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1.  MiR-27a ameliorates inflammatory damage to the blood-spinal cord barrier after spinal cord ischemia: reperfusion injury in rats by downregulating TICAM-2 of the TLR4 signaling pathway 
Spinal cord ischemia reperfusion (IR) injury causes inflammation and subsequently increases blood-spinal cord barrier leakage and Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) pathway activation. MicroRNAs (miRs) effectively regulate numerous target mRNAs during ischemia. However, their roles during IR injury are poorly understood. We investigated miRs involvement, particularly miR-27a, in TLR4 pathway-mediated inflammatory responses after IR.
We used a genomics approach to examine changed miRs of rats that had undergone 14 minutes of ischemia, followed by 24 or 72 hours of reperfusion. Quantitative RT-PCR was used to identify and confirm the miRs involved in regulating TLR4 pathway activation. We scanned miR databases for potential miR targets and confirmed these targets by quantitative RT-PCR. The miR mimic and anti-miR oligonucleotides (AMOs) were intrathecally injected at 12-hour intervals beginning three days before the ischemia. The effects of miRs on the TLR4 pathway and downstream cytokines were analyzed by PCR, western blotting, and ELISA. Double immunofluorescence staining was perfumed to determine the relationship between the targets and TLR4. Blood-spinal cord barrier (BSCB) permeability was examined using Evans blue (EB) dye.
A microarray analysis revealed that at 24 hours post-injury, three miRs were upregulated (>2.0 fold) and 15 miRs were downregulated (<0.5 fold), and at 72 hours, four miRs were upregulated and 14 were downregulated compared to their levels in sham-operated controls. We focused on miR-27a, which is predicted to contain sequences complementary to the 3'-untranslated region (UTR) of Toll-like receptor adaptor molecule 2 (TICAM-2). Double immunostaining indicated that TLR4 activation correlated with changes in TICAM-2 expression. Compared to the rats in the IR and negative control groups, intrathecal infusion of the miR-27a mimic attenuated IR-induced TLR4 activation and inflammatory damage to the BSCB, which was shown as decreased EB extravasation and lower levels of nuclear factor kappa-B (NF-κB) and lnterleukin (IL)-1β at 24 and 72 hours after reperfusion, whereas pretreatment with miR-27a AMO aggravated these injuries.
We present the first evidence that miRs play an important role in spinal cord IR injury. We identified TICAM-2 as a novel target of miR-27a. miR-27a upregulation attenuates IR-induced inflammatory damage to the BSCB by negatively regulating TICAM-2 of the TLR4 signaling pathway and inhibiting the NF-κB/IL-1β pathway. These results provide new therapeutic targets for IR injury treatment.
PMCID: PMC4336736
Blood-spinal cord barrier; MicroRNAs; MiR mimics; Anti-miR oligonucleotides; Toll-like receptor 4; Toll-like receptor adaptor molecule 2; Ischemia reperfusion injury
2.  A molecular signature for the prediction of recurrence in colorectal cancer 
Molecular Cancer  2015;14(1):22.
Several clinical and pathological factors have an impact on the prognosis of colorectal cancer (CRC), but they are not yet adequate for risk assessment. We aimed to identify a molecular signature that can reliably identify CRC patients at high risk for recurrence.
Two hundred eighty-one CRC samples (stage II/III) were included in this study. A two-step gene expression profiling study was conducted. First, gene expression measurements from 81 fresh frozen CRC samples were obtained using Affymetrix Human Genome U133 Plus 2.0 Arrays. Second, a focused gene expression assay, including prognostic genes and genes of interest from literature reviews, was performed using 200 fresh frozen samples and a Taqman low-density array (TLDA) analysis. An optimal 31-gene expression classifier for the prediction of recurrence among patients with stage II/III CRC was developed using logistic regression analysis. This gene expression signature classified 58.5% of patients as low-risk and 41.5% as high-risk (P < 0.001). The signature was the strongest independent prognostic factor in the multivariate analysis. The five-year relapse-free survival (RFS) rates for the low-risk patients and the high-risk patients were 88.5% and 41.3% (P < 0.001), respectively.
We identified a 31-gene expression signature that is closely associated with the clinical outcome of stage II/III CRC patients.
PMCID: PMC4320628  PMID: 25645394
Molecular signature; Gene expression; Colorectal cancer; Recurrence
3.  Emergence of human-like H3N2 influenza viruses in pet dogs in Guangxi, China 
Virology Journal  2015;12:10.
After the 1968 H3N2 pandemic emerged in humans, H3N2 influenza viruses continuously circulated and evolved in nature. An H3N2 variant was circulating in humans in the 1990s and subsequently introduced into the pig population in the 2000s. This virus gradually became the main subtype of swine influenza virus worldwide. However, there were no reports of infections in dogs with this virus.
