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1.  A Short Term Quality Control Tool for Biodegradable Microspheres 
AAPS PharmSciTech  2014;15(3):530-541.
Accelerated in vitro release testing methodology has been developed as an indicator of product performance to be used as a discriminatory quality control (QC) technique for the release of clinical and commercial batches of biodegradable microspheres. While product performance of biodegradable microspheres can be verified by in vivo and/or in vitro experiments, such evaluation can be particularly challenging because of slow polymer degradation, resulting in extended study times, labor, and expense. Three batches of Leuprolide poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) microspheres having varying morphology (process variants having different particle size and specific surface area) were manufactured by the solvent extraction/evaporation technique. Tests involving in vitro release, polymer degradation and hydration of the microspheres were performed on the three batches at 55°C. In vitro peptide release at 55°C was analyzed using a previously derived modification of the Weibull function termed the modified Weibull equation (MWE). Experimental observations and data analysis confirm excellent reproducibility studies within and between batches of the microsphere formulations demonstrating the predictability of the accelerated experiments at 55°C. The accelerated test method was also successfully able to distinguish the in vitro product performance between the three batches having varying morphology (process variants), indicating that it is a suitable QC tool to discriminate product or process variants in clinical or commercial batches of microspheres. Additionally, data analysis utilized the MWE to further quantify the differences obtained from the accelerated in vitro product performance test between process variants, thereby enhancing the discriminatory power of the accelerated methodology at 55°C.
doi:10.1208/s12249-013-0052-0
PMCID: PMC4037492  PMID: 24519488
accelerated in vitro release; biodegradable microspheres; modified Weibull equation (MWE); QC tool
2.  Development of Risperidone PLGA Microspheres 
Journal of Drug Delivery  2014;2014:620464.
The aim of this study was to design and evaluate biodegradable PLGA microspheres for sustained delivery of Risperidone, with an eventual goal of avoiding combination therapy for the treatment of schizophrenia. Two PLGA copolymers (50 : 50 and 75 : 25) were used to prepare four microsphere formulations of Risperidone. The microspheres were characterized by several in vitro techniques. In vivo studies in male Sprague-Dawley rats at 20 and 40 mg/kg doses revealed that all formulations exhibited an initial burst followed by sustained release of the active moiety. Additionally, formulations prepared with 50 : 50 PLGA had a shorter duration of action and lower cumulative AUC levels than the 75 : 25 PLGA microspheres. A simulation of multiple dosing at weekly or 15-day regimen revealed pulsatile behavior for all formulations with steady state being achieved by the second dose. Overall, the clinical use of Formulations A, B, C, or D will eliminate the need for combination oral therapy and reduce time to achieve steady state, with a smaller washout period upon cessation of therapy. Results of this study prove the suitability of using PLGA copolymers of varying composition and molecular weight to develop sustained release formulations that can tailor in vivo behavior and enhance pharmacological effectiveness of the drug.
doi:10.1155/2014/620464
PMCID: PMC3927762  PMID: 24616812
3.  IVIVC from Long Acting Olanzapine Microspheres 
In this study, four PLGA microsphere formulations of Olanzapine were characterized on the basis of their in vitro behavior at 37°C, using a dialysis based method, with the goal of obtaining an IVIVC. In vivo profiles were determined by deconvolution (Nelson-Wagner method) and using fractional AUC. The in vitro and in vivo release profiles exhibited the same rank order of drug release. Further, in vivo profiles obtained with both approaches were nearly superimposable, suggesting that fractional AUC could be used as an alternative to the Nelson-Wagner method. A comparison of drug release profiles for the four formulations revealed that the in vitro profile lagged slightly behind in vivo release, but the results were not statistically significant (P < 0.0001). Using the four formulations that exhibited different release rates, a Level A IVIVC was established using the deconvolution and fractional AUC approaches. A nearly 1 : 1 correlation (R2 > 0.96) between in vitro release and in vivo measurements confirmed the excellent relationship between in vitro drug release and the amount of drug absorbed in vivo. The results of this study suggest that proper selection of an in vitro method will greatly aid in establishing a Level A IVIVC for long acting injectables.
doi:10.1155/2014/407065
PMCID: PMC3918854  PMID: 24578707
6.  2007 highlights of advances in the pharmaceutical sciences: An American Association of Pharmaceutical Scientists (AAPS) perspective 
The AAPS Journal  2007;9(2):E219-E226.
The American Association of Pharmaceutical Scientists (AAPS) covers the full range of areas of expertise associated with the resolution of concerns pertaining to drugs and drug products. This editorial highlights the initiatives, issues, and challenges that are the forefront of the pharmaceutical sciences in 2007. It also provides an overview of how these difficult questions are being addressed through the programs and events associated with the AAPS 2007 Annual Meeting that will be held at the San Diego, California, Convention Center from November 11 to 15, 2007.
doi:10.1208/aapsj0902024
PMCID: PMC2751411
dose predictions; product design; product quality control; population kinetics; dose individualization; regulatory sciences; pharmacostatistics; process analytical technology; medical imagining; quantitative pharmacology; dissolution; biotechnology
7.  A model-dependent approach to correlate accelerated with real-time release from biodegradable microspheres 
AAPS PharmSciTech  2005;6(4):E553-E564.
