Our aim was to determine if (1) Hybrid Capture 2 and a PCR-based method were comparable for detection of high-risk HPVs, (2) clinician-collected and self-collected samples were equally efficient to detect HPV and cervical cancer precursor lesions and (3) if participation rates improved with home-based vs. clinic-based self collection.
Samples were selected from women participating in a cervical cancer screening study according to human papillomavirus (HPV), visual inspection with acetic acid (VIA), or Pap smear screening results. From 432 of 892 selected women, split sample aliquots were tested for HPV DNA using both the Hybrid Capture 2 assay and the Roche prototype line blot assay. Women from a subset of villages were recruited at two separate time points for clinic-based self-collection and home-based self-collection, and participation rates were compared.
Pairwise agreement between self- and clinician-collected samples was high by both hc2 (90.8% agreement, kappa=0.7) and PCR (92.6% agreement, kappa=0.8), with significantly increased high-risk HPV detection in clinician-collected specimens (McNemar's p<0.01). Ability to detect precursor lesions was highest by PCR testing of clinician-collected samples and lowest by Hybrid Capture 2 testing of self-collected samples (11/11 and 9/11 cases of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 2/3 and cancer detected, respectively). Participation in home-based screening was significantly higher than clinic-based screening (71.5% and 53.8%, respectively; p<0.001) among women 30-45 years old.
The combination of improved screening coverage and a high single test sensitivity afforded by HPV DNA testing of home-based self-collected swabs may have a greater programmatic impact on cervical cancer mortality reduction compared to programs requiring a pelvic exam.
Proteolytic enzymes play central role in the biochemical mechanism of germination and intricately involved in many aspects of plant physiology and development. To study the mechanism of protein mobilization, undertaken the task of purifying and characterizing proteases, which occur transiently in germinating seeds of horse gram.
Cysteine protease (CPRHG) was purified to homogeneity with 118 fold by four step procedure comprising Crude extract, (NH4)2SO4 fractionation, DEAE-Cellulose and CM-sephacel chromatography from the 2 day germinating cotyledons of horse gram (Macrotyloma uniflorum (Lam.) Verdc.). CPRHG is a monomer with molecular mass of 30 k Da, was determined by SDS-PAGE and gel filtration. The purified enzyme on IEF showed two isoforms having pI values of 5.85 and 6.1. CPRHG composed of high content of aspartic acid, glutamic acid and serine. The enzyme activity was completely inhibited by pCMB, iodoacetate and DEPC indicating cysteine and histidine residues at the active site. However, on addition of sulfhydryl reagents (cysteine, dithiothreitol, glutathione and beta-ME) reverse the strong inhibition by pCMB. The enzyme is fairly stable toward pH and temperature. Immunoblot analysis shows that the enzyme synthesized as zymogen (preproenzyme with 81 kDa) and processed to a 40 kDa proenzyme which was further degraded to give 30 kDa active enzyme.
It appears that the newly synthesized protease is inactive, and activation takes place during germination. CPRHG has a broad substrate specificity and stability in pH, temperature, etc. therefore, this protease may turn out to be an efficient choice for the pharmaceutical, medicinal, food, and biotechnology industry.
A patient of severe chronic renal failure presented with hyperkalemic electrocardiographic (ECG) changes and hyperkalemia. Following a session of hemodialysis, when he reverted to normokalemia, the repeat ECG revealed left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH). Thus we confronted with a situation of hyperkalemia, masking the LVH on ECG initially and when the hyperkalemia was corrected with dialysis the LVH showed in ECG. The plausible explanation for this electrophysiological behaviour was offered.
