PMCC PMCC

Search tips
Search criteria

Advanced
Results 1-14 (14)
 

Clipboard (0)
None

Select a Filter Below

Journals
Year of Publication
Document Types
1.  Different Pharmaceutical Products Need Similar Terminology 
The AAPS Journal  2013;16(1):11-14.
In the last decade, discussions on the development of the regulatory framework of generic versions of complex drugs such as biologicals and non-biological complex drugs have attracted broad attention. The terminology used is far from harmonized and can lead to multiple interpretations of legal texts, reflection papers, and guidance documents regarding market introduction as well as reimbursement. This article describes the meaning of relevant terms in different global regions (Europe, USA, WHO) and offers a proposal for a globally accepted terminology regarding (non-) biological complex drugs.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1208/s12248-013-9532-0) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
doi:10.1208/s12248-013-9532-0
PMCID: PMC3889525  PMID: 24065599
biosimilars; generics; non biological complex drugs; substitution; terminology
2.  How to Regulate Nonbiological Complex Drugs (NBCD) and Their Follow-on Versions: Points to Consider 
The AAPS Journal  2013;16(1):15-21.
The aim of this critical review is to reach a global consensus regarding the introduction of follow-on versions of nonbiological complex drugs (NBCD). A nonbiological complex drug is a medicinal product, not being a biological medicine, where the active substance is not a homo-molecular structure, but consists of different (closely related and often nanoparticulate) structures that cannot be isolated and fully quantitated, characterized and/or described by state of the art physicochemical analytical means and where the clinical meaning of the differences is not known. The composition, quality and in vivo performance of NBCD are highly dependent on manufacturing processes of both the active ingredient as well as in most cases the formulation. The challenges posed by the development of follow-on versions of NBCD are illustrated in this paper by discussing the ‘families’ of liposomes, iron–carbohydrate (‘iron–sugar’) drugs and glatiramoids. It is proposed that the same principles for the marketing authorization of copies of NBCD as for biosimilars be used: the need for animal and/or clinical data and the need to show similarity in quality, safety and efficacy. The regulatory approach of NBCD will have to take into consideration the specific characteristics of the drugs, their formulation and manufacturing process and the resulting critical attributes to achieve their desired quality, safety and efficacy. As with the biosimilars, for the NBCD product, family-specific methods should be evaluated and applied where scientifically proven, including sophisticated quality methods, pharmacodynamic markers and animal models. Concerning substitution and interchangeability of NBCD, it is also advisable to take biosimilars as an example, i.e. (1) substitution without the involvement of a healthcare professional should be discouraged to ensure traceability of the treatment of individual patients, (2) keep an individual patient on a specific treatment if the patient is doing well and only switch if unavoidable and (3) monitor the safety and efficacy of the new product if switching occurs.
doi:10.1208/s12248-013-9533-z
PMCID: PMC3889532  PMID: 24065600
biosimilars; generics; nonbiological complex drugs; regulatory guidance; substitution
4.  Harmonization of Regulatory Approaches for Evaluating Therapeutic Equivalence and Interchangeability of Multisource Drug Products: Workshop Summary Report 
The AAPS Journal  2011;13(4):556-564.
Regulatory approaches for evaluating therapeutic equivalence of multisource (or generic) drug products vary among different countries and/or regions. Harmonization of these approaches may decrease the number of in vivo bioequivalence studies and avoid unnecessary drug exposure to humans. Global harmonization for regulatory requirements may be promoted by a better understanding of factors underlying product performance and expectations from different regulatory authorities. This workshop provided an opportunity for pharmaceutical scientists from academia, industry and regulatory agencies to have open discussions on current regulatory issues and industry practices, facilitating harmonization of regulatory approaches for establishing therapeutic equivalence and interchangeability of multisource drug products.
doi:10.1208/s12248-011-9294-5
PMCID: PMC3231855  PMID: 21845486
bioequivalence; harmonization; interchangeability; regulatory standards; therapeutic equivalence
5.  Controlled Release of Octreotide and Assessment of Peptide Acylation from Poly(D,L-lactide-co-hydroxymethyl glycolide) Compared to PLGA Microspheres 
Pharmaceutical Research  2011;29(1):110-120.
