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1.  NOVEL DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEMS: DESIRED FEAT FOR TUBERCULOSIS 
Tuberculosis has claimed its victims throughout much of known human history and is currently the most devastating human bacterial disease. The ability to infect human population on a global scale, combined with the widespread emergence of multi-drug resistant strains, has led to the placement of Mycobacterium tuberculosis on the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID) list of Biodefence and Emerging Infectious Disease Threats Agents. The resurgence of interest in tuberculosis (TB) has stemmed because of increased evidences from developed countries. Contrary to expectations, no country has reached the phase of elimination and in no subsection of society TB has been completely eliminated. A deeper understanding of the process will assist in the identification of the host and mycobacterial efforts involved and provide targets for therapeutic strategies against tuberculosis. The article presents a view on pathogenesis of tuberculosis and its diverse manifestations, host defense evasion, mechanisms of microbial persistence, emergence of Multiple Drug Resistance and Extensive Drug Resistance, conventional therapy used and the possible novel systems which are under extensive investigation as drug carriers for improving the cytosolic concentration of the anti-tubercular agents.
PMCID: PMC3255431  PMID: 22247841
Tuberculosis; Novel drug delivery system; Mycobacterium tuberculosis; Therapy
2.  CLINICAL ASPECTS OF ACUTE POST-OPERATIVE PAIN MANAGEMENT & ITS ASSESSMENT 
Management of postoperative pain relieve suffering and leads to earlier mobilization, shortened hospital stay, reduced hospital costs, and increased patient satisfaction. An effective postoperative management is not a standardized regime rather is tailored to the needs of the individual patient, taking into account medical, psychological, and physical condition; age; level of fear or anxiety; surgical procedure; personal preference; and response to therapeutic agents given. The major goal in the management of postoperative pain is to minimize the dose of medications to lessen side effects & provide adequate analgesia. Postoperative pain is still under managed due to obstacles in implementation of Acute Pain Services due to insufficient education, fear of complications associated with available analgesic drugs, poor pain assessment and inadequate staff. This review reflects the clinical aspects of postoperative pain & its assessment & management with an emphasis on research for new analgesic molecules & delivery system.
PMCID: PMC3255434  PMID: 22247838
Post-operative pain management; assessment; clinical aspects
3.  Etoposide-loaded nanoparticles made from glyceride lipids: Formulation, characterization, in vitro drug release, and stability evaluation 
AAPS PharmSciTech  2005;6(2):E158-E166.
The aim of the study was to prepare etoposide-loaded nanoparticles with glyceride lipids and then characterize and evaluate the in vitro steric stability and drug release characteristics and stability. The nanoparticles were prepared by melt emulsification and homogenization followed by spray drying of nanodispersion. Spray drying created powder nanoparticles with excellent redispersibility and a minimal increase in particle size (20–40 nm). Experimental variables, such as homogenization pressure, number of homogenization cycles, and surfactant concentration, showed a profound influence on the particle size and distribution. Spray drying of Poloxamer 407-stabilized nanodispersion lead to the formation of matrix-like structures surrounding the nanoparticles, resulting in particle growth. The in vitro steric stability test revealed that the lipid nanoparticles stabilized by sodium tauroglycocholate exhibit excellent steric stability compared with Poloxamer 407. All 3 glyceride nanoparticle formulations exhibited sustained release characteristics, and the release pattern followed the Higuchi equation. The spray-dried lipid nanoparticles stored in black polypropylene containers exhibited excellent long-term stability at 25°C and room light conditions. Such stable lipid nanoparticles with in vitro steric stability can be a beneficial delivery system for intravenous administration as long circulating carriers for controlled and targeted drug delivery.
doi:10.1208/pt060224
PMCID: PMC2750527  PMID: 16353973
lipid nanoparticles; high-pressure homogenization; spray drying; Poloxamer 407; steric stability
4.  Preparation, characterization, and biodistribution study of technetium-99m-labeled leuprolide acetate-loaded liposomes in ehrlich ascites tumor-bearing mice 
AAPS PharmSci  2004;6(1):45-56.
The purpose of this study was to prepare conventional and sterically stabilized liposomes containing leuprolide acetate in an attempt to prolong the biological half life of the drug, to reduce the uptake by reticuloendothelial system (RES), and to reduce the injection frequency of intravenously administered peptide drugs. The conventional and sterically stabilized liposomes containing leuprolide acetate were prepared by reverse phase evaporation method and characterized for entrapment efficiency and particle size. Radiolabeling of leuprolide acetate and its liposomes was performed by direct labeling with reduced technetium-99m. Its biodistribution and imaging characteristics were studied in ehrlich ascites tumor (EAT)-bearing mice after labeling with technetium-99m. The systemic pharmacokinetic studies were performed in rabbits. A high uptake by tumor was observed by sterically stabilized liposome containing leuprolide acetate compared with free drug and conventional liposomes. The liver/tumor uptake ratio of free drug, conventional (LL), and sterically stabilized liposomes (SLL5000 and SLL2000) was found to be 20, 7.99, 1.63, and 1.23, respectively, which showed the increased accumulation of sterically stabilized liposomes in tumor compared with the free drug and conventional liposomes at 24 hours postinjection. Liver uptake of sterically stabilized liposomes was still 7-fold less than the conventional liposomes. The marked accumulation of liposomes in the tumor-bearing mice was also documented by gamma scintigraphic studies. The findings demonstrate the distribution of these liposomes within solid tumor and prove that the sterically stabilized liposomes experience increased tumor uptake and prolonged circulation half life. Hence these findings will be relevant for the optimal design of long circulating liposomes for the peptide drugs and for targeting of liposomes toward tumor.
doi:10.1208/ps060105
PMCID: PMC2750940  PMID: 15198506
sterically stabilized liposomes; leuprolide acetate; technetium-99m; biodistribution; gamma imaging

Results 1-4 (4)