Electrocardiography; end stage renal disease; hyperkalemia; left ventricular enlargement
The use and production of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) have significantly increased over the last decade due to their versatility in numerous applications. Their unique physical and chemical properties make them desirable for various biomedical applications, but the same properties also raise concerns about their safety to human health, particularly at the cellular level. The vascular endothelium could be exposed to nanomaterials either by direct intravenous administration in nanomedicine or by translocation following inhalational exposure in an occupational setting. We hypothesized that direct exposure to MWCNTs will increase the expression of inflammatory markers in human aortic endothelial cells (HAEC). We also investigated the effect of the route of exposure on activation by changing the suspension medium of the MWCNTs. HAEC were treated in vitro with MWCNTs (1 or 10 μg/cm2) suspended in either cell culture medium [(M)-MWCNTs] or 10% clinical grade pulmonary surfactant [(S)-MWCNTs]. The zeta potential of the (S)-MWCNTs was significantly more negative than the (M)-MWCNTs suggesting a more stable suspension. Treatment of HAEC with (S)-MWCNTs; as compared to (M)-MWCNTs resulted in a significantly higher up-regulation of mRNA transcripts for cell adhesion molecules VCAM1, SELE, ICAM1 and the chemokine CCL2. Time dependent changes in VCAM1 and CCL2 protein levels were confirmed by immunofluorescence, flow cytometry and ELISA. A label free quantitative mass spectrometry proteomic analysis was utilized to compare protein expression patterns between the two suspensions of MWCNTs. We identified significant expression changes in >200 unique proteins in MWCNT treated HAEC. However, the two suspensions of MWCNTs resulted in different protein expression patterns with the eIF2 pathway as the only common pathway identified between the two suspensions. These data suggest that direct exposure to MWCNTs induces acute inflammatory and protein expression changes in HAEC, which is influenced by the type of media used for suspension of MWCNTs and their resulting zeta potential.
MWCNT; surfactant; eIF2; nanotoxicology; nanomedicine; protein corona
Clostridium perfringens alpha toxin/phospholipase C (CP-PLC) is one of the most potent bacterial toxins known to cause soft tissue infections like gas gangrene in humans and animals. It is the first bacterial toxin demonstrated to be an enzyme with phospholipase, sphingomyelinase and lecithinase activities. The toxin is comprised of an enzymatic N-domain and a binding C-domain interconnected by a flexible linker. The N-domain alone is non-toxic to mammalian cells, but incubation with C-domain restores the toxicity, the mechanism of which is still not elucidated. The objectives of the current study were to investigate the formation of a stable N and C-domain complex, to determine possible interactions between the two domains in silico and to characterize the in vitro and in vivo correlates of the interaction. To establish the existence of a stable N and C-domain hybrid, in vitro pull down assay and dot-Far Western blotting assays were employed, where it was clearly revealed that the two domains bound to each other to form an intermediate. Using bioinformatics tools like MetaPPISP, PatchDock and FireDock, we predicted that the two domains may interact with each other through electrostatic interactions between at least six pairs of amino acids. This N and C-domains interacted with each other in 1:1 ratio and the hybrid lysed mouse erythrocytes in a slower kinetics when compared with wild type native Cp-PLC. BALB/c mice when challenged with N and C-domain hybrid demonstrated severe myonecrosis at the site of injection while no death was observed. Our results provide further insight into better understanding the mechanism for the toxicity of Cp-PLC N and C-domain mixture.
Lymphatic filariasis (LF) is targeted for global elimination through treatment of entire at-risk populations with repeated annual mass drug administration (MDA). Essential for program success is defining and confirming the appropriate endpoint for MDA when transmission is presumed to have reached a level low enough that it cannot be sustained even in the absence of drug intervention. Guidelines advanced by WHO call for a transmission assessment survey (TAS) to determine if MDA can be stopped within an LF evaluation unit (EU) after at least five effective rounds of annual treatment. To test the value and practicality of these guidelines, a multicenter operational research trial was undertaken in 11 countries covering various geographic and epidemiological settings.
The TAS was conducted twice in each EU with TAS-1 and TAS-2 approximately 24 months apart. Lot quality assurance sampling (LQAS) formed the basis of the TAS survey design but specific EU characteristics defined the survey site (school or community), eligible population (6–7 year olds or 1st–2nd graders), survey type (systematic or cluster-sampling), target sample size, and critical cutoff (a statistically powered threshold below which transmission is expected to be no longer sustainable). The primary diagnostic tools were the immunochromatographic (ICT) test for W. bancrofti EUs and the BmR1 test (Brugia Rapid or PanLF) for Brugia spp. EUs.
In 10 of 11 EUs, the number of TAS-1 positive cases was below the critical cutoff, indicating that MDA could be stopped. The same results were found in the follow-up TAS-2, therefore, confirming the previous decision outcome. Sample sizes were highly sex and age-representative and closely matched the target value after factoring in estimates of non-participation. The TAS was determined to be a practical and effective evaluation tool for stopping MDA although its validity for longer-term post-MDA surveillance requires further investigation.