The purpose of this study was to determine the feasibility of applying accelerated in vitro release testing to correlate or predict long-term in vitro release of leuprolide poly(lactideco-glycolide) microspheres. Peptide release was studied using a dialysis technique at 37°C and at elevated temperatures (50°C–60°C) in 0.1 M phosphate buffered saline (PBS) pH 7.4 and 0.1 M acetate buffer pH 4.0. The data were analyzed using a modification, of the Weibull equation. Peptide release was temperature dependent and complete within 30 days at 37°C and 3 to 5 days at the elevated temperatures. In vitro release profiles at the elevated temperatures correlated well with release at 37°C. The shapes of the release profiles at all temperatures were similar. Using the modified Weibull equation, an increase in temperature was characterized by an increase in the model parameter, α, a scaling factor for the apparent rate constant. Complete release at 37°C was shortened from ∼30 days to 5 days at 50°C, 3.5 days at 55°C, 2.25 days at 60°C in PBS pH 7.4, and 3 days at 50°C in acetate buffer pH 4.0. Values for the model parameter β indicated that the shape of the release profiles at 55°C in PBS pH 7.4 (2.740) and 50°C in 0.1 M acetate buffer pH 4.0 (2.711) were similar to that at 37°C (2.577). The Ea for hydration and erosion were determined to be 42.3 and 19.4 kcal/mol, respectively. Polymer degradation was also temperature dependent and had an Ea of 31.6 kcal/mol. Short-term in vitro release studies offer the possibility of correlation with long-term release, thereby reducing the time and expense associated with longterm studies. Accelerated release methodology could be useful in the prediction of long-term release from extended release microsphere dosage forms and may serve as a quality control tool for the release of clinical or commercial batches.
doi:10.1208/pt060470
PMCID: PMC2750603  PMID: 16408857
biodegradable microspheres; accelerated in vitro release; modified Weibull equation; sigmoidal triphasic release
8.  Development of a dialysis in vitro release method for biodegradable microspheres 
AAPS PharmSciTech  2005;6(2):E323-E328.
The purpose of this research was to develop a simple and convenient in vitro release method for biodegradable microspheres using a commercially available dialyzer. A 25 KD MWCO Float-a-Lyzer was used to evaluate peptide diffusion at 37°C and 55°C in different buffers and assess the effect of peptide concentration. In vitro release of Leuprolide from PLGA microspheres, having a 1-month duration of action, was assessed using the dialyzer and compared with the commonly used “sample and separate” method with and without agitation. Peptide diffusion through the dialysis membrane was rapid at 37°C and 55°C in all buffers and was independent of peptide concentration. There was no detectable binding to the membrane under the conditions of the study. In vitro release of Leuprolide from PLGA microspheres was tri-phasic and was complete in 28 days with the dialysis technique. With the sample and separate technique, linear release profiles were obtained with complete release occurring under conditions of agitation. Diffusion through the dialysis membrane was sufficiently rapid to qualify the Float-a-Lyzer for an in vitro release system for microparticulate dosage forms. Membrane characteristics render it useful to study drug release under real-time and accelerated conditions.
doi:10.1208/pt060242
PMCID: PMC2750545  PMID: 16353991
biodegradable microspheres; in vitro release methods; dialysis
9.  Assessment of fertility in male rats after extended chemical castration with a GnRH antagonist 
AAPS PharmSci  2004;6(1):94-99.
The purpose of this study was to assess whether male rats whose testosterone levels were suppressed to castration levels (<0.5 ng/mL) for a 1-year period by the sustained delivery of orntide acetate, a GnRH antagonist, would return to fertility (ie, produce offspring) after serum testosterone returned to control levels. Male rats comprising a treatment group (orntide microspheres, dose=27 mg/kg/y), a vehicle control group, and a control group of proven male breeders were used. For the treatment and vehicle control groups, serum orntide and testosterone levels were monitored at periodic intervals for 14 months from the initiation of treatment. After serum testosterone levels returned to vehicle control levels and orntide serum levels were no longer discernible for the treated group, each of the animals was housed with 2 drug-naive, female, proven breeders. All the breeder females produced offspring with the exception of 1 female housed with a male rat from the treatment group and the 2 females housed with a single male rat from the vehicle control group. The mean size and weight of the litters from each group were not statistically different. Further, fertility of the offspring from each group was assessed. The male and female offspring studied were all shown to be fertile. The results suggest that lack of fertility due to testosterone suppression in male rats is reversible after cessation of treatment with the GnRH analog, orntide.
doi:10.1208/ps060110
PMCID: PMC2750945  PMID: 18465262
orntide acetate; PLA microspheres; return to fertility; chemical castration; GnRH antagonist

Results 1-9 (9)