other barriers can intervene at later stages of the virus life cycle, with restrictions on transcription of the viral genome, incorrect translation and posttranslational processing of viral proteins, inefficient viral assembly, and release or efficient early induction of apoptosis in the infected cell. The data we present here demonstrate that replication of caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus (CAEV) is restricted in a variety of human cell lines and primary tissue cultures. This barrier was efficiently overcome by transfection of a novel infectious complete-proviral CAEV construct into the same cells. The successful infection of human cells with a vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) G-pseudotyped Env-defective CAEV confirmed that viral entry is the major obstacle to CAEV infection of human cells. The fully efficient productive infection obtained with the VSV-G-protein-pseudotyped infectious CAEV strengthened the evidence that lack of viral entry is the only practical barrier to CAEV replication in human cells. The virus thus produced retained its original host cell specificity and acquired no propensity to propagate further in human cultures.
The chimeric simian-human immunodeficiency virus SHIVKU-1, bearing the envelope of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1), causes fulminant infection with subtotal loss of CD4+ T cells followed by development of AIDS in intravaginally inoculated macaques and thus provides a highly relevant model of sexually transmitted disease caused by HIV-1 in human beings. Previous studies using this SHIV model had shown that the vpu and nef genes were important in pathogenesis of the infection, and so we deleted portions of these genes to create two vaccines, ΔvpuΔnefSHIV-4 (vaccine 1) and ΔvpuSHIVPPc (vaccine 2). Six adult macaques were immunized subcutaneously with vaccine 1, and six were immunized orally with vaccine 2. Both viruses caused infection in all inoculated animals, but whereas vaccine 1 virus caused only a nonproductive type of infection, vaccine 2 virus replicated productively but transiently for a 6- to 10-week period. Both groups were challenged 6 to 7 months later with pathogenic SHIVKU-1 by the intravaginal route. All four unvaccinated controls developed low CD4+ T-cell counts (<200/μl) and AIDS. The 12 vaccinated animals all became infected with SHIVKU-1, and two in group 1 developed a persistent productive infection followed by development of AIDS in one. The other 10 have maintained almost complete control over virus replication even though spliced viral RNA was detected in lymph nodes. This suppression of virus replication correlated with robust antiviral cell-mediated immune responses. This is the first demonstration of protection against virulent SHIV administered by the intravaginal route. This study supports the concept that sexually transmitted HIV disease can be prevented by parenteral or oral immunization.
We previously showed that inoculation of rhesus macaques with molecularly cloned lymphocytetropic simian immunodeficiency virus (SIVmac239) results in SIV-associated nephropathy (SIVAN) and that the glomerulosclerotic lesions were associated with the selection of macrophagetropic (M-tropic) variants (V. H. Gattone et al., AIDS Res. Hum. Retroviruses 14:1163–1180, 1998). In the present study, seven rhesus macaques were inoculated with M-tropic SIVmacR71/17E, and the renal pathology was examined at necropsy. All SIVmacR71/17E-infected macaques developed AIDS, and most developed other systemic complications, including SIV-induced encephalitis and lentivirus interstitial pneumonia. There was no correlation between the length of infection (42 to 97 days), circulating CD4+ T-cell counts, and renal disease. Of the seven macaques inoculated with SIVmacR71/17E, five developed significant mesangial hyperplasia and expansion of matrix and four were clearly azotemic (serum urea nitrogen concentration of 40 to 112 mg/dl). These same five macaques developed focal segmental to global glomerulosclerotic lesions. Increased numbers of glomerular CD68+ cells (monocytes/macrophages) were found in glomeruli but not the tubulointerstitium of the macaques inoculated with SIVmacR71/17E. All macaques had glomerular deposits of immunoglobulin G (IgG), IgM, and tubuloreticular inclusions, and six of seven had IgA deposition. However, there was no correlation between the presence of circulating anti-SIVmac antibodies, immunoglobulin deposition, and glomerular disease. Tubulointerstitial infiltrates were mild, with little or no correlation to azotemia, while microcystic tubules were evident in those with glomerulosclerosis or azotemia. The four most severely affected macaques were positive for diffuse glomerular immunostaining for viral core p27 antigen, and there was intense staining in the glomeruli of the two macaques with the most severe glomerulosclerosis. Viral sequences were isolated from glomerular and tubulointerstitial fractions from macaques with severe glomerulosclerosis but only from the tubulointerstitial compartment of those that did not develop glomerulosclerosis. Interviral recombinant viruses generated with env sequences isolated from glomeruli confirmed the M-tropic nature of the virus found in the glomeruli. The correlation between the increased number of CD68+ cells (monocytes/macrophages) in the glomeruli, the localization of p27 antigen in the glomeruli, and the glomerular pathology confirms and extends our previous observations of an association between glomerular infection and infiltration by M-tropic virus and SIVAN.