Lymphatic filariasis (LF) is targeted for global elimination through a strategy of repeated annual mass drug administration (MDA) to entire at-risk populations. A transmission assessment survey (TAS) is designed to evaluate whether transmission of LF is presumed to have reached a level low enough that it cannot be sustained in the absence of drug intervention and, therefore, MDA can be stopped. This multicenter operational research trial examines the value and practicality of the TAS guidelines through its implementation in 11 countries of diverse geographical and epidemiologic profiles. The field experiences support the TAS survey design methodology with particular respect to school and cluster-based sampling strategies. We found that sample sizes were age and sex representative and met the target values after factoring in estimates of non-participation rates. In 10 of 11 countries, the TAS found the number of positive cases in the evaluation unit to be no more than the statistically powered critical threshold. These results were corroborated in a follow-up TAS approximately 24 months later. We conclude the TAS is a valuable and effective tool for stopping MDA but its utility for longer-term post-MDA surveillance needs further empirical evidence and may be best supported with complementary tools and methods.
Increasing age is the most robust predictor of greater malignancy and treatment resistance in human gliomas. However, the adverse association of clinical course with aging is rarely considered in animal glioma models, impeding delineation of the relative importance of organismal versus progenitor cell aging in the genesis of glioma malignancy. To address this limitation, we implanted transformed neural stem/progenitor cells (NSPCs), the presumed cells of glioma origin, from 3 and 18month old mice into 3 and 20-month host animals. Transplantation with progenitors from older animals resulted in significantly shorter (p ≤ 0.0001) median survival in both 3month (37.5 vs 83 days) and 20-month (38 vs 67 days) hosts, indicating that age-dependent changes intrinsic to NSPCs rather than host animal age accounted for greater malignancy. Subsequent analyses revealed that increased invasiveness, genomic instability, resistance to therapeutic agents and tolerance to hypoxic stress accompanied aging in transformed NSPCs. Greater tolerance to hypoxia in older progenitor cells, as evidenced by elevated HIF-1 promoter reporter activity and hypoxia response gene (HRG) expression, mirror the upregulation of HRGs in cohorts of older vs younger glioma patients revealed by analysis of gene expression databases, suggesting that differential response to hypoxic stress may underlie age-dependent differences in invasion, genomic instability and treatment resistance. Our study provides strong evidence that progenitor cell aging is responsible for promoting the hallmarks of age-dependent glioma malignancy and that consideration of progenitor aging will facilitate development of physiologically and clinically relevant animal models of human gliomas.
aging; glioma; neural stem and progenitor cells; malignancy; syngeneic model
Objective: The primary objective of this study was to assess the use of moxonidine, a centrally acting anti–hypertensive agent in real world practice.
Material and Methods: Patients who attended out-patients clinic with diagnosis of hypertension were enrolled in the study. Demographics with co-morbid illnesses of all patients were recorded. Patient’s prescriptions were recorded and anti-hypertensive medications were also analysed.
Results: A total of 990 patients were eligible during the study period. Moxonidine was used in 4.54% of patients. Two groups could be identified in moxonidine users – one Group with resistant hypertension (30 patients, 3.03% of total, 66.66% of moxonidine users) on multiple drugs to control BP and another Group with intolerance to conventional, first line drugs (15 patients 1.51% of total, 33.33% of moxonidine users). Moxonidine was not used in newly diagnosed hypertension cases. Resistant hypertension and renal failure predicted the use of moxonidine. Majority of drug used was as per current guidelines.
Conclusions: Our study results reflected real world practice of current anti-hypertensive therapy. Patients generally receive medications in accordance with current recommendations and guidelines. Small but significant proportion of patients may require use of drugs like moxonidine to control high BP. Guidelines need to incorporate these real world practices.