ABSTRACT
Purpose
To investigate the in vitro release of octreotide acetate, a somatostatin agonist, from microspheres based on a hydrophilic polyester, poly(D,L-lactide-co-hydroxymethyl glycolide) (PLHMGA).
Methods
Spherical and non-porous octreotide-loaded PLHMGA microspheres (12 to 16 μm) and loading efficiency of 60–70% were prepared by a solvent evaporation. Octreotide release profiles were compared with commercial PLGA formulation (Sandostatin LAR®); possible peptide modification with lactic, glycolic and hydroxymethyl glycolic acid units was monitored.
Results
PLHMGA microspheres showed burst release (~20%) followed by sustained release for 20–60 days, depending on the hydrophilicity of the polymer. Percentage of released loaded peptide was high (70–90%); > 60% of released peptide was native octreotide. PLGA microspheres did not show peptide release for the first 10 days, after which it was released in a sustained manner over the next 90 days; > 75% of released peptides were acylated adducts.
Conclusions
PLHMGA microspheres are promising controlled systems for peptides with excellent control over release kinetics. Moreover, substantially less peptide modification occurred in PLHMGA than in PLGA microspheres.
Electronic Supplementary Material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s11095-011-0517-3) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
doi:10.1007/s11095-011-0517-3
PMCID: PMC3246586  PMID: 21744173
acylation; aliphatic polyester; controlled release; microspheres; octreotide; PLGA; stability
6.  DNA Nuclear Targeting Sequences for Non-Viral Gene Delivery 
Pharmaceutical Research  2011;28(7):1707-1722.
ABSTRACT
Purpose
To evaluate if introduction of DNA nuclear Targeting Sequences (DTS; i.e. recognition sequences for endogenous DNA-binding proteins) in plasmid DNA (pDNA) leads to increased transfection efficiency of non-viral gene delivery by virtue of enhanced nuclear import of the pDNA.
Methods
A set of DTS was identified and cloned into EGFP-reporter plasmids controlled by the CMV-promoter. These pDNA constructs were delivered into A431 and HeLa cells using standard electroporation, pEI-based polyfection or lipofection methods. The amount of pDNA delivered into the nucleus was determined by qPCR; transfection efficiency was determined by flow cytometry.
Results
Neither of these DTS increased transgene expression. We varied several parameters (mitotic activity, applied dose and delivery strategy), but without effect. Although upregulated transgene expression was observed after stimulation with TNF-α, this effect could be ascribed to non-specific upregulation of transcription rather than enhanced nuclear import. Nuclear copy numbers of plasmids containing or lacking a DTS did not differ significantly after lipofectamine-based transfection in dividing and non-dividing cells.
Conclusion
No beneficial effects of DTS on gene expression or nuclear uptake were observed in this study.
doi:10.1007/s11095-011-0407-8
PMCID: PMC3109246  PMID: 21424159
DNA; DNA nuclear Targeting Sequences; non-viral gene delivery; nuclear import
7.  Antigen-expressing immunostimulatory liposomes as a genetically programmable synthetic vaccine 
Systems and Synthetic Biology  2010;5(1-2):21-31.
