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author:("Yang, zipping")
1.  Thrombin based gelatin matrix and fibrin sealant mediated clot formation in the presence of clopidogrel 
Thrombosis Journal  2014;12:10.
Background
Platelet inhibitors are commonly used to reduce the risk of atherothrombotic events. The aim of this study was to determine the impact of platelet inhibitors, specifically clopidogrel and aspirin, on clot kinetics, strength, and/or structure during the use of thrombin based gelatin matrices and fibrin sealants.
Methods
Blood was collected and heparinized from donors on clopidogrel (and aspirin) and age matched control donors. Blood component analysis, whole blood platelet aggregometry, and activated clotting time (ACT) were used to monitor compliance to therapy and identify any differences between donor groups. Clot kinetics and strength were analyzed using thrombelastography (TEG). Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FESEM) was used to analyze clot structure.
Results
Blood component profiles were similar for both donor groups. Aggregometry indicated that aggregation response to adenosine diphosphate (ADP) for clopidogrel donors was 12% of that for the controls (p = 0.0021), an expected result of clopidogrel induced platelet inhibition. However, blood from both donor groups had an elevated thrombin induced aggregation response. Heparinization of donor blood resulted in similarly elevated ACTs for both donor groups. TEG results indicated similar clot kinetics and strength between clopidogrel and control donor groups for blood alone and when clotting was induced using thrombin based gelatin matrices and fibrin sealants. FESEM images supported TEG findings in that similar morphologies were observed in ex vivo formed clots from both donor groups when thrombin based gelatin matrices and fibrin sealants were used.
Conclusion
These results suggest that platelet inhibitors do not negatively impact clot kinetics, strength, and structure when clotting is initiated with thrombin based gelatin matrices and fibrin sealants.
doi:10.1186/1477-9560-12-10
PMCID: PMC4041347  PMID: 24891841
Floseal; Tisseel; Clopidogrel; Thrombelastography; Thrombin; Hemostasis
2.  A Novel Human Multidrug Resistance Gene MDR1 Variant G571A (G191R) Modulates Cancer Drug Resistance and Efflux Transport 
The human multidrug resistance gene MDR1 encodes a membrane-bound transporter P-glycoprotein (Pgp) that confers the drug resistance of cancer cells by mediating an ATP-dependent drug efflux transport. We and others have reported a number of functionally significant MDR1 variants, including G1199A and G1199T, that modulate cancer drug resistance and intracellular levels of antivirals. In this report, we describe a novel G571A variant of MDR1 detected in 6.4% of leukemia patients. Because this nucleotide modification gives rise to an amino acid change from Gly to Arg at the 191 amino acid position of Pgp, we have developed and characterized the functional affect of the G571A variant in stable, recombinant cells. Using six chemotherapeutic drugs, doxorubicin HCl, daunorubicin HCl, vinblastine sulfate, vincristine sulfate, taxanes (paclitaxel), and epipodophyllotoxin (etoposide, VP-16), we found that the MDR1571A variant selectively reduced the degree of Pgp-mediated resistance in drug-dependent manner. Although there was a minimal effect on doxorubicin and daunorubicin, the MDR1-dependent resistance on vinblastine, vincristine, paclitaxel, and etoposide was reduced by approximately 5-fold. The increased drug sensitivity in MDR1571A, compared with MDR1wt, paralleled the intracellular drug levels. These data suggest that individuals with this novel MDR1 variant, the 571A genotype, may be more sensitive to the specific anticancer drugs that are Pgp substrates.
doi:10.1124/jpet.108.138313
PMCID: PMC3477805  PMID: 18723777
3.  A Novel MDR1 GT1292-3TG (Cys431Leu) Genetic Variation and Its Effect on P-glycoprotein Biologic Functions 
The AAPS Journal  2010;12(4):548-555.