In 2013, 35 nasal swabs from pet dogs were positive for Influenza A virus by RT-PCR. Two viruses were isolated and genetically characterized. In the phylogenetic trees of all gene segments, two H3N2 canine isolates clustered with Moscow/10/99 and most H3N2 swine influenza viruses. These results indicated that two H3N2 CIVs possessed high homology with human/swine influenza viruses, which at the same time exhibited some amino acid substitutions in NA, polymerase basic protein 1 (PB1), and nucleoprotein (NP), which probably were related to the interspecies transmission.
These two viruses share the highest homology with swine H3N2, Moscow/99-like viruses, which indicated that these viruses might originate from swine viruses.
PMCID: PMC4324672  PMID: 25645259
Pet dogs; H3N2 subtype; Human-like influenza viruses
5.  Molecular Epidemiology of Tuberculosis in Kaohsiung City Located at Southern Taiwan, 2000-2008 
PLoS ONE  2015;10(1):e0117061.
We present the first comprehensive analysis of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) isolates circulating in southern Taiwan. In this 9-year population-based study, the TB situation in the Kaohsiung region was characterized by genotypic analysis of 421 MTB isolates.
All 421 isolates of MTB were analyzed by spoligotyping and MIRU-VNTR typing. Drug-resistance patterns were also analyzed.
The percentage of EAI (East African-Indian) strains increased across sampling years (2000–2008) in southern Taiwan, whereas the proportion of Beijing lineages remained unchanged. Clustering was more frequent with EAI genotype infections (odds ratio = 3.6, p<0.0001) when compared to Beijing genotypes. Notably, MTB resistance to streptomycin (STR) had significantly increased over time, but resistance to other antibiotics, including multidrug resistance, had not. Three major genes (gidB, rpsL and rrs) implicated in STR resistance were sequenced and specific mutations identified.
This study revealed that EAI strains were highly transmissible and that STR resistance has increased between 2000 and 2008 in Kaohsiung, Taiwan.
PMCID: PMC4309396  PMID: 25629610
6.  Association Between Zolpidem Use and Glaucoma Risk: A Taiwanese Population-Based Case-Control Study 
Journal of Epidemiology  2015;25(1):15-19.
To date, the relationship between zolpidem use and subsequent risk of glaucoma in a Taiwanese population has not been assessed.
We used data from the National Health Insurance system to investigate whether zolpidem use was related to glaucoma risk. A 1:4 matched case-control study was conducted. The cases were patients newly diagnosed with glaucoma from 2001 to 2010. The controls were randomly selected non-glaucoma subjects matched by sex and age (±5 years). Zolpidem exposure and/or the average dosage of zolpidem used (mg/year) were evaluated. Medical comorbidities were considered as confounding factors. Multiple logistic regression models were used to evaluate the potential risk of zolpidem exposure on glaucoma with/without adjustment for the effects of confounding variables.
The exposure rate of zolpidem use in the glaucoma group was significantly higher than that of the control group (2.8% vs. 2.0%, P < 0.0001). The adjusted odds ratio (OR) of the risk of glaucoma for those with zolpidem use vs. those without was 1.19 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.02–1.38). Compared to non-zolpidem users, zolpidem users with an average dose of more than 200 mg/year had significantly increased risk of glaucoma (OR 1.31, 95% CI 1.03–1.68).
This study suggests that the use of zolpidem might increase the risk of subsequent glaucoma. Further confirmatory studies are recommended to clarify this important issue.
PMCID: PMC4275433
zolpidem; glaucoma; Taiwanese
7.  HIV Type 1 Polymerase Gene Polymorphisms Are Associated With Phenotypic Differences in Replication Capacity and Disease Progression 
Background. Determinants of intersubtype differences in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) clinical disease progression remain unknown.
Methods. HIV-1 subtype was independently determined for 5 separate genomic regions in 396 HIV-1 seroconverters from Rakai, Uganda, using a multiregion hybridization assay. Replication capacities (RC) in samples from a subset of 145 of these subjects were determined. HIV-1 genomic regions and pol RC were examined for association with disease progression. Amino acid polymorphisms were examined for association with pol RC.
Results. In multivariate analyses, the hazard for progression to the composite end point (defined as a CD4+ T-cell count <250 cells/mm3, antiretroviral therapy initiation, or death) among patients with subtype D pol infection was 2.4 times the hazard for those infected with subtype A pol infection (P = .001). Compared with subtype A pol (the reference group), the hazard for progression to the composite end point for subtype D pol infection with a pol RC >67% (ie, the median pol RC) was significantly greater (HR, 4.6; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.9–11.0; P = .001), whereas the hazard for progression to the composite end point for subtype D pol infection with a pol RC ≤67% was not significantly different (HR, 2.2; 95% CI, 1.0–4.9; P = .051). Amino acid substitutions at protease positions 62 and 64 and at reverse transcriptase position 272 were associated with significant differences in pol RC.
Conclusions. HIV-1 pol gene intersubtype and RC differences are associated with disease progression and may be influenced by amino acid polymorphisms.