Hypertension; Drugs; Moxonidine; Monotherapy; Polytherapy; Guidelines
Over the past two decades several nano-structuring methods have helped improve the figure of merit (ZT) in the state-of-the art bulk thermoelectric materials. While these methods could enhance the thermoelectric performance of p-type Bi2Te3, it was frustrating to researchers that they proved ineffective for n-type Bi2Te3 due to the inevitable deterioration of its thermoelectric properties in the basal plane. Here, we describe a novel chemical-exfoliation spark-plasma-sintering (CE-SPS) nano-structuring process, which transforms the microstructure of n-type Bi2Te3 in an extraordinary manner without compromising its basal plane properties. The CE-SPS processing leads to preferential scattering of electrons at charged grain boundaries, and thereby increases the electrical conductivity despite the presence of numerous grain boundaries, and mitigates the bipolar effect via band occupancy optimization leading to an upshift (by ~ 100 K) and stabilization of the ZT peak over a broad temperature range of ~ 150 K.
HIV stigma inflicts hardship and suffering on people living with HIV (PLHIV) and interferes with both prevention and treatment efforts. Health professionals are often named by PLHIV as an important source of stigma. This study was designed to examine rates and drivers of stigma and discrimination among doctors, nurses and ward staff in different urban healthcare settings in high HIV prevalence states in India.
This cross-sectional study enrolled 305 doctors, 369 nurses and 346 ward staff in both governmental and non-governmental healthcare settings in Mumbai and Bengaluru, India. The approximately one-hour long interviews focused on knowledge related to HIV transmission, personal and professional experiences with PLHIV, instrumental and symbolic stigma, endorsement of coercive policies, and intent to discriminate in professional and personal situations that involve high and low risk of fluid exposure.
High levels of stigma were reported by all groups. This included a willingness to prohibit female PLHIV from having children (55 to 80%), endorsement of mandatory testing for female sex workers (94 to 97%) and surgery patients (90 to 99%), and stating that people who acquired HIV through sex or drugs “got what they deserved” (50 to 83%). In addition, 89% of doctors, 88% of nurses and 73% of ward staff stated that they would discriminate against PLHIV in professional situations that involved high likelihood of fluid exposure, and 57% doctors, 40% nurses and 71% ward staff stated that they would do so in low-risk situations as well. Significant and modifiable drivers of stigma and discrimination included having less frequent contact with PLHIV, and a greater number of transmission misconceptions, blame, instrumental and symbolic stigma. Participants in all three groups reported high rates of endorsement of coercive measures and intent to discriminate against PLHIV. Stigma and discrimination were associated with multiple modifiable drivers, which are consistent with previous research, and which need to be targeted in future interventions.
Stigma reduction intervention programmes targeting healthcare providers in urban India need to address fear of transmission, improve universal precaution skills, and involve PLHIV at all stages of the intervention to reduce symbolic stigma and ensure that relevant patient interaction skills are taught.
HIV stigma; stigma drivers; healthcare workers; India
PROM1 is the gene encoding prominin-1 or CD133, an important cell surface marker for the isolation of both normal and cancer stem cells. PROM1 transcripts initiate at a range of transcription start sites (TSS) associated with distinct tissue and cancer expression profiles. Using high resolution Cap Analysis of Gene Expression (CAGE) sequencing we characterize TSS utilization across a broad range of normal and developmental tissues. We identify a novel proximal promoter (P6) within CD133+ melanoma cell lines and stem cells. Additional exon array sampling finds P6 to be active in populations enriched for mesenchyme, neural stem cells and within CD133+ enriched Ewing sarcomas. The P6 promoter is enriched with respect to previously characterized PROM1 promoters for a HMGI/Y (HMGA1) family transcription factor binding site motif and exhibits different epigenetic modifications relative to the canonical promoter region of PROM1.
PROM1 protein; human; AC133 antigen; transcription start site; promoter regions; genetic; melanoma; cancer stem cells
Early embryo miscarriage is linked to inadequate endometrial decidualization, a cellular transformation process that enables deep blastocyst invasion into the maternal compartment. Although much of the cellular events that underpin endometrial stromal cell (ESC) decidualization are well recognized, the individual gene(s) and molecular pathways that drive the initiation and progression of this process remain elusive. Using a genetic mouse model and a primary human ESC culture model, we demonstrate that steroid receptor coactivator-2 (SRC-2) is indispensable for rapid steroid hormone-dependent proliferation of ESCs, a critical cell-division step which precedes ESC terminal differentiation into decidual cells. We reveal that SRC-2 is required for increasing the glycolytic flux in human ESCs, which enables rapid proliferation to occur during the early stages of the decidualization program. Specifically, SRC-2 increases the glycolytic flux through induction of 6-phosphofructo-2-kinase/fructose-2, 6-bisphosphatase 3 (PFKFB3), a major rate-limiting glycolytic enzyme. Similarly, acute treatment of mice with a small molecule inhibitor of PFKFB3 significantly suppressed the ability of these animals to exhibit an endometrial decidual response. Together, these data strongly support a conserved mechanism of action by which SRC-2 accelerates the glycolytic flux through PFKFB3 induction to provide the necessary bioenergy and biomass to meet the demands of a high proliferation rate observed in ESCs prior to their differentiation into decidual cells. Because deregulation of endometrial SRC-2 expression has been associated with common gynecological disorders of reproductive-age women, this signaling pathway, involving SRC-2 and PFKFB3, promises to offer new clinical approaches in the diagnosis and/or treatment of a non-receptive uterus in patients presenting idiopathic infertility, recurrent early pregnancy loss, or increased time to pregnancy.
