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1.  Carry-Over of Aflatoxin B1 to Aflatoxin M1 in High Yielding Israeli Cows in Mid- and Late-Lactation 
Toxins  2013;5(1):173-183.
The potent hepatotoxin and carcinogen aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) is a common mycotoxin contaminant of grains used in animal feeds. Aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) is the major metabolite of AFB1 in mammals, being partially excreted into milk, and is a possible human carcinogen. The maximum permitted concentration of AFM1 in cows’ milk is 0.05 μg/kg in Israel and the European Union. Since milk yield and the carry-over of AFB1 in the feed to AFM1 in the milk are highly correlated, it was considered important to determine the AFM1 carry-over in Israeli-Holstein dairy cows, distinguished by world record high milk production. Twelve such cows were used to determine AFM1 carry-over following daily oral administration of feed containing ~86 μg AFB1 for 7 days. The mean carry-over rate at steady-state (Days 3–7) was 5.8% and 2.5% in mid-lactation and late-lactation groups, respectively. The carry-over appears to increase exponentially with milk yield and could be described by the equation: carry-over% = 0.5154 e0.0521 × milk yield, with r2 = 0.6224. If these data truly reflect the carry-over in the national Israeli dairy herd, the maximum level of AFB1 in feed should not exceed 1.4 μg/kg, a value 3.6 times lower than the maximum residue level currently applied in Israel.
PMCID: PMC3564076  PMID: 23325299
aflatoxin B1; aflatoxin M1; carry-over; Israeli-Holstein cows
2.  Challenges and issues in veterinary pharmacology and animal health 2004—Preface 
The AAPS Journal  2005;7(2):E266-E271.
PMCID: PMC2750963  PMID: 16353907
3.  Introduction: A welcome to the first special animal health issue of AAPS PharmSci 
AAPS PharmSci  2002;4(4):189-192.
The goal of this special volume is to provide veterinary scientists with state-of-the art reviews in animal health and to inform human health scientists of the various challenges and collaborative opportunities associated with their animal health counterparts. The contributors are highly respected experts, providing invaluable insights into current issues and state-of-the-art advances within veterinary medicine.
PMCID: PMC2751328  PMID: 12647740
Veterinary medicine; harmonization
4.  Pharmacokinetics of Gentamicin C1, C1a, and C2 in Beagles after a Single Intravenous Dose 
The pharmacokinetics of gentamicin C1, C2, and C1a were studied in six beagles after administration of gentamicin at 4 mg/kg of body weight as a single intravenous bolus dose. Plasma concentrations of the gentamicin components were analyzed with a novel high-performance liquid chromatography method capable of identifying and quantifying each of the components. The pharmacokinetic analysis of the plasma concentration-versus-time data was performed using the noncompartmental approach. The results indicated significant differences in the pharmacokinetic characteristics between the gentamicin components C1, C1a, and C2. The mean residence times of gentamicin C1, C1a, and C2 were 81 ± 13, 84 ± 12, and 79 ± 13 min (mean ± standard deviation), respectively. The half-lives of the respective components were 64 ± 12, 66 ± 12 and 63 ± 12 min. Clearance (CL) of gentamicin C1, 4.62 ± 0.71 ml min−1 kg−1, was significantly higher (P = 0.0156) than CL of gentamicin C1a, 1.81 ± 0.26 ml min−1 kg−1, and C2, 1.82 ± 0.25 ml min−1 kg−1. Similarly, the volume of distribution at steady state (Vss) of gentamicin C1, 0.36 ± 0.04 liter kg−1, was significantly higher (P = 0.0156) than the Vss of gentamicin C1a, 0.14 ± 0.01 liter kg−1, and C2, 0.15 ± 0.02 liter kg−1. Tissue binding was considered the most likely cause for the difference. The difference may have clinical and toxicological significance.
PMCID: PMC89894  PMID: 10817690

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