PMCID: PMC3864385  PMID: 23922373
HIV-1 Subtype; subtype A; subtype D; disease progression; polymerase; replication capacity; amino acid polymorphisms
8.  Beta-catenin is elevated in human benign prostatic hyperplasia specimens compared to histologically normal prostate tissue 
Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is linked to lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) such as incomplete bladder emptying, urinary frequency and urgency. Mechanisms responsible for BPH are not fully known. Here, we tested whether beta-catenin (CTNNB1) immunostaining intensity and distribution differ in human glandular BPH tissue specimens compared to normal prostate tissue. Multiplex immunostaining of CTNNB1, its putative transcriptional target gene lymphoid enhancer binding factor 1 (LEF1), and the epithelial marker E-cadherin were examined in clinical human prostate specimens with or without histological BPH (pure epithelial or mixed stromal-epithelial nodules). BPH specimens were obtained from 24 men who experienced LUTS and underwent transurethral resection of the prostate surgery. Control specimens were tumor-adjacent histologically normal prostate tissue from 48 patients who underwent radical prostatectomy. The resulting multispectral images were unmixed and optical densities recorded to quantify staining abundance, cellular (membranous, cytoplasmic, and nuclear) and tissue localization (stromal versus epithelial), and determination of percentage of CTNNB1-positive cells. The following CTNNB1 indices were significantly higher in BPH compared to normal prostate tissue: overall staining intensity, staining intensity in prostate stromal cell membranes, cytoplasm and nuclei, and prostate epithelial cell nuclei. The following LEF1 indices were significantly lower in BPH compared to tumor-adjacent normal prostate tissue: stromal LEF1 staining intensity, percentage of LEF1-positive stromal cells, and intensity of LEF1 staining in stromal cell membranes, cytoplasm, and nuclei. The percentage of stromal cells with CTNNB1+/LEF1- nuclei was higher and percentage of stromal cells with CTNNB1-/LEF1+ nuclei was lower in BPH compared to tumor-adjacent normal prostate tissues. These results support the hypothesis that CTNNB1 expression increases in specific BPH tissue compartments. Further, since nuclear LEF1 staining does not coincide with cytoplasmic or nuclear CTNNB1 staining, it does not appear to be a reliable index of CTNNB1 activity in adult human prostate.
PMCID: PMC4297327  PMID: 25606577
Prostate; beta-catenin; tissue microarray; multispectral; LEF1; stromal-epithelial; cellular localization
9.  Impact of chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases on left ventricular diastolic function in hospitalized elderly patients 
To evaluate the impact of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) on left ventricular (LV) diastolic function in hospitalized elderly patients.
This was a case–control observational study of 148 consecutive hospitalized elderly patients (≥65 years old): 73 subjects without COPD as controls and 75 patients with COPD. Mild-to-moderate COPD was defined as stages 1 and 2, while severe and very severe COPD was defined as stages 3 and 4, according to the Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease guidelines. Clinical characteristics and echocardiographic parameters were analyzed and compared.
Compared with the control group, patients with COPD had a higher frequency of LV diastolic dysfunction and heart failure with preserved ejection fraction. Smoking frequency, frequency of cerebrovascular diseases and diabetes, and serum N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) levels were higher in the COPD group (all P<0.05). COPD patients showed more abnormalities in diastolic function (E/e′: 11.51±2.50 vs 10.42±3.25, P=0.047), but no differences in systolic function and right ventricular function (all P>0.05). Patients with severe/very severe COPD showed no differences in LV diastolic function compared to patients with mild/moderate COPD (P>0.05), but serum NT-proBNP levels were higher in severe/very severe COPD (P<0.05).
Results suggest that early-stage COPD may have an impact on the LV diastolic function. Severe COPD mainly affected right ventricular function. In hospitalized elderly patients with COPD, LV diastolic dysfunction should be taken into account together with right ventricular function.
PMCID: PMC4279668  PMID: 25565790
chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; heart failure; left ventricular diastolic dysfunction; elderly; echocardiography
10.  PiggyBac Mediated Multiplex Gene Transfer in Mouse Embryonic Stem Cell 
PLoS ONE  2014;9(12):e115072.
PiggyBac system has been shown to have a high efficiency to mediate gene transfer. However, there are no reports on its efficiency to mediate multiplex transgenes in mouse embryonic stem cells. Here we first established an immortalized feeder cell line by introducing four antibiotic resistance genes simultaneously into the original SNL 76/7 feeder cell line utilizing the PiggyBac system. This is the feeder cell line with the most diverse types of antibiotic resistance genes reported so far, which will enable researchers to perform simultaneous multiplex gene transfer or gene targeting experiments in ES cells. With such feeder cell line, we were able to quantitatively characterize the transposition efficiency of PiggyBac system in mouse ES cells using five transposons carrying different inducible fluorescence proteins and antibiotic resistance genes, and the efficiency ranged from about 2% for one transposon to 0.5% for five transposons. The highly efficient multiplex gene transfer mediated by PiggyBac will no doubt provide researchers with more choices in biomedical research and development.
