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author:("Lin, kei-Chin")
1.  Specific Pathogen-Free Status Alters Immunophenotype in Rhesus Macaques: Implications for the Study of Simian Immunodeficiency Virus 
AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses  2011;27(10):1033-1042.
The repertoire of viruses to which research primates are exposed, even in the absence of clinical disease, may contribute to experimental confounding. In this study we examined whether standard specific pathogen-free (SPF) rhesus macaques exposed to a wider spectrum of enzootic viruses and expanded SPF macaques derived to exclude a greater number of viral agents would display alterations in immune activation or immune cell populations. Given the impact of immunophenotype on human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) progression and the importance of the simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) model for the study of HIV pathogenesis, we elected to additionally examine the impact of SPF status on the capacity of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) to support SIV replication. The expanded SPF group displayed significant immune alterations including increased serum interleukin (IL)-15 and a greater in vitro elaboration of GM-CSF, IL1ra, VEGF, IL-10, IL12/23, and MIP-1b. Consistent with reduced viral antigenic exposure in expanded SPF macaques, decreased CD4+ and CD8+ transitional and effector memory (TEM) cell populations were observed. Expanded SPF PBMC cultures also demonstrated an increased peak (192.61 ng/ml p27) and area under the curve in in vitro SIV production (1968.64 ng/ml p27) when compared to standard SPF macaques (99.32 ng/ml p27; p=0.03 and 915.17 ng/ml p27; p=0.03, respectively). In vitro SIV replication did not correlate with CD4+ TEM cell counts but was highly correlated with serum IL-15 in the subset of animals examined. Findings suggest that an altered immunophenotype associated with the maintenance of primates under differing levels of bioexclusion has the potential to impact the outcome of SIV studies and models for which the measurement of immunologic endpoints is critical.
PMCID: PMC3186704  PMID: 21391843
2.  Mucosal Priming of Simian Immunodeficiency Virus-Specific Cytotoxic T-Lymphocyte Responses in Rhesus Macaques by the Salmonella Type III Secretion Antigen Delivery System 
Journal of Virology  2003;77(4):2400-2409.
Nearly all human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infections are acquired mucosally, and the gut-associated lymphoid tissues are important sites for early virus replication. Thus, vaccine strategies designed to prime virus-specific cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) responses that home to mucosal compartments may be particularly effective at preventing or containing HIV infection. The Salmonella type III secretion system has been shown to be an effective approach for stimulating mucosal CTL responses in mice. We therefore tested ΔphoP-phoQ attenuated strains of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium and S. enterica serovar Typhi expressing fragments of the simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) Gag protein fused to the type III-secreted SopE protein for the ability to prime virus-specific CTL responses in rhesus macaques. Mamu-A*01+ macaques were inoculated with three oral doses of recombinant Salmonella, followed by a peripheral boost with modified vaccinia virus Ankara expressing SIV Gag (MVA Gag). Transient low-level CTL responses to the Mamu-A*01 Gag181-189 epitope were detected following each dose of Salmonella. After boosting with MVA Gag, strong Gag-specific CTL responses were consistently detected, and tetramer staining revealed the expansion of Gag181-189-specific CD8+ T-cell responses in peripheral blood. A significant percentage of the Gag181-189-specific T-cell population in each animal also expressed the intestinal homing receptor α4β7. Additionally, Gag181-189-specific CD8+ T cells were detected in lymphocytes isolated from the colon. Yet, despite these responses, Salmonella-primed/MVA-boosted animals did not exhibit improved control of virus replication following a rectal challenge with SIVmac239. Nevertheless, this study demonstrates the potential of mucosal priming by the Salmonella type III secretion system to direct SIV-specific cellular immune responses to the gastrointestinal mucosa in a primate model.
PMCID: PMC141091  PMID: 12551977
3.  Identification of Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli in Simian Immunodeficiency Virus-Infected Infant and Adult Rhesus Macaques 
Journal of Clinical Microbiology  2001;39(3):971-976.
Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) was recognized as a common opportunistic pathogen of simian immunodeficiency virus-infected rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) with AIDS. Retrospective analysis revealed that 27 of 96 (28.1%) animals with AIDS had features of EPEC infection, and EPEC was the most frequent pathogen of the gastrointestinal tract identified morphologically. In 7.3% of animals dying with AIDS, EPEC represented the sole opportunistic agent of the gastrointestinal tract at death. In 20.8% of cases, it was seen in combination with one or more gastrointestinal pathogens, including Cryptosporidium parvum, Enterocytozoon bieneusi, Mycobacterium avium, Entamoeba histolytica, Balantidium coli, Strongyloides stercoralis, cytomegalovirus, and adenovirus. Clinically, infection was associated with persistent diarrhea and wasting and was more frequent in animals that died at under 1 year of age (P < 0.001, Fisher exact test). The organism was associated with the characteristic attaching and effacing lesion in colonic tissue sections and produced a focal adherence pattern on a HEp-2 assay but was negative for Shiga toxin production as assessed by PCR and a HeLa cell cytotoxicity assay. A 2.6-kb fragment encompassing the intimin gene was amplified and sequenced and revealed 99.2% identity to sequences obtained from human isolates (GenBank AF116899) corresponding to the epsilon intimin subtype. Further investigations with rhesus macaques may offer opportunities to study the impact of EPEC on AIDS pathogenesis and gastrointestinal dysfunction.
PMCID: PMC87859  PMID: 11230413

Results 1-3 (3)