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1.  The 3-D model: Does time plasticity represent the influence of tableting speed? 
AAPS PharmSciTech  2003;4(4):523-530.
The objective of this study is to test the hypothesis that time plasticity (parameterd from 3-D modeling) is influenced by tableting speed. Tablets were produced at different maximum relative densities (ϱrel,max) on an instrumented eccentric tableting machine and on a linear rotary tableting machine replicator. Some 3-D data plots were prepared using pressure, normalized time, and porosity according to Heckel. After fitting of a twisted plane, the resulting parameters were analyzed in a 3-D parameter plot. The materials used were dicalcium phosphate dihydrate (DCPD), spray-dried lactose, microcrystalline cellulose (MCC), hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC), κ-carrageenan (CAR), and theophylline monohydrate (TheoM). The results show that tableting speed especially influences the parameterd (time plasticity) of the 3-D model for plastically and viscoelastically deforming materials such as MCC, HPMC, CAR, and TheoM. For more plastically deforming materials such as MCC, HPMC, and TheoM, a subtle influence on ω is also visible. The stages of higher densification are affected more than the stages of lower densification. Brittle materials such as DCPD exhibit no influence of tableting speed. The influence of speed on spray-dried lactose is minor. The results are valid for data obtained from an eccentric tableting machine and also for data from a linear rotary tableting machine replicator. Thus, the empirically derived parameter time plasticityd really represents the influence of time.
doi:10.1208/pt040466
PMCID: PMC2750659  PMID: 15198561
rotary tableting machine simulator; eccentric tableting machine; tableting speed; excipients; compression
2.  The 3-D model: Comparison of parameters obtained from and by simulating different tableting machines 
AAPS PharmSciTech  2003;4(3):55-61.
The aim of this study is to apply 3-D modeling to data obtained from different tableting machines and for different compression wheels on a linear rotary tableting machine replicator. A new analysis technique to interpret these data by 3-D parameter plots is presented. Tablets were produced on an instrumented eccentric tableting machine and on a linear rotary tableting machine replicator. The materials used were dicalcium phosphate dihydrate (DCPD), spray-dried lactose, microcrystalline cellulose (MCC), hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC), and theophylline monohydrate. Tableting was performed to different maximum relative densities (ρ rel, max). Force, time and displacement were recorded during compaction. The 3-D data plots were prepared using pressure, normalized time, and porosity according to Heckel. A twisted plane was fitted to these data according to the 3-D modeling technique. The resulting parameters were analyzed in a 3-D parameter plot. The results show that the 3-D modeling technique can be applied to compaction cycles from different tableting machines as different as eccentric and rotary tableting machines (simulated). The relation of the data to each other is the same even when the absolute values are different. This is also true for different compression wheels used on the linear rotary tableting machine replicator. By using compression wheels of different sizes on this simulator, mainly time plasticity changes. By using bigger compression wheels for simulation, the materials deform slower at lower densification and they deform faster at higher densification. For brittle materials, the stages of higher densification are influenced; for plastically deforming materials, the stages of lower and higher densification can be influenced.
doi:10.1208/pt040335
PMCID: PMC2750628  PMID: 14621967
rotary tableting machine simulator; eccentric tableting machine; compression wheels; excipients; compression
3.  Evaluation of a new coprocessed compound based on lactose and maize starch for tablet formulation 
AAPS PharmSci  2004;6(2):27-38.
The development of new direct compression excipients should include a comprehensive and rapid determination of deformation properties. The aim of this study was to characterize StarLac, a new coprocessed compound for direct compression based on lactose and maize starch. For this purpose, the effects of the base materials (maize starch and spraydried lactose) were considered and the influence of the spray-drying process was investigated. This was performed by comparing the physical mixture of starch and spray-dried lactose at the same ratio as for StarLac. For analysis of the deformation behavior, the 3-D model and the Walker equation were applied; for verification, the Heckel equation and the pressure time function (a modified Weibull equation) were used. The advantages of StarLac are its good flowability depending on the spray-drying process, an acceptable crushing force due to its lactose content, its rapid disintegration depending on starch, and a brilliant fast release of an active ingredient, such as theophylline monohydrate. The volume-pressure deformation properties of StarLac were dependent on the lactose properties. Only at high maximum relative density (ϱrel,max) did the influence of starch cause a change in these properties. A network-like structure can be observed using scanning electron microscopy pictures. Overall, StarLac deformed plastically with a low portion of elasticity. The physical mixture exhibited a more elastic behavior than StarLac. However, the part of the powder that was irreversibly compressed was much lower than was observed for the single substances. This behavior is caused by an interaction between the components, which in StarLac is prevented by spray drying.
doi:10.1208/ps060216
PMCID: PMC2751008  PMID: 18465268
compression; tableting behavior; lactose starch; drug release

Results 1-3 (3)