PMCID: PMC4269400  PMID: 25517991
11.  Phase I Trial of Preoperative Chemoradiation Plus Sorafenib for High Risk Extremity Soft Tissue Sarcomas with Dynamic Contrast-Enhanced MRI Correlates 
We performed a phase I trial of the addition of sorafenib to a chemoradiotherapy regimen in patients with high-risk (intermediate/high grade, >5 cm) extremity soft tissue sarcoma (STS) undergoing limb salvage surgery. We conducted a correlative study of quantitative dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) to assess response to treatment.
Experimental Design
Patients were treated at increasing dose levels of sorafenib (200 mg daily, 400 mg daily, 400 mg BID) initiated 14 days prior to 3 preoperative and 3 postoperative cycles of epirubicin/ifosfamide. 28 Gy of radiation was administered during cycle 2 with epirubicin omitted. The primary objective was to determine the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) of sorafenib. DCE-MRI was performed at baseline, after 2 weeks of sorafenib, and prior to surgery. The imaging data were subjected to quantitative pharmacokinetic analyses.
18 subjects were enrolled, of which 16 were evaluable. The MTD of sorafenib was 400 mg daily. Common grade 3–4 adverse events included neutropenia (94%), hypophosphatemia (75%), anemia (69%), thrombocytopenia (50%), and neutropenic fever/infection (50%). 38% developed wound complications requiring surgical intervention. The rate of ≥95% histopathologic tumor necrosis was 44%. Changes in DCE-MRI biomarker ΔKtrans after 2 weeks sorafenib correlated with histologic response (R2=0.67, p = 0.012) at surgery.
The addition of sorafenib to preoperative chemoradiotherapy is feasible and warrants further investigation in a larger trial. DCE-MRI detected changes in tumor perfusion after 2 weeks of sorafenib and may be a minimally-invasive tool for rapid assessment of drug effect in STS.
PMCID: PMC3869565  PMID: 24132922
Sarcoma; Sorafenib; Chemotherapy; Radiation; MRI
12.  The Cardiopulmonary Effects of Ambient Air Pollution and Mechanistic Pathways: A Comparative Hierarchical Pathway Analysis 
PLoS ONE  2014;9(12):e114913.
Previous studies have investigated the associations between exposure to ambient air pollution and biomarkers of physiological pathways, yet little has been done on the comparison across biomarkers of different pathways to establish the temporal pattern of biological response. In the current study, we aim to compare the relative temporal patterns in responses of candidate pathways to different pollutants. Four biomarkers of pulmonary inflammation and oxidative stress, five biomarkers of systemic inflammation and oxidative stress, ten parameters of autonomic function, and three biomarkers of hemostasis were repeatedly measured in 125 young adults, along with daily concentrations of ambient CO, PM2.5, NO2, SO2, EC, OC, and sulfate, before, during, and after the Beijing Olympics. We used a two-stage modeling approach, including Stage I models to estimate the association between each biomarker and pollutant over each of 7 lags, and Stage II mixed-effect models to describe temporal patterns in the associations when grouping the biomarkers into the four physiological pathways. Our results show that candidate pathway groupings of biomarkers explained a significant amount of variation in the associations for each pollutant, and the temporal patterns of the biomarker-pollutant-lag associations varied across candidate pathways (p<0.0001) and were not linear (from lag 0 to lag 3: p = 0.0629, from lag 3 to lag 6: p = 0.0005). These findings suggest that, among this healthy young adult population, the pulmonary inflammation and oxidative stress pathway is the first to respond to ambient air pollution exposure (within 24 hours) and the hemostasis pathway responds gradually over a 2–3 day period. The initial pulmonary response may contribute to the more gradual systemic changes that likely ultimately involve the cardiovascular system.
PMCID: PMC4264846  PMID: 25502951
13.  Feasibility and efficacy of simultaneous integrated boost intensity-modulated radiation therapy in patients with limited-disease small cell lung cancer 
To evaluate the feasibility and efficacy of simultaneous integrated boost intensity-modulated radiation therapy (SIB-IMRT) in patients with limited-disease small-cell lung cancer (LD-SCLC).
Patients with LD-SCLC were treated with SIB-IMRT within 1 week after completion of 2 cycles of induction chemotherapy. Then 2-4 cycles of adjuvant chemotherapy were administered within 1 week after SIB-IMRT. Irradiation was given accelerated hyper-fractionated with the prescribed dose 57Gy at 1.9Gy twice daily to the gross tumor volume (GTV) , 51Gy at 1.7Gy twice daily to the clinical tumor volume (CTV) and 45Gy at 1.5Gy twice daily to the planning target volume (PTV). The chemotherapy regimen consisted of platinum plus etoposide. Prophylactic cranial radiation (25Gy in 10 fractions) was administered to patients who got complete response (CR) or near complete response (nCR). The primary endpoint of this study was the frequency of grade 3 or higher acute non-hematologic treatment-related toxicities. Secondary end points included objective response, overall survival (OS), progression-free survival (PFS), locoregional recurrence-free survival (LRFS).