Characterization of virus-specific immune responses to human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) and simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) is important to understanding the early virus-host interactions that may determine the course of virus infection and disease. Using a comprehensive panel of serological assays, we have previously demonstrated a complex and lengthy maturation of virus-specific antibody responses elicited by attenuated strains of SIV that was closely associated with the development of protective immunity. In the present study, we expand these analyses to address several questions regarding the nature of the virus-specific antibody responses to pathogenic SIV, SIV/HIV-1 (SHIV), and HIV-1 infections. The results demonstrate for the first time a common theme of antibody maturation to SIV, SHIV, and HIV-1 infections that is characterized by ongoing changes in antibody titer, conformational dependence, and antibody avidity during the first 6 to 10 months following virus infection. We demonstrate that this gradual evolution of virus-specific antibody responses is independent of the levels of virus replication and the pathogenicity of the infection viral strain. While the serological assays used in these studies were useful in discriminating between protective and nonprotective antibody responses during evaluation of vaccine efficacy with attenuated SIV, these same assays do not distinguish the clinical outcome of infection in pathogenic SIV, SHIV, or HIV-1 infections. These results likely reflect differences in the immune mechanisms involved in mediating protection from virus challenge compared to those that control an established viral infection, and they suggest that additional characteristics of both humoral and cellular responses evolve during this early immune maturation.
SIVsmmPBj14 is a highly pathogenic lentivirus which causes acute diarrhea, rash, massive lymphocyte proliferation predominantly in the gastrointestinal tract, and death within 7 to 14 days. In cell culture, the virus has mitogenic effects on resting macaque T lymphocytes. In contrast, SIVmac239 causes AIDS in rhesus macaques, generally within 2 years after inoculation. In a previous study, replacement of amino acid residues 17 and 18 of the Nef protein of SIVmac239 with the corresponding amino acid residues of the Nef protein of SIVsmmPBj14 yielded a PBj-like virus that caused extensive activation of resting T lymphocytes in cultures and acute PBj-like disease when inoculated into pig-tailed macaques. This study suggested that nef played a major role in both processes. In this study, we replaced the nef/long terminal repeat (LTR) region of a nonpathogenic simian-human immunodeficiency virus (SHIV), SHIVPPc, with the corresponding region from SIVsmmPBj14 and examined the biological properties of the resultant virus. Like SIVsmmPBj14, SHIVPPcPBjnef caused massive stimulation of resting peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC), which then produced virus in the absence of extraneous interleukin 2. However, when inoculated into macaques, the virus failed to replicate productively or cause disease. Thus, while these results confirmed that the nef/LTR region of SIVsmmPBj14 played a major role in the activation of resting PBMC, duplication of the cellular activation process in macaques may require a further interaction between nef and the envelope glycoprotein of simian immunodeficiency virus because SHIV, containing the envelope of human immunodeficiency virus type 1, failed to cause activation in vivo.
Biological properties of two strains of simian virus 40 (SV40) from brains of two patients with progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) have been compared to those of a standard laboratory strain of SV40. Infectivity of both SV40-PML viruses was resistant to treatment with chloroform, low pH, and 50 C for 120 min. African green monkey kidney and BSC-1 cells were the most sensitive for viral replication, and cytopathology in these cultures was indistinguishable from that caused by SV40. Both viruses formed plaques in these cells. but, in African green monkey kidney cells, strain 1 virus produced plaques measuring 2 mm in diameter whereas strain 2 virus produced pleomorphic plaques varying from 1 to 10 mm in diameter. Hamster cells were not permissive for viral replication, and infection resulted only in viral transformation. Inoculation of human fetal glial cells resulted in a permissive lytic infection of one cell type and a persistent infection with only partial expression of the viral genome in the other. No morphological evidence of transformation was evident in the latter cells. Both strains of SV40-PML viruses were neutralized by commercial anti-SV40 serum, but in reciprocal kinetic neutralization tests differences in K values were noted when each was compared to SV40. Both viruses showed oncogenicity for hamsters, producing undifferentiated sarcomas when injected subcutaneously and choroid plexus papillomas after intracerebral inoculation. All hamster tumor cells contained intranuclear immunofluorescent tumor antigen. This was indistinguishable from SV40 T antigen in reciprocal staining reactions using hamster anti-T antibody induced by the two SV40-PML agents and SV40. These two human agents appear therefore to be new variants of simian virus 40.
The pathogenesis of two rodent-adapted strains of measles virus was studied in 1- to 2-day-old suckling and 4-week-old weanling BALB/c mice. Both the mouse-adapted Edmonston (MAEd) strain and the hamster-neurotropic (HNT) strain caused necrotizing giant-cell encephalitis with a 90 to 100% mortality after intracerebral inoculation into suckling mice. After intracerebral inoculation into weanling mice, MAEd virus caused fatal disease in 20% of the mice; HNT virus caused fatal disease in 30%, but an additional 35% of these mice developed disease and then recovered. Even when mice were moribund there was little histological evidence of disease in weanling mice inoculated intracerebrally with either strain of virus. Fluorescent-antibody staining showed extensive measles virus antigen in the suckling mouse brain and focal areas of measles virus antigen in the weanling mouse brain. Infectious virus was recovered easily from the brains of suckling mice by plaquing on Vero cells, but no infectious virus could be recovered similarly from weanling mice. However, virus could be recovered by intracerebral inoculation of weanling mouse tissue homogenates into suckling animals. The immune response appeared to play no role in the recovery from infection or in these age-related differences in disease. It appears that maturation of the cells of the mouse central nervous system converted the production of measles virus from the infectious form in the suckling mouse to a primarily defective infection in the weanling mouse.
Virus-antibody interactions observed by electron microscopy show that new human papovavirus isolates are antigenically distinct, but share common antigens.