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1.  In vivo release kinetics of octreotide acetate from experimental polymeric microsphere formulations using oil/water and oil/oil processes 
AAPS PharmSciTech  2004;5(3):90-99.
The purpose of the present study was to characterize the in vivo release kinetics of octreotide acetate from microsphere formulations designed to minimize peptide acylation and improve drug stability. Microspheres were prepared by a conventional oil/wate (o/w) method or an experimental oil/oil (o/o) dispersion technique. The dosage forms were administered subcutaneously to a rat animal model, and serum samples were analyzed by radioimmunoassay over a 2-month period. An averaged kinetic profile from each treatment group, as a result, was treated with fractional differential equations. The results indicated that poly(l-lactide) microspheres prepared by the o/o dispersion technique provided lower area under the curve (AUC) values during the initial diffusion-controlled release phase, 7.79 ng×d/mL, versus 75.8 ng/sxd/mL for the o/w batch. During the subsequent erosion-controlled release phase, on the other hand, the o/o technique yielded higher AUC values, 123 ng×d/mL, versus 42.2 ng×d/mL for the o/w batch. The differences observed between the 2 techniques were attributed to the site of drug incorporation during the manufacturing process, given that microspheres contain both porous hydrophilic channels and dense hydrophobic matrix regions. An o/o dispersion technique was therefore expected to produce microspheres with lower incorporation in the aqueous channels, which are responsible for diffusion-mediated drug release.
doi:10.1208/pt050349
PMCID: PMC2750271  PMID: 15760082
in vivo modeling; octreotide acetate; PLA microspheres; PLGA microspheres; radioimmunoassay
2.  Preparation and stability of poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG)ylated octreotide for application to microsphere delivery 
AAPS PharmSciTech  2003;4(4):574-580.
The purpose of this study was to prepare poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG)ylated octreotide and investigate the stability against acylation by polyester polymers such as poly(lactic acid) and poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid). Octreotide was modified by reaction with monomethoxy PEG-propionaldehyde (molecular weight 5,000) in the presence of sodium cyanoborohydride. The mono-PEGylated fraction was isolated by reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and characterized by matrixassisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS). Circular dichroism demonstrated no significant secondary structural differences between mono-PEGylated octreotide (mono-PEG-octreotide) and intact octreotide. As a test system for the stability study against acylation reaction, lactic acid (LA) solutions with various concentrations and pH values were prepared with water dilution and subsequent accelerated equilibration at 90°C for 24 hours. Native octreotide was found to be acylated in all the diluted LA solutions with different concentrations (42.5%, 21.3%, and 8.5%, wt/wt) and pH values (2.25, 1.47, and 1.85, respectively). The remaining amounts of intact octreotide continuously decreased to 50% through 30 days of incubation at 37°C. MALDI-TOF MS identified the octreotide to be acylated by LA units. However, acylation reaction of mono-PEG-octreotide in LA solutions was negligible, and the remaining amounts of intact one through 30 days of incubation in LA solutions were also comparable to the initial concentration. These data suggest that mono-PEG-octreotide may prevent the acylation reaction in degrading PLA microspheres and possibly serve as a new source for somatostatin microsphere formulation.
doi:10.1208/pt040472
PMCID: PMC2750665  PMID: 15198567
PE Gylation; octreotide; peptide acylation; microsphere; peptide stability
3.  Identification of chemically modified peptide from poly(D,L-lactide-co-glycolide) microspheres under in vitro release conditions 
AAPS PharmSciTech  2003;4(4):392-405.