A cohort of 35 patients were enrolled in the study, the biological equivalent dose (BED) of the GTV in the SIB-IMRT was 59.16Gy. Grade 1, 2, and 3 esophagitis were observed in 11 (31%), 12 (34%), and 6 (17%) patients, respectively; Grade 1 and 2 pneumonitis were observed in 8 (23%) and 4 (11%) patients, respectively. The median OS and PFS of the whole group were 37.7 months and 29.3 months, respectively. The 1- and 2-year OS was 94.1% and 68.5%, respectively. The 1- and 2-year PFS was 76.8% and 40.7%, respectively. The 1- and 2-year LRFS was 87.7% and 73.8%, respectively.
SIB-IMRT was feasible and well-tolerated in patients with LD-SCLC, and worth further evaluating in a large prospective clinical trial.
PMCID: PMC4269843  PMID: 25498196
Small-cell lung cancer; Lung neoplasms; Limited-stage; Simultaneous boost intensity-modulated radiotherapy; Outcome assessment
14.  Frequent Disruption of Chromodomain Helicase DNA-Binding Protein 8 (CHD8) and Functionally Associated Chromatin Regulators in Prostate Cancer 
Neoplasia (New York, N.Y.)  2014;16(12):1018-1027.
Abnormal expression and function of chromatin regulators results in the altered chromatin structure seen in cancer. The chromatin regulator CTCF, its cofactor CHD8, and antagonistic paralogue BORIS have wide-ranging effects on gene regulation. Their concurrent expression and regulation was examined in benign, localized, and metastatic prostate cancer (PCa) arrays with extended follow-up using an automated quantitative imaging system, VECTRA. Epithelial staining was quantified and compared against a range of clinicopathologic variables. CHD8 expression was decreased in HGPIN, localized, and metastatic PCa compared to benign (P < .001). CHD8 promoter hypermethylation, assessed by Quantitative Pyrosequencing, occurred in over 45% of primary cancers in this population as well as the TGCA database. Treatment of cell lines with the demethylating agent 5-Aza-2′-deoxycytidine reinduced expression. An interesting dichotomy for CHD8 was observed within primary cancers, with higher nuclear protein expression associated with adverse clinical outcomes including extracapsular extension (P = .007), presence of metastases (P = .025) and worse PSA-recurrence free survival (P = .048). CHD8 outperformed Gleason score and predicted biochemical failure within intermediate grade prostate cancers. The BORIS/CTCF expression ratio increased in localized (P = .03) and metastatic PCa (P = .006) and was associated with higher Gleason score (P = .02), increased tumor volume (P = .02) and positive margins (P = .04). Per cell heterogeneity of expression revealed all protein expression to be more heterogeneous in cancerous tissue (both P < .001), especially high grade (P < .01). In the first detailed analysis in cancer, a marked loss of CHD8 expression and increased BORIS/CTCF ratio indicate frequent disruption of CTCF and its effector genes in PCa.
PMCID: PMC4309256  PMID: 25499215
5-azadC, 5-Aza-2′deoxycytidine; BORIS, Brother of the regulator of imprinted sites/CTCFL; CTCF, CCCTC-binding factor; CHD8, Chromdomain helicase DNA-binding factor 8; HGPIN, High-grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia; Prostate cancer, PCa; PSA, Prostate specific antigen; SI, Simpson's Index; TSS, Transcription start site
16.  Blood Coagulation Parameters and Platelet Indices: Changes in Normal and Preeclamptic Pregnancies and Predictive Values for Preeclampsia 
PLoS ONE  2014;9(12):e114488.
Preeclampsia (PE) is an obstetric disorder with high morbidity and mortality rates but without clear pathogeny. The dysfunction of the blood coagulation-fibrinolysis system is a salient characteristic of PE that varies in severity, and necessitates different treatments. Therefore, it is necessary to find suitable predictors for the onset and severity of PE.
We aimed to evaluate blood coagulation parameters and platelet indices as potential predictors for the onset and severity of PE.
Blood samples from 3 groups of subjects, normal pregnant women (n = 79), mild preeclampsia (mPE) (n = 53) and severe preeclampsia (sPE) (n = 42), were collected during early and late pregnancy. The levels of coagulative parameters and platelet indices were measured and compared among the groups. The receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curves of these indices were generated, and the area under the curve (AUC) was calculated. The predictive values of the selected potential parameters were examined in binary regression analysis.
During late pregnancy in the normal pregnancy group, the activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT), prothrombin time (PT), thrombin time (TT) and platelet count decreased, while the fibrinogen level and mean platelet volume (MPV) increased compared to early pregnancy (p<0.05). However, the PE patients presented with increased APTT, TT, MPV and D-dimer (DD) during the third trimester. In the analysis of subjects with and without PE, TT showed the largest AUC (0.743) and high predictive value. In PE patients with different severities, MPV showed the largest AUC (0.671) and ideal predictive efficiency.
Normal pregnancy causes a maternal physiological hypercoagulable state in late pregnancy. PE may trigger complex disorders in the endogenous coagulative pathways and consume platelets and FIB, subsequently activating thrombopoiesis and fibrinolysis. Thrombin time and MPV may serve as early monitoring markers for the onset and severity of PE, respectively.