P-glycoprotein (P-gp) is a membrane-bound transporter protein that is encoded by the human multidrug resistance gene MDR1 (ABCB1). P-gp recognizes a wide range of xenobiotics, is pivotal in mediating cancer drug resistance, and plays an important role in limiting drug penetration across the blood–brain barrier. MDR1 genetic variation can lead to changes in P-gp function and may have implications on drug pharmacokinetics. We have identified a novel MDR1GT1292-3TG (Cys431Leu) genetic variation through systematic profiling of subjects with leukemia. The cellular and transport function of this variation was investigated with recombinant human embryonic kidney cells expressing MDR1. Compared with the wild type, MDR1GT1292-3TG recombinant cells exhibited a lower drug resistance phenotype for a panel of chemotherapeutic agents. When compared with wild type, MDR1GT1292-3TG recombinant cells exposed exhibited a 75% decrease in IC50 for doxorubicin (162.6 ± 17.4 to 37.9 ± 2.6 nM) and a 50% decrease in IC50 for paclitaxel (155.7 ± 27.5 to 87.7 ± 9.2 nM), vinblastine (128.0 ± 15.9 to 65.9 ± 5.1 nM), and vincristine (593.7 ± 61.8 to 307.3 ± 17.0 nM). The effects of the Cys431Leu variation, due to MDR1GT1292-3TG nucleotide transition, on P-gp-dependent intracellular substrate accumulation appeared to be substrate dependent where doxorubicin, vinblastine, and paclitaxel exhibit an increased accumulation (p < 0.05), while verapamil and Hoechst33342 exhibit a decreased intracellular concentration compared with wild type (p < 0.05). Collectively, these data suggest MDR1GT1292-3TG variation of P-gp may reduce drug resistance and that subjects with this genotype undergoing chemotherapy with drugs that are transported by P-gp could potentially be more responsive to therapy than those with MDR1 wild-type genotype.
doi:10.1208/s12248-010-9216-y
PMCID: PMC2976996  PMID: 20623213
ABC transporter; drug resistance; genetic variation; MDR1; P-glycoprotein; polymorphism; transporter
4.  Effects of Garlic on Cytochromes P450 2C9- and 3A4-Mediated Drug Metabolism in Human Hepatocytes 
Scientia pharmaceutica  2010;78(3):473-481.
Several reports suggest garlic supplements may inhibit the metabolism of cytochrome P450 (CYP) 2C9 and CYP3A4 substrates, such as warfarin and saquinavir. To characterize the effects of garlic extract on CYP2C9 and CYP3A4 enzyme activity immortalized human hepatocytes (Fa2N-4 cells) were exposed to garlic extract (0–200 μg/mL). CYP2C9 and CYP3A4 enzyme activities were evaluated in parallel with enzymatic activities, expression of respective RNA transcripts was also assessed.
Exposure to increasing concentrations of garlic extract led to progressive reduction in Fa2N-4 CYP2C9 activity as detected by diclofenac hydroxylation. CYP2C9 mRNA expression also revealed a concentration-dependent reduction. Greater than 90% reduction in CYP2C9 activity was observed following four days of exposure to 50 μg/mL garlic extract. In contrast, exposure to garlic extract had no effect on the CYP3A4 enzymatic activity or RNA transcript concentration in Fa2N-4. Therefore, suppression of CYP2C9 expression and activity is a heretofore unrecognized mechanism by which garlic extract may modulate CYP activity. Exposure of hepatocytes to garlic extract may reduce the expression and activity of CYP2C9 with no detectible effects on CYP3A4.
doi:10.3797/scipharm.1002-11
PMCID: PMC2951329  PMID: 20936048
Garlic; Cytochrome P450 2C9; Drug Interactions
5.  Effects of Garlic on Cytochromes P450 2C9- and 3A4-Mediated Drug Metabolism in Human Hepatocytes 
Scientia Pharmaceutica  2010;78(3):473-481.
Several reports suggest garlic supplements may inhibit the metabolism of cytochrome P450 (CYP) 2C9 and CYP3A4 substrates, such as warfarin and saquinavir. To characterize the effects of garlic extract on CYP2C9 and CYP3A4 enzyme activity immortalized human hepatocytes (Fa2N-4 cells) were exposed to garlic extract (0–200 μg/mL). CYP2C9 and CYP3A4 enzyme activities were evaluated in parallel with enzymatic activities, expression of respective RNA transcripts was also assessed.
Exposure to increasing concentrations of garlic extract led to progressive reduction in Fa2N-4 CYP2C9 activity as detected by diclofenac hydroxylation. CYP2C9 mRNA expression also revealed a concentration-dependent reduction. Greater than 90% reduction in CYP2C9 activity was observed following four days of exposure to 50 μg/mL garlic extract. In contrast, exposure to garlic extract had no effect on the CYP3A4 enzymatic activity or RNA transcript concentration in Fa2N-4. Therefore, suppression of CYP2C9 expression and activity is a heretofore unrecognized mechanism by which garlic extract may modulate CYP activity. Exposure of hepatocytes to garlic extract may reduce the expression and activity of CYP2C9 with no detectible effects on CYP3A4.
doi:10.3797/scipharm.1002-11
PMCID: PMC2951329  PMID: 20936048
Garlic; Cytochrome P450 2C9; Drug Interactions
6.  Development and characterization of a recombinant madin-darby canine kidney cell line that expresses rat multidrug resistance-associated protein 1 (rMRP1) 
AAPS PharmSci  2004;6(1):77-85.