The purpose of this research was to study the chemical reactivity of a somatostatin analogue octreotide acetate, formulated in microspheres with polymers of varying molecular weight and co-monomer ratio under in vitro testing conditions. Poly(D,L-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) and poly(D,L-lactide) (PLA) microspheres were prepared by a solvent extraction/evaporation method. The microspheres were characterized for drug load, impurity content, and particle size. Further, the microspheres were subjected to in vitro release testing in acetate buffer (pH 4.0) and phosphate buffered saline (PBS) (pH 7.2). In acetate buffer, 3 microsphere batches composed of low molecular weight PLGA 50∶50, PLGA 85∶15, and PLA polymers (≤10 kDa) showed 100% release with minimal impurity formation (<10%). The high molecular weight PLGA 50∶50 microspheres (28 kDa) displayed only 70% cumulative release in acetate buffer with significant impurity formation (∼24%). In PBS (pH 7.4), on the other hand, only 50% release was observed with the same low molecular weight batches (PLGA 50∶50, PLGA 85∶15, and PLA) with higher percentages of hydrophobic impurity formation (ie, 40%, 26%, and 10%, respectively). In addition, in PBS, the high molecular weight PLGA 50∶50 microspheres showed only 20% drug release with ∼60% mean impurity content. The chemically modified peptide impurities inside microspheres were structurally confirmed through Fourier transform-mass spectrometry (FT-MS) and liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) analyses after extraction procedures. The adduct compounds were identified as covalently modified conjugates of octreotide with lactic and glycolic acid monomers within polymeric microspheres. The data suggest that due to steric hindrance factors, polymers with greater lactide content were less amenable to the formation of adduct impurities compared with PLGA 50∶50 copolymers.
doi:10.1208/pt040450
PMCID: PMC2750643  PMID: 15198545
somatostatin analogues; octreotide acetate; peptide acylation; peptide stability; poly(D,L-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) microspheres
4.  Assessment of fertility in male rats after extended chemical castration with a GnRH antagonist 
AAPS PharmSci  2004;6(1):94-99.
The purpose of this study was to assess whether male rats whose testosterone levels were suppressed to castration levels (<0.5 ng/mL) for a 1-year period by the sustained delivery of orntide acetate, a GnRH antagonist, would return to fertility (ie, produce offspring) after serum testosterone returned to control levels. Male rats comprising a treatment group (orntide microspheres, dose=27 mg/kg/y), a vehicle control group, and a control group of proven male breeders were used. For the treatment and vehicle control groups, serum orntide and testosterone levels were monitored at periodic intervals for 14 months from the initiation of treatment. After serum testosterone levels returned to vehicle control levels and orntide serum levels were no longer discernible for the treated group, each of the animals was housed with 2 drug-naive, female, proven breeders. All the breeder females produced offspring with the exception of 1 female housed with a male rat from the treatment group and the 2 females housed with a single male rat from the vehicle control group. The mean size and weight of the litters from each group were not statistically different. Further, fertility of the offspring from each group was assessed. The male and female offspring studied were all shown to be fertile. The results suggest that lack of fertility due to testosterone suppression in male rats is reversible after cessation of treatment with the GnRH analog, orntide.
doi:10.1208/ps060110
PMCID: PMC2750945  PMID: 18465262
orntide acetate; PLA microspheres; return to fertility; chemical castration; GnRH antagonist
5.  Return to fertility after extended chemical castration with a GnRH antagonist 
BMC Cancer  2001;1:18.
Background
Antagonistic analogues of GnRH for the treatment of prostate cancer may be used clinically in persons for whom return to fertility after such treatment is important or desirable. The purpose of this study was, therefore, to evaluate the effects of a long term treatment with orntide, a GnRH antagonist, on testosterone levels and fertility in male rats.
Methods
Two groups of male rats received either 120-day orntide microspheres (8.8 mg orntide/kg/120 days) or vehicle alone (control group). Serum orntide and testosterone levels in both groups were monitored at certain intervals for 9 months from the initiation of treatment. After recovery of normal serum testosterone levels in the treated animals, each rat was housed with two proven breeder, but drug-naive, females.
Results
All mates of treated rats achieved pregnancy as rapidly as the mates of control rats although two of the control rats did not sire a litter with either female and one sired only one litter. The mean size of the litters of treated (12.3 offspring per litter) and control (10.6 offspring per litter) were similar. All offspring were grossly normal morphologically and behaviorally during the time to weaning.
Conclusions
These results suggest that lack of fertility due to testosterone suppression is reversible after cessation of treatment with this GnRH antagonist.
doi:10.1186/1471-2407-1-18
PMCID: PMC59839  PMID: 11710965

Results 1-5 (5)