PMCID: PMC4252147  PMID: 25464515
17.  Evaluation of biomechanical properties of anterior atlantoaxial transarticular locking plate system using three-dimensional finite element analysis 
European Spine Journal  2013;22(12):2686-2694.
To evaluate a new anterior atlantoaxial transarticular locking plate system using finite element analysis.
Thin-section spiral computed tomography was performed from occiput to C2 region. A finite element model of an unstable atlantoaxial joint, treated with an anterior atlantoaxial transarticular locking plate system, was compared with the simple anterior atlantoaxial transarticular screw system. Flexion, extension, lateral bending, and axial rotation were imposed on the model. Displacement of the atlantoaxial transarticular screw and stress at the screw–bone interface were observed for the two internal fixation systems.
Screw displacement was less using the anterior atlantoaxial transarticular locking plate system compared to simple anterior atlantoaxial transarticular screw fixation under various conditions, and stability increased especially during flexion and extension.
The anterior atlantoaxial transarticular locking plate system not only provided stronger fixation, but also decreased screw-bearing stress and screw–bone interface stress compared to simple anterior atlantoaxial transarticular screw fixation.
PMCID: PMC3843803  PMID: 23821221
Atlantoaxial fusion; Anterolateral retropharyngeal approach; Biomechanics; Finite element analysis
18.  Characterization of Chondrocyte Scaffold Carriers for Cell-based Gene Therapy in Articular Cartilage Repair 
Articular cartilage lesions in the knee are common injuries. Chondrocyte transplant represents a promising therapeutic modality for articular cartilage injuries. Here, we characterize the viability and transgene expression of articular chondrocytes cultured in 3-D scaffolds provided by four types of carriers. Articular chondrocytes are isolated from rabbit knees and cultured in four types of scaffolds: type I collagen sponge, fibrin glue, hyaluronan, and Open-cell PolyLactic Acid (OPLA). The cultured cells are transduced with adenovirus expressing green fluorescence protein (AdGFP) and luciferase (AdGL3-Luc). The viability and gene expression in the chondrocytes are determined with fluorescence microscopy and luciferase assay. Cartilage matrix production is assessed by Alcian blue staining. Rabbit articular chondrocytes are effectively infected by AdGFP and exhibited sustained GFP expression. All tested scaffolds support the survival and gene expression of the infected chondrocytes. However, the highest transgene expression is observed in the OPLA carrier. At four weeks, Alcian blue-positive matrix materials are readily detected in OPLA cultures. Thus, our results indicate that, while all tested carriers can support the survival of chondrocytes, OPLA supports the highest transgene expression and is the most conductive scaffold for matrix production, suggesting that OPLA may be a suitable scaffold for cell-based gene therapy of articular cartilage repairs.
PMCID: PMC4056444  PMID: 23629940
Articular cartilage; autologous chondrocyte implantation; chondrocyte; ex vivo gene therapy; Open-cell PolyLactic Acid (OPLA); scaffold carrier
19.  Effects of Pyridoxine on Growth Performance and Plasma Aminotransferases and Homocysteine of White Pekin Ducks 
A dose-response experiment with seven supplemental pyridoxine levels (0, 0.66, 1.32, 1.98, 2.64, 3.30, and 3.96 mg/kg) was conducted to investigate the effects of pyridoxine on growth performance and plasma aminotransferases and homocysteine of White Pekin ducks and to estimate pyridoxine requirement for these birds. A total of 336 one-day-old male White Pekin ducks were divided to 7 experimental treatments and each treatment contained 8 replicate pens with 6 birds per pen. Ducks were reared in raised wire-floor pens from hatch to 28 d of age. At 28 d of age, the weight gain, feed intake, feed/gain, and the aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, and homocysteine in plasma of ducks from each pen were all measured. In our study, the pyridoxine deficiency of ducks was characterized by growth depression, decreasing plasma aspartate aminotransferase activity and increasing plasma homocysteine. The ducks fed vitamin B6-deficient basal diets had the worst weight gain and feed/gain among all birds and this growth depression was alleviated (p<0.05) when pyridoxine was supplemented to basal diets. On the other hand, plasma aspartate aminotransferase and homocysteine may be the sensitive indicators for vitamin B6 status of ducks. The ducks fed basal diets had much lower aspartate aminotransferase activity and higher homocysteine level in plasma compared with other birds fed pyridoxine-supplemented diets (p<0.05). According to quadratic regression, the supplemental pyridoxine requirements of Pekin ducks from hatch to 28 days of age was 2.44 mg/kg for feed/gain and 2.08 mg/kg for plasma aspartate aminotransferase and the corresponding total requirements of this vitamin for these two criteria were 4.37 and 4.01 mg/kg when the pyridoxine concentration of basal diets was included, respectively. All data suggested that pyridoxine deficiency could cause growth retardation in ducks and the deficiency of this vitamin could be indicated by decreasing plasma aspartate aminotransferase activity and increasing plasma homocysteine.