Liposomes are versatile (sub)micron-sized membrane vesicles that can be used for a variety of applications, including drug delivery and in vivo imaging but they also represent excellent models for artificial membranes or cells. Several studies have demonstrated that in vitro transcription and translation can take place inside liposomes to obtain compartmentalized production of functional proteins within the liposomes (Kita et al. in Chembiochem 9(15):2403–2410, 2008; Moritani et al.in FEBS J, 2010; Kuruma et al. in Methods Mol Biol 607:161–171, 2010; Murtas et al. in Biochem Biophys Res Commun 363(1):12–17, 2007; Sunami et al. in Anal Biochem 357(1):128–136, 2006; Ishikawa et al. in FEBS Lett 576(3):387–390, 2004; Oberholzer et al. in Biochem Biophys Res Commun 261(2):238–241, 1999). Such a minimal artificial cell-based model is ideal for synthetic biology based applications. In this study, we propose the use of liposomes as artificial microbes for vaccination. These artificial microbes can be genetically programmed to produce specific antigens at will. To show proof-of-concept for this artificial cell-based platform, a bacterial in vitro transcription and translation system together with a gene construct encoding the model antigen β-galactosidase were entrapped inside multilamellar liposomes. Vaccination studies in mice showed that such antigen-expressing immunostimulatory liposomes (AnExILs) elicited higher specific humoral immune responses against the produced antigen (β-galactosidase) than control vaccines (i.e. AnExILs without genetic input, liposomal β-galactosidase or pDNA encoding β-galactosidase). In conclusion, AnExILs present a new platform for DNA-based vaccines which combines antigen production, adjuvanticity and delivery in one system and which offer several advantages over existing vaccine formulations.
doi:10.1007/s11693-010-9066-z
PMCID: PMC3159695  PMID: 21949673
Synthetic biology; Cell-free protein synthesis; Vaccine; DNA vaccination
8.  Antigen-expressing immunostimulatory liposomes as a genetically programmable synthetic vaccine 
Systems and Synthetic Biology  2010;5(1-2):21-31.
Liposomes are versatile (sub)micron-sized membrane vesicles that can be used for a variety of applications, including drug delivery and in vivo imaging but they also represent excellent models for artificial membranes or cells. Several studies have demonstrated that in vitro transcription and translation can take place inside liposomes to obtain compartmentalized production of functional proteins within the liposomes (Kita et al. in Chembiochem 9(15):2403–2410, 2008; Moritani et al.in FEBS J, 2010; Kuruma et al. in Methods Mol Biol 607:161–171, 2010; Murtas et al. in Biochem Biophys Res Commun 363(1):12–17, 2007; Sunami et al. in Anal Biochem 357(1):128–136, 2006; Ishikawa et al. in FEBS Lett 576(3):387–390, 2004; Oberholzer et al. in Biochem Biophys Res Commun 261(2):238–241, 1999). Such a minimal artificial cell-based model is ideal for synthetic biology based applications. In this study, we propose the use of liposomes as artificial microbes for vaccination. These artificial microbes can be genetically programmed to produce specific antigens at will. To show proof-of-concept for this artificial cell-based platform, a bacterial in vitro transcription and translation system together with a gene construct encoding the model antigen β-galactosidase were entrapped inside multilamellar liposomes. Vaccination studies in mice showed that such antigen-expressing immunostimulatory liposomes (AnExILs) elicited higher specific humoral immune responses against the produced antigen (β-galactosidase) than control vaccines (i.e. AnExILs without genetic input, liposomal β-galactosidase or pDNA encoding β-galactosidase). In conclusion, AnExILs present a new platform for DNA-based vaccines which combines antigen production, adjuvanticity and delivery in one system and which offer several advantages over existing vaccine formulations.
doi:10.1007/s11693-010-9066-z
PMCID: PMC3159695  PMID: 21949673
Synthetic biology; Cell-free protein synthesis; Vaccine; DNA vaccination
9.  Hydrophilic Polyester Microspheres: Effect of Molecular Weight and Copolymer Composition on Release of BSA 
Pharmaceutical Research  2010;27(9):2008-2017.
ABSTRACT
Purpose
To study the release of a model protein, bovine serum albumin (BSA), from microspheres of an hydroxylated aliphatic polyester, poly(lactic-co-hydroxymethyl glycolic acid) (PLHMGA).
Methods
BSA-loaded microspheres were prepared by a double emulsion solvent evaporation method. The effect of copolymer composition and the molecular weight of the copolymer on in vitro release and degradation were studied. The integrity of the released BSA was studied by fluorescence spectroscopy and size exclusion chromatography (SEC).