Failure of an embryo to correctly implant into the endometrium is a common cause of pregnancy failure or early embryo miscarriage. Although advances in our understanding of oocyte and embryo development have significantly increased pregnancy success rates, these rates remain unacceptably low due in part to an endometrium that is unreceptive to embryo implantation. Using experimental mouse genetics and a primary human cell culture model, we show here that the development of a receptive endometrium requires steroid receptor coactivator-2, a factor which modulates the response of an endometrial cell to the pregnancy hormone, progesterone. Specifically, we show that SRC-2 increases progesterone-dependent glycolysis in the endometrial cell to provide energy and biomolecules for the next round of cell division. For an endometrium to be receptive to embryo implantation, specific endometrial cells (termed stromal cells) need to divide and numerically increase just prior to development of the receptive state. Therefore, SRC-2 is critical for the metabolic reprogramming of the endometrium to a receptive state, which provides the pretext for considering this factor and its metabolic targets in the design of future clinical approaches to diagnose and therapeutically treat those women at a high risk for early pregnancy loss.
In this manuscript, a dramatic increase in the energy density of ~ 69 Wh kg−1 and an extraordinary cycleability ~ 2000 cycles of the Li-ion hybrid electrochemical capacitors (Li-HEC) is achieved by employing tailored activated carbon (AC) of ~ 60% mesoporosity derived from coconut shells (CS). The AC is obtained by both physical and chemical hydrothermal carbonization activation process, and compared to the commercial AC powders (CAC) in terms of the supercapacitance performance in single electrode configuration vs. Li. The Li-HEC is fabricated with commercially available Li4Ti5O12 anode and the coconut shell derived AC as cathode in non-aqueous medium. The present research provides a new routine for the development of high energy density Li-HEC that employs a mesoporous carbonaceous electrode derived from bio-mass precursors.
Lung diseases such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), asthma, and lung infections are major causes of morbidity and mortality among HIV-infected patients even in the era of antiretroviral therapy (ART). Many of these diseases are strongly associated with smoking and smoking is more common among HIV-infected than uninfected people; however, HIV is an independent risk factor for chronic bronchitis, COPD, and asthma. The mechanism by which HIV promotes these diseases is unclear. Excessive airway mucus formation is a characteristic of these diseases and contributes to airway obstruction and lung infections. HIV gp120 plays a critical role in several HIV-related pathologies and we investigated whether HIV gp120 promoted airway mucus formation in normal human bronchial epithelial (NHBE) cells. We found that NHBE cells expressed the HIV-coreceptor CXCR4 but not CCR5 and produced mucus in response to CXCR4-tropic gp120. The gp120-induced mucus formation was blocked by the inhibitors of CXCR4, α7-nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (α7-nAChR), and γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)AR but not the antagonists of CCR5 and epithelial growth factor receptor (EGFR). These results identify two distinct pathways (α7-nAChR-GABAAR and EGFR) for airway mucus formation and demonstrate for the first time that HIV-gp120 induces and regulates mucus formation in the airway epithelial cells through the CXCR4-α7-nAChR-GABAAR pathway. Interestingly, lung sections from HIV ± ART and simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) ± ART have significantly more mucus and gp120-immunoreactivity than control lung sections from humans and macaques, respectively. Thus, even after ART, lungs from HIV-infected patients contain significant amounts of gp120 and mucus that may contribute to the higher incidence of obstructive pulmonary diseases in this population.