Multidrug resistance-associated protein 1 (MRP1) is one of the major proteins shown to mediate efflux transport of a broad range of antitumor drugs, glucuronide conjugates, and glutathione, in addition to endogenous substrates. Significant differences in substrate selectivity were reported for murine and human MRP1. As preclinical drug disposition and pharmacokinetics studies are often conducted in rats, we have recently cloned the rat MRP1 (rMRP1) and demonstrated that rMRP1 expressed in transfected cells effluxes calcein, a commonly used fluorescence substrate for human MRP1. To further characterize the rat ortholog of MRP1, we isolated a cell line stably expressing recombinant rMRP1. These cells were tested for their ability to transport calcein and a range of chemotherapeutic drugs. Our results showed that cells expressing rMRP1 consistently efflux calcein at a rate 5-fold greater than control cells. The rMRP1 transfected cells, like their human ortholog, can confer drug resistance to vinca alkaloid (vinblastine and vincristine) and anthracycline drugs (daunorubcin and doxorubicin), and the resistance conferred by the MRP1 can be partially abolished by the MRP-specific inhibitors. The transepithelial permeability due to rMRP1 expression in differentiated Madin-Darby canine kidney cells (MDCK) cells was also investigated. The MRP1 transport activity is directional, as demonstrated by directional vinblastine transport. Collectively, our results demonstrate that the cellular expression of rMRP1, like its human ortholog, could confer resistance to anticancer drugs.
doi:10.1208/ps060108
PMCID: PMC2750943  PMID: 18465260
rat; MRP1; drug resistance; chemotherapeutic agents; cytotoxicity; transport; ATP-binding cassette; transwell
7.  Cloning and characterization of the rat multidrug resistance-associated protein 1 
AAPS PharmSci  2002;4(3):31-37.
Multidrug resistance-associated protein 1 (MRP1) was originally shown to confer resistance of human tumor cells to a broad range of natural product anticancer drugs. MRP1 has also been shown to mediate efflux transport of glutathione and glucuronide conjugates of drugs and endogenous substrates. An ortholog of MRP1 in the mouse has been cloned and characterized. Significant functional differences between murine and human MRP1 have been noted. Since drug disposition and pharmacology studies often are conducted in rats, there is a need to clone and characterize the rat ortholog of MRP1. We isolated a rat MRP1 (rMRP1) cDNA from rat brain astrocytes, characterized its coding sequences, and verified the transport activity of the protein expressed in MRP1 cDNA-transfected Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells. Our results showed that rMRP1 has a coding sequence of 4599 bp, which predicts a polypeptide of 1533 amino acids with an apparent molecular weight of 190 kd by Western immunoblot analysis. rMRP1-transfected MDCK cells are capable of efflux transport of a fluorescent MRP1 marker-calcein-that is inhibitable by known MRP1 inhibitors, indomethacin, and MK571. Sequence analysis indicates that rMRP1 is more closely related to mouse MRP1 than human MRP1.
doi:10.1208/ps040315
PMCID: PMC2751354  PMID: 12423064
multidrug resistance gene; ABC transporter; MRP1; cloning; functional characterization
8.  Human CD46 Enhances Nitric Oxide Production in Mouse Macrophages in Response to Measles Virus Infection in the Presence of Gamma Interferon: Dependence on the CD46 Cytoplasmic Domains 
Journal of Virology  1999;73(6):4776-4785.
CD46 is a transmembrane complement regulatory protein widely expressed on nucleated human cells. Laboratory-adapted strains of measles virus (MV) bind to the extracellular domains of CD46 to enter human cells. The cytoplasmic portion of CD46 consists of a common juxtamembrane region and different distal sequences called Cyt1 and Cyt2. The biological functions of these cytoplasmic sequences are unknown. In this study, we show that expression of human CD46 with the Cyt1 cytoplasmic domain in mouse macrophages enhances production of nitric oxide (NO) in response to MV infection in the presence of gamma interferon (IFN-γ). Human CD46 does not increase the basal levels of NO production in mouse macrophages and does not augment NO production induced by double-stranded polyribonucleotides. Replacing the cytoplasmic domain of human CD46 with Cyt2 reduces MV and IFN-γ-induced NO production in mouse macrophages. Deleting the entire cytoplasmic domains of human CD46 does not prevent MV infection but markedly attenuates NO production in response to MV and IFN-γ. Mouse macrophages expressing a tailless human CD46 mutant are more susceptible to MV infection and produce 2 to 3 orders of magnitude more infectious virus than mouse macrophages expressing human CD46 with intact cytoplasmic domains. These results reveal a novel function of CD46 dependent on the cytoplasmic domains (especially Cyt1), which augments NO production in macrophages. These findings may have significant implications for roles of CD46 in innate immunity and MV pathogenesis.
PMCID: PMC112520  PMID: 10233938

Results 1-8 (8)