Results
Microspheres prepared from PLHMGA with 50% hydroxymethyl glycolic acid (HMG) showed a burst release followed by a sustained release in 5–10 days. PLHMGA microspheres prepared from a copolymer with 35% and 25% HMG showed a sustained release of BSA up to 80% for 30 and 60 days, respectively. The release of BSA was hardly affected by the molecular weight of the polymer. Fluorescence spectroscopy and SEC showed that the released BSA preserved its structural integrity. Microspheres were fully degradable, and the degradation time increased from ~20 days to 60 days when the HMG content decreased from 50% to 25%.
Conclusions
Taking the degradation and release data together, it can be concluded that the release of BSA from PLHMGA microspheres is governed by degradation of the microspheres.
doi:10.1007/s11095-010-0205-8
PMCID: PMC2916118  PMID: 20602152
hydroxylated aliphatic polyester; microspheres; PLGA; protein stability; release
10.  The Pharmaceutical Sciences in 2020: Report of a Conference Organized by the Board of Pharmaceutical Sciences of the International Pharmaceutical Federation (FIP) 
Pharmaceutical Research  2010;27(3):396-399.
The Board of Pharmaceutical Sciences (BPS) of the International Pharmaceutical Federation (FIP) has developed a view on the future of pharmaceutical sciences in 2020. This followed an international conference with invited participants from various fields (academicians, scientists, regulators, industrialists, venture capitalists) who shared their views on the forces that might determine how the pharmaceutical sciences will look in 2020. The commentary here provides a summary of major research activities that will drive drug discovery and development, enabling technologies for pharmaceutical sciences, paradigm shifts in drug discovery, development and regulations, and changes in education to meet the demands of academia, industry and regulatory institutions for pharmaceutical sciences in 2020.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s11095-009-0048-3) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
doi:10.1007/s11095-009-0048-3
PMCID: PMC2830627  PMID: 20107875
Pharmaceutical Sciences in 2020
11.  Stabilization of Peptide Vesicles by Introducing Inter-Peptide Disulfide Bonds 
Pharmaceutical Research  2009;26(9):2186-2193.
Purpose
Previously, we have shown that the amphiphilic oligopeptide SA2 (Ac-Ala-Ala-Val-Val-Leu-Leu-Leu-Trp-Glu-Glu-COOH) spontaneously self-assemble into nano-sized vesicles in aqueous environment. Relative weak individual intermolecular interactions dominate such oligopeptide assemblies. In this study we aimed at improving the stability of such peptide vesicles by covalently crosslinking the oligopeptide vesicles using disulfide bonds. Two and three cysteines were introduced in the SA2 peptide sequence to allow crosslinking (Ac-Ala-Cys-Val-Cys-Leu-(Leu/Cys)-Leu-Trp-Glu-Glu-COOH).
Results
Upon disulfide formation the crosslinked vesicles remained stable under conditions that disrupted the non-crosslinked peptide vesicles. The stabilized vesicles were more closely examined in terms of particle size (distribution) using atomic force microscopy, cryogenic electron microscopy, as well as dynamic light scattering analysis, showing an average particle radius in number between 15 and 20 nm. Using entrapment of calcein it was shown that intermolecular crosslinking of peptides within the vesicles did not affect the permeability for calcein.
Conclusion
Introduction of cysteines into the hydrophobic domain of the SA2 amphiphilic oligopeptides is a feasible strategy for crosslinking the peptide vesicles. Such small crosslinked oligopeptide vesicles may hold promise for drug delivery applications.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s11095-009-9933-z) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
doi:10.1007/s11095-009-9933-z
PMCID: PMC2719749  PMID: 19582551
amphiphilic oligopeptides; crosslinking; recombinant; self-assembly; vesicle
12.  Assuring quality and performance of sustained and controlled release parenterals: EUFEPS workshop report 
AAPS PharmSci  2004;6(1):100-111.