Plants are simultaneously exposed to multiple stresses resulting in enormous changes in the molecular landscape within the cell. Identification and characterization of the synergistic and antagonistic components of stress response mechanisms contributing to the cross talk between stresses is of high priority to explore and enhance multiple stress responses. To this end, we performed meta-analysis of drought (abiotic), bacterial (biotic) stress response in rice and Arabidopsis by analyzing a total of 386 microarray samples belonging to 20 microarray studies and identified approximately 3100 and 900 DEGs in rice and Arabidopsis, respectively. About 38.5% (1214) and 28.7% (272) DEGs were common to drought and bacterial stresses in rice and Arabidopsis, respectively. A majority of these common DEGs showed conserved expression status in both stresses. Gene ontology enrichment analysis clearly demarcated the response and regulation of various plant hormones and related biological processes. Fatty acid metabolism and biosynthesis of alkaloids were upregulated and, nitrogen metabolism and photosynthesis was downregulated in both stress conditions. WRKY transcription family genes were highly enriched in all upregulated gene sets while ‘CO-like’ TF family showed inverse relationship of expression between drought and bacterial stresses. Weighted gene co-expression network analysis divided DEG sets into multiple modules that show high co-expression and identified stress specific hub genes with high connectivity. Detection of consensus modules based on DEGs common to drought and bacterial stress revealed 9 and 4 modules in rice and Arabidopsis, respectively, with conserved and reversed co-expression patterns.
Concern about the use of nanomaterials has increased significantly in recent years due to potentially hazardous impacts on human health. Mast cells are critical for innate and adaptive immune responses, often modulating allergic and pathogenic conditions. Mast cells are well known to act in response to danger signals through a variety of receptors and pathways including IL-33 and the IL-1 like receptor ST2. Here, we examined the involvement of mast cells and the IL-33/ST2 axis in the pulmonary and cardiovascular responses to MWCNT exposure. The toxicological effects of MWCNTs were observed only in mice with a sufficient population of mast cells and were not observed when mast cells were absent or incapable of responding to IL-33. Our findings establish for the first time that mast cells and the IL-33/ST2 axis orchestrate adverse pulmonary and cardiovascular responses to an engineered nanomaterial, giving insight into a previously unknown mechanism of toxicity. This novel mechanism of toxicity could be used for assessing the safety of engineered nanomaterials and provides a realistic therapeutic target for potential nanoparticle induced toxicities.
IL-33; ST2; MWCNT; pulmonary fibrosis; myocardial ischemia reperfusion injury; nanotoxicology
The potential applications of nanomaterials as drug delivery systems and in other products continue to expand. Upon introduction into physiological environments and driven by energetics, nanomaterials readily associate proteins forming a protein corona (PC) on their surface. This PC influences the nanomaterial’s surface characteristics and may impact their interaction with cells. To determine the biological impact of nanomaterial exposure as well as nanotherapeutic applications, it is necessary to understand PC formation. Utilizing a label-free mass spectrometry-based proteomics approach, we examined the composition of the PC for a set of four silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) including citrate-stabilized and polyvinlypyrrolidone-stabilized (PVP) colloidal silver (20 or 110 nm diameter). To simulate cell culture conditions, AgNPs were incubated for 1 h in Dulbecco’s Modified Eagle Medium supplemented with 10% fetal bovine serum, washed, coronal proteins solubilized, and proteins identified and quantified by label-free LC-MS/MS. To determine which attributes influence PC formation, the AgNPs were characterized in both water and cell culture media with 10% FBS. All AgNPs associated a common subset of 11 proteins including albumin, apolipoproteins, keratins, and other serum proteins. 110 nm citrate- and PVP-stabilized AgNPs were found to bind the greatest number of proteins (79 and 85 respectively) compared to 20 nm citrate- and PVP-stabilized AgNPs (45 and 48 respectively), suggesting a difference in PC formation based on surface curvature. While no relationships were found for other protein parameters (isoelectric point or aliphatic index), the PC on 20 nm AgNPs (PVP and citrate) consisted of more hydrophobic proteins compared to 110 nm AgNPs implying that this class of proteins are more receptive to curvature-induced folding and crowding in exchange for an increased hydration in the aqueous environment. These observations demonstrate the significance of electrostatic and hydrophobic interactions in the formation of the PC which may have broad biological and toxicological implications.