PMCID: PMC4213686  PMID: 25358368
Duck; Pyridoxine; Vitamin; Aminotransferase; Homocysteine
20.  Suicide Gene-Mediated Sequencing Ablation Revealed the Potential Therapeutic Mechanism of Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell-Derived Cardiovascular Cell Patch Post-Myocardial Infarction 
Antioxidants & Redox Signaling  2014;21(16):2177-2191.
Aims: This study is designed to assess the protective cardiac effects after myocardial infarction (MI) of (i) cardiovascular progenitor cells (PC) differentiated directly into cardiomyocytes (CM) and endothelial cells (ECs) at the injury site, as separable from the effects of (ii) paracrine factors released from PC. Results: In vivo: bi-cell patch containing induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC)-derived CM and EC (BIC) was transplanted onto the infarcted heart. BIC were transduced with herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase “suicide” gene driven by cardiac NCX1 or endothelial vascular endothelium-cadherin promoter. IGF-1α and VEGF levels released from ischemic tissues were significantly enhanced in the BIC patch treatment group. Heart function, infarction size, and vessel density were significantly improved after BIC patch treatment. These effects were completely abolished in the group given ganciclovir (GCV) at week 1 as a suicide gene activator, and partially abolished in the group given GCV at week 3 as compared with the untreated cell patch group. Innovation: This study was designed to distinguish between cell-based and noncell-based therapeutic effects of PC lineages after MI. PCs derived from iPSC were genetically modified to express “suicide” gene. iPSC-derived CM and EC were then ablated in situ at week 1 and 3 by intraperitoneal administration of GCV. This enabled direct assessment of the effects of iPSC transplantation on myocardial function and tissue regeneration potential. Conclusions: Data support a mechanism in which iPSC-derived cardiovascular lineages contribute directly to improved cardiac performance and attenuated remodeling. Paracrine factors provide additional support to the restoration of heart function. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 21, 2177–2191.
PMCID: PMC4224058  PMID: 24787391
21.  Placenta growth factor promotes migration through regulating epithelial-mesenchymal transition-related protein expression in cervical cancer 
Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) plays an important role in cancer invasion and metastasis by enabling cancer cells to depart from the primary tumor, invade surrounding tissue and disseminate to distant organs. The existence and function of EMT in cervical cancer is poorly understood. Placental growth factor (PLGF) has been shown to associate with EMT in various cancers. However, whether PLGF is involved in EMT in cervical cancer remains unclear. Thus the present study examined the relationship between PLGF expression and EMT-related proteins in 110 cervical lesions samples. We detected that PLGF was expressed in 61.8% cervical lesion sections. In addition, PLGF expression is positively correlated with low expression level of E-cadherin and high expression level of vimentin. Serum samples and cervical lavage samples were collected from patients with pre-invasive and invasive lesion of uterine cervix or normal control group, the PLGF levels were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). We found that a significantly high level of PLGF could be detected both in serum and vaginal lavage compared with normal women group, and there is no significant difference between serum and lavage in PLGF level. In addition, whatever in lavage or in serum, the PLGF level in stage I and II was significantly higher than it in CINIII or cancer in situ. However, there is no significant difference between the stage I and stage II; we also found that exogenous PLGF promotes molecular changes of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in siha cells. In addition, application of a specific EKR1/2 inhibitor could reverse the effects of PLGF. These findings suggested that PLGF could regulate the expression of EMT-related proteins and promote migration of siha cells through ERK/MAPK signaling pathway. Therapies that targets PLGF/Flt-1/ERK/MAPK signaling pathway may be beneficial in treatment of cervical cancer.
PMCID: PMC4314041
Placenta growth factor (PLGF); epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT); cervical cancer
22.  Searching the Cytochrome P450 Enzymes for the Metabolism of Meranzin Hydrate: A Prospective Antidepressant Originating from Chaihu-Shugan-San 
PLoS ONE  2014;9(11):e113819.
Meranzin hydrate (MH), an absorbed bioactive compound from the Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) Chaihu-Shugan-San (CSS), was first isolated in our laboratory and was found to possess anti-depression activity. However, the role of cytochrome P450s (CYPs) in the metabolism of MH was unclear. In this study, we screened the CYPs for the metabolism of MH in vitro by human liver microsomes (HLMs) or human recombinant CYPs. MH inhibited the enzyme activities of CYP1A2 and CYP2C19 in a concentration-dependent manner in the HLMs. The Km and Vmax values of MH were 10.3±1.3 µM and 99.1±3.3 nmol/mg protein/min, respectively, for the HLMs; 8.0±1.6 µM and 112.4±5.7 nmol/nmol P450/min, respectively, for CYP1A2; and 25.9±6.6 µM and 134.3±12.4 nmol/nmol P450/min, respectively, for CYP2C19. Other human CYP isoforms including CYP2A6, CYP2C9, CYP2D6, CYP2E1 and CYP3A4 showed minimal or no effect on MH metabolism. The results suggested that MH was simultaneously a substrate and an inhibitor of CYP1A2 and CYP2C9, and MH had the potential to perpetrate drug-drug interactions with other CYP1A2 and CYP2C19 substrates.