This is a summary report of the workshop, organized by the European Federation of Pharmaceutical Scientists in association with the American Association of Pharmaceutical Scientists, the European Agency for the Evaluation of Medicinal Products, the European Pharmacopoeia, the US Food and Drug Administration and the United States Pharmacopoeia, on “Assuring Quality and Performance of Sustained and Controlled Release Parenterals” held in Basel, Switzerland, February 2003. Experts from the pharmaceutical industry, regulatory authorities and academia participated in this workshop to review, discuss and debate formulation, processing and manufacture of sustained and controlled release parenterals, and identify critical process parameters and their control. This workshop was a follow-up workshop to a previous workshop on Assuring Quality and Performance of Sustained and Controlled Release Parenterals that was held in Washington, DC in April 2001. This report reflects the outcome of the Basel 2003 meeting and the advances in the field since the Washington, DC meeting in 2001. As necessary, the reader is referred to the report on the 2001 meeting. Areas were identified at the 2003 Basel meeting where research is needed in order to understand the performance of these drug delivery systems and to assist in the development of appropriate testing procedures. Recommendations were made for future workshops and meetings.
doi:10.1208/ps060111
PMCID: PMC2750946  PMID: 18465263
13.  Liposomal Meningococcal B Vaccination: Role of Dendritic Cell Targeting in the Development of a Protective Immune Response  
Infection and Immunity  2003;71(9):5210-5218.
The effect of targeting strategies for improving the interaction of liposomal PorA with dendritic cells (DC) on the immunogenicity of PorA was investigated. PorA, a major antigen of Neisseria meningitidis, was purified and reconstituted in different types of (targeted) liposomes, i.e., by using mannose or phosphatidylserine as targeting moieties, or with positively charged liposomes. We studied the efficiency of liposome uptake and its effect on the maturation of and interleukin 12 (IL-12) production by murine DC. Moreover, mice were immunized subcutaneously to study the localization and immunogenicity of PorA liposomes. Uptake of liposomes by DC was significantly increased for targeted liposomes and resulted in the maturation of DC, but to various degrees. Maturation markers (i.e., CD80, CD86, major histocompatibility complex class II, and CD40) showed enhanced expression on DC incubated with targeted PorA liposomes relative to those incubated with nontargeted PorA liposomes. Moreover, only the uptake of targeted PorA liposomes induced production of IL-12 by DC, with levels similar to those produced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-pulsed DC. Mannose-targeted PorA liposomes administered subcutaneously had an increased localization in draining lymph nodes compared to nontargeted PorA liposomes. Liposomes in draining lymph nodes interacted preferentially with antigen-presenting cells, an effect that was enhanced with targeted PorA liposomes. Immunization studies showed an improvement of the bactericidal antibody response (i.e., increased number of responders) generated by targeted PorA liposomes compared to that generated by nontargeted ones or LPS-containing outer membrane vesicles. In conclusion, the use of targeted PorA liposomes results in an improved uptake by and activation of DC and an increased localization in draining lymph nodes. These effects correlate with an enhanced immune response toward the vaccine.
doi:10.1128/IAI.71.9.5210-5218.2003
PMCID: PMC187329  PMID: 12933866
14.  Thiolated Recombinant Human Tumor Necrosis Factor-Alpha Protects against Plasmodium berghei K173-Induced Experimental Cerebral Malaria in Mice 
The introduction of reactive thiol groups in recombinant human tumor necrosis factor (TNF) alpha (rhTNF-α) by the reagent succinimidyl-S-acetylthioacetate resulted in the formation of a chemically stabilized rhTNF-α trimer (rhTNFα-AT; as determined by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis analysis). rhTNFα-AT showed a substantially enhanced protective efficacy against the development of experimental murine cerebral malaria (ECM) after intravenous injection compared to the protective efficacy of nonmodified rhTNF-α. Administration of thiolated rhTNF-α with protected thiol groups (rhTNFα-ATA; no stabilized trimers in vitro) exhibited the same protective efficacy against ECM, while in vitro bioactivity was reduced. Parasitemia was significantly suppressed in rhTNF-treated mice that were protected against ECM but not in treated mice that developed ECM. Protection against ECM was not related to increased concentrations in plasma of soluble TNF receptor 1 and 2 directly after injection or at the moment of development of ECM in nontreated mice. The results indicate that thiolation of rhTNF-α leads to the formation of stable trimers with increased potential in vivo.
PMCID: PMC89107  PMID: 10223910