Supplementary teeth in the dental arch are a rare occurrence. Though they are mostly reported in association with syndromes they can also present in the absence of systemic pathology. This paper reports a case with multiple supernumerary teeth along with discussion of the frequency, types, complications, and management of such occurrence.
To assess the bioequivalence of two extended-release tablets of donepezil 23 mg, open label, randomized, single-dose, two-sequence, two-period crossover studies under fasting (n=74) and fed (n=94) conditions in healthy adult human volunteers were conducted. Subjects were randomized to either of the two treatment arms (test or reference) separated by a washout period of 28 days. Blood samples were collected up to 72 h post-dose and plasma samples were analyzed for donepezil using a validated LC-MS/MS method. Pharmacokinetic parameters were derived using a non-compartmental approach. Bioequivalence was evaluated in 69 subjects in the fasting study, and 71 subjects in the fed study. In the fasting study, the 90% CI of Cmax and AUC0-72 were 82.50–90.10 and 92.38–98.60, respectively. Corresponding values in the fed study were 91.82–98.05 and 97.27–100.27. Based on the results, the test product (donepezil) met the US regulatory criteria of bioequivalence relative to the reference product (Aricept®) under both fasting and fed conditions.
Bioequivalence; Donepezil; Pharmacokinetic; Non-compartmental
Bacopa monniera is a traditional Ayurvedic herbal medicine used to treat various mental ailments from ancient times. Recently, chemically standardized alcoholic extract of Bacopa monniera (BM) has been developed and currently available as over the counter herbal remedy for memory enhancement in children and adults. However, the consumption of herbal drugs has been reported to alter the expression of drug metabolizing enzymes and membrane transporters. Present study in male Sprague-Dawley rat was performed to evaluate the effect of memory enhancing standardized extract of BM on hepatic and intestinal cytochrome P450 3A and P-glycoprotein expression and activity. The BM (31 mg/kg/day) was orally administered for one week in BM pre-treated group while the control group received the same amount of vehicle for the same time period. The BM treatment decreased the cytochrome P450 3A (CYP3A) mediated testosterone 6β-hydroxylation activity of the liver and intestine by 2 and 1.5 fold, respectively compared to vehicle treated control. Similarly pretreatment with BM extract decreased the expression of intestinal P-glycoprotein (Pgp) as confirmed by Western blot analysis but did not alter the expression of hepatic Pgp. To investigate whether this BM pretreatment mediated decrease in activity of CYP3A and Pgp would account for the alteration of respective substrate or not, pharmacokinetic study with carbamazepine and digoxin was performed in BM pre-treated rats and vehicle treated rats. Carbamazepine and digoxin were used as CYP3A and Pgp probe drugs, respectively. Significant increase in AUC and Cmax of carbamazepine (4 and 1.8 fold) and digoxin (1.3 and 1.2 fold), respectively following the BM pre-treatment confirmed the down regulation of CYP3A and Pgp.
The rising prevalence of dementia will have an effect on acute care hospitals around the world. At present, around 40% of patients older than 70 years with acute medical admissions have dementia, but only half of these patients have been diagnosed. Patients with dementia have poorer health outcomes, longer hospital stays, and higher rates of readmissions and institutionalization. Worldwide, health care budgets are severely constrained. National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) has listed ten quality standards for supporting people in living well with dementia. NICE resource implications and commissioning support to implement these guidelines and improve dementia services have been recently published. Although most of the frail elderly patients with dementia are cared for by geriatricians, obstacles to making a diagnosis and to the management of dementia have been recognized. To provide a timely diagnosis of dementia, better care in acute hospital settings, and continuity of care in the community, services integrating all these elements are warranted. Extra resources also will be required for intermediate, palliative care, and mental health liaison services for people with dementia. The Birmingham Rapid Assessment Interface and Discharge service model uses a multiskilled team that provides comprehensive assessment of a person’s physical and psychological well-being in a general hospital setting. It has been shown to be an effective model in terms of reducing both length of stay and avoiding readmission. The aim of this review is to discuss the implications of the Rapid Assessment Interface and Discharge model in people with dementia and to critically compare this model with similar published service provisions.