PMCID: PMC4245237  PMID: 25427198
23.  Phase-controlled synthesis of α-NiS nanoparticles confined in carbon nanorods for High Performance Supercapacitors 
Scientific Reports  2014;4:7054.
A facile and phase-controlled synthesis of α-NiS nanoparticles (NPs) embedded in carbon nanorods (CRs) is reported by in-situ sulfurating the preformed Ni/CRs. The nanopore confinement by the carbon matrix is essential for the formation of α-NiS and preventing its transition to β-phase, which is in strong contrast to large aggregated β-NiS particles grown freely without the confinement of CRs. When used as electrochemical electrode, the hybrid electrochemical charge storage of the ultrasmall α-NiS nanoparticels dispersed in CRs is benefit for the high capacitor (1092, 946, 835, 740 F g−1 at current densities of 1, 2, 5, 10 A g−1, respectively.). While the high electrochemical stability (approximately 100% retention of specific capacitance after 2000 charge/discharge cycles) is attributed to the supercapacitor-battery electrode, which makes synergistic effect of capacitor (CRs) and battery (NiS NPs) components rather than a merely additive composite. This work not only suggests a general approach for phase-controlled synthesis of nickel sulfide but also opens the door to the rational design and fabrication of novel nickel-based/carbon hybrid supercapacitor-battery electrode materials.
PMCID: PMC4231331  PMID: 25394517
24.  Intratumor mapping of intracellular water lifetime: metabolic images of breast cancer? 
Nmr in Biomedicine  2014;27(7):760-773.
Shutter-speed pharmacokinetic analysis of dynamic-contrast-enhanced (DCE)-MRI data allows evaluation of equilibrium inter-compartmental water interchange kinetics. The process measured here – transcytolemmal water exchange – is characterized by the mean intracellular water molecule lifetime (τi). The τi biomarker is a true intensive property not accessible by any formulation of the tracer pharmacokinetic paradigm, which inherently assumes it is effectively zero when applied to DCE-MRI. We present population-averaged in vivo human breast whole tumor τi changes induced by therapy, along with those of other pharmacokinetic parameters. In responding patients, the DCE parameters change significantly after only one neoadjuvant chemotherapy cycle: while Ktrans (measuring mostly contrast agent (CA) extravasation) and kep (CA intravasation rate constant) decrease, τi increases. However, high-resolution, (1 mm)2, parametric maps exhibit significant intratumor heterogeneity, which is lost by averaging. A typical 400 ms τi value means a trans-membrane water cycling flux of 1013 H2O molecules s−1/cell for a 12 µm diameter cell. Analyses of intratumor variations (and therapy-induced changes) of τi in combination with concomitant changes of ve (extracellular volume fraction) indicate that the former are dominated by alterations of the equilibrium cell membrane water permeability coefficient, PW, not of cell size. These can be interpreted in light of literature results showing that τi changes are dominated by a PW(active) component that reciprocally reflects the membrane driving P-type ATPase ion pump turnover. For mammalian cells, this is the Na+,K+-ATPase pump. These results promise the potential to discriminate metabolic and microenvironmental states of regions within tumors in vivo, and their changes with therapy.
PMCID: PMC4174415  PMID: 24798066
maps; intratumor; heterogeneity; metabolic activity; therapy
25.  Using the Epigenetic Field Defect to Detect Prostate Cancer in Biopsy Negative Patients 
The Journal of urology  2012;189(6):2335-2341.
We determined whether a novel combination of field defect DNA methylation markers could predict the presence of prostate cancer using histologically normal transrectal ultrasound guided biopsy cores.
Materials and Methods
Methylation was assessed using quantitative Pyrosequencing® in a training set consisting of 65 nontumor and tumor associated prostate tissues from University of Wisconsin. A multiplex model was generated using multivariate logistic regression and externally validated in blinded fashion in a set of 47 nontumor and tumor associated biopsy specimens from University of Washington.
We observed robust methylation differences in all genes at all CpGs assayed (p <0.0001). Regression models incorporating individual genes (EVX1, CAV1 and FGF1) and a gene combination (EVX1 and FGF1) discriminated nontumor from tumor associated tissues in the original training set (AUC 0.796-0.898, p <0.001). On external validation uniplex models incorporating EVX1, CAV1 or FGF1 discriminated tumor from nontumor associated biopsy negative specimens (AUC 0.702, 0.696 and 0.658, respectively, p <0.05). A multiplex model (EVX1 and FGF1) identified patients with prostate cancer (AUC 0.774, p = 0.001) and had a negative predictive value of 0.909. Comparison between 2 separate cores in patients in this validation set revealed similar methylation defects, indicating detection of a widespread field defect.
A widespread epigenetic field defect can be used to detect prostate cancer in patients with histologically negative biopsies. To our knowledge this assay is unique, in that it detects alterations in nontumor cells. With further validation this marker combination (EVX1 and FGF1) has the potential to decrease the need for repeat prostate biopsies, a procedure associated with cost and complications.
PMCID: PMC4226217  PMID: 23159584
prostate; prostatic neoplasms; epigenomics; biopsy; diagnosis

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