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1.  The Influence of Drug Physical State on the Dissolution Enhancement of Solid Dispersions Prepared Via Hot-Melt Extrusion: A Case Study Using Olanzapine 
Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences  2014;103(4):1214-1223.
In this study, we examine the relationship between the physical structure and dissolution behavior of olanzapine (OLZ) prepared via hot-melt extrusion in three polymers [polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) K30, polyvinylpyrrolidone-co-vinyl acetate (PVPVA) 6:4, and Soluplus® (SLP)]. In particular, we examine whether full amorphicity is necessary to achieve a favorable dissolution profile. Drug–polymer miscibility was estimated using melting point depression and Hansen solubility parameters. Solid dispersions were characterized using differential scanning calorimetry, X-ray powder diffraction, and scanning electron microscopy. All the polymers were found to be miscible with OLZ in a decreasing order of PVP>PVPVA>SLP. At a lower extrusion temperature (160°C), PVP generated fully amorphous dispersions with OLZ, whereas the formulations with PVPVA and SLP contained 14%–16% crystalline OLZ. Increasing the extrusion temperature to 180°C allowed the preparation of fully amorphous systems with PVPVA and SLP. Despite these differences, the dissolution rates of these preparations were comparable, with PVP showing a lower release rate despite being fully amorphous. These findings suggested that, at least in the particular case of OLZ, the absence of crystalline material may not be critical to the dissolution performance. We suggest alternative key factors determining dissolution, particularly the dissolution behavior of the polymers themselves.
doi:10.1002/jps.23894
PMCID: PMC4241582  PMID: 24765654
olanzapine; dissolution; solid dispersion; polymer; amorphous; crystallinity; particle size
2.  Alginate Films Containing Viable Lactobacillus Plantarum: Preparation and In Vitro Evaluation 
AAPS PharmSciTech  2012;13(2):357-363.
The objective of the study was to develop calcium alginate films, containing Lactobacillus plantarum ATCC 8040 with preserved and stable viability and antibacterial activity. L. plantarum-loaded films containing different calcium concentrations were physically characterized for mechanical and bioadhesive properties and lactobacilli release. The viability and antibacterial activity of L. plantarum was studied before and after processing, and during 6 months of storage. A multiresistant clinical isolate, VIM-2-metalo-β-lactamase producing Pseudomonas aeruginosa, was used as an indicator strain. Interference between L. plantarum and films enhanced films elasticity, water absorption ability, release of lactobacilli, and decreased films adherence. A decrease of L. plantarum viability in alginate films (≤1 log unit) was observed after freeze drying. L. plantarum, at cell concentrations of 108 cfu/ml, was inhibitory active. The viability and antibacterial activity of the immobilized lactobacilli remained stable during 6 months of storage. The study has proved the potential of alginate films to deliver L. plantarum in high numbers to individuals.
doi:10.1208/s12249-012-9753-z
PMCID: PMC3364404  PMID: 22302607
alginate film; antibacterial activity; bacterial viability; immobilization; lactobacilli
3.  Prediction of the Deposition of Dry Powder Aerosols 
The AAPS Journal  2009;11(1):186-194.
The trajectory, mass fluxes, and deposition of aerosolized particles in a complex tubular system have been predicted. A procedure based on Lagrangian stochastic modeling is proposed to enable the anticipation of such phenomena, taking advantage of experimental results to characterize the air flow. The predictions have been obtained for pharmaceutical aerosols delivered by dry powder inhalers. A critical assessment of the dispersion model has been carried out using data available in the literature. The procedure assumes a low volume fraction of particles in the simulation of turbulent dispersion, but deposition is physically based on the interaction between the particles and both solid and liquid surfaces. The results were confirmed by experimental tests of powder deposition, run according to the European Pharmacopoeia. A parametric study was also carried out with the aim of providing a more complete evaluation of the model’s performance. The comparison between predictions and experimental results has shown that the model properly describes the deposition of aerosolized particles.
doi:10.1208/s12248-009-9095-2
PMCID: PMC2664894  PMID: 19296228
aerosol; computational model; dry powder inhaler; lung drug delivery; particle deposition
4.  Compressed matrix core tablet as a quick/slow dual-component delivery system containing ibuprofen 
AAPS PharmSciTech  2007;8(3):E195-E202.
The purpose of the present research was to produce a quick/slow biphasic delivery system for ibuprofen. A dual-component tablet made of a sustained release tableted core and an immediate release tableted coat was prepared by direct compression. Both the core and the coat contained a model drug (ibuprofen). The sustained release effect was achieved with a polymer (hydroxypropyl methylcellulose [HPMC] or ethylcellulose) to modulate the release of the drug. The in vitro drug release profile from these tablets showed the desired biphasic release behavior: the ibuprofen contained in the fast releasing component was dissolved within 2 minutes, whereas the drug in the core tablet was released at different times (⊂16 or >24 hours), depending on the composition of the matrix tablet. Based on the release kinetic parameters calculated, it can be concluded that the HPMC core was suitable for providing a constant and controlled release (zero order) for a long period of time.
doi:10.1208/pt0803076
PMCID: PMC2750572  PMID: 17915826
Biphasic delivery system; dual-component tablet
5.  Evaluation of the potential use of poly(ethylene oxide) as tablet- and extrudate-forming material 
AAPS PharmSci  2004;6(2):17-26.
The purpose of this study was to assess the potential use of poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) as matrix-forming mate-rial for tablets and extrudates. Raw materials were characterized for size, size distribution, and shape. Tablets with 2- and 10-mm diameter were prepared by direct compression at both 13 and 38 MPa from mixtures with poly(ethylene oxide)s, a model drug (propranolol hydrochloride) and lactose. To these mixtures water was added (16%–43%) prior to extrusion in a ram extruder fit with different dies (1-, 3-, 6-, and 9-mm diameter and 4-mm length). Tablets and extrudates were characterized for work of compression or extrusion, respectively, relaxation, tensile strength, friability, and drug release. Both PEOs produced tablets easily and with different properties. Some relaxation was observed, particularly for tablets with higher amounts of PEOs. Release of the drug occurred after swelling of the matrix, and between 10% and 70% drug released, a quasi zero-order release was observed for large tablets. Extrusion was possible for formulations with PEO only with amounts of water between 16% and 50%. Both radial and axial relaxation of both plugs and extrudates were observed. Moreover, different extrusion profiles reflected the different behaviors of the different formulations. The model drug was released in the same fashion as observed for the tablets. It was possible to produce tablets by direct compression and extrudates or pellets from those extrudates from different formulations with PEO. Tablets and pellets have shown distinct properties depending upon the PEO considered. Extrusion was particularly complex with different formulations with PEO.
doi:10.1208/ps060215
PMCID: PMC2751007  PMID: 18465267
extrusion; minitablet, pellet; poly(ethylene oxide); tablet

Results 1-5 (5)