comorbidity; aged; hospitals; dementia; cost
There is increasing evidence showing that the stromal cells surrounding cancer epithelial cells, rather than being passive bystanders, might have a role in modifying tumor outgrowth. The molecular basis of this aspect of carcinoma etiology is controversial. Some studies have reported a high frequency of genetic aberrations in carcinoma-associated fibroblasts (CAFs), whereas other studies have reported very low or zero mutation rates. Resolution of this contentious area is of critical importance in terms of understanding both the basic biology of cancer as well as the potential clinical implications of CAF somatic alterations. We undertook genome-wide copy number and loss of heterozygosity (LOH) analysis of CAFs derived from breast and ovarian carcinomas using a 500K SNP array platform. Our data show conclusively that LOH and copy number alterations are extremely rare in CAFs and cannot be the basis of the carcinoma-promoting phenotypes of breast and ovarian CAFs.
Neurons are one of the most structurally and functionally diverse cell types found in nature, owing in large part to their unique class specific dendritic architectures. Dendrites, being highly specialized in receiving and processing neuronal signals, play a key role in the formation of functional neural circuits. Hence, in order to understand the emergence and assembly of a complex nervous system, it is critical to understand the molecular mechanisms that direct class specific dendritogenesis.
We have used the Drosophila dendritic arborization (da) neurons to gain systems-level insight into dendritogenesis by a comparative study of the morphologically distinct Class-I (C-I) and Class-IV (C-IV) da neurons. We have used a combination of cell-type specific transcriptional expression profiling coupled to a targeted and systematic in vivo RNAi functional validation screen. Our comparative transcriptomic analyses have revealed a large number of differentially enriched/depleted gene-sets between C-I and C-IV neurons, including a broad range of molecular factors and biological processes such as proteolytic and metabolic pathways. Further, using this data, we have identified and validated the role of 37 transcription factors in regulating class specific dendrite development using in vivo class-specific RNAi knockdowns followed by rigorous and quantitative neurometric analysis.
This study reports the first global gene-expression profiles from purified Drosophila C-I and C-IV da neurons. We also report the first large-scale semi-automated reconstruction of over 4,900 da neurons, which were used to quantitatively validate the RNAi screen phenotypes. Overall, these analyses shed global and unbiased novel insights into the molecular differences that underlie the morphological diversity of distinct neuronal cell-types. Furthermore, our class-specific gene expression datasets should prove a valuable community resource in guiding further investigations designed to explore the molecular mechanisms underlying class specific neuronal patterning.
Electrohydrodynamic (EHD) techniques refer to procedures that utilize electrostatic forces to fabricate fibers or particles of different shapes with sizes in the nano-range to a few microns through electrically charged fluid jet. Employing different techniques, such as blending, surface modification, and coaxial process, there is a great possibility of incorporating bioactive such molecules as drugs, DNA, and growth factors into the nanostructures fabricated via EHD techniques. By careful selection of materials and processing conditions, desired encapsulation efficiency as well as preserved bioactivity of the therapeutic agents can be achieved. The drug-loaded nanostructures produced can be applied via different routes, such as implantation, injection, and topical or oral administration for a wide range of disease treatment. Taking advantage of the recent developments in EHD techniques like the coaxial process or multilayered structures, individually controlled delivery of multiple drugs is achievable, which is of great demand in cancer therapy and growth-factor delivery. This review summarizes the most recent techniques and postmodification methods to fabricate electrospun nanofibers and electrosprayed particles for drug-delivery applications.
electrospinning; electrospraying; gene delivery; growth-factor delivery; cancer therapy; wound dressing
Understanding the transformation of graphene derivatives by natural amphiphiles is essential for elucidating the biological and environmental implications of this emerging class of engineered nanomaterials. Using rapid discrete-molecular-dynamics simulations, we examined the binding of graphene and graphene oxide with peptides, fatty acids, and cellulose, and complemented our simulations by experimental studies of Raman spectroscopy, FTIR, and UV-Vis spectrophotometry. Specifically, we established a connection between the differential binding and the conformational flexibility, molecular geometry, and hydrocarbon content of the amphiphiles. Importantly, our dynamics simulations revealed a Vroman-like competitive binding of the amphiphiles for the graphene oxide substrate. This study provides a mechanistic basis for addressing the transformation, evolution, transport, biocompatibility, and toxicity of graphene derivatives in living systems and the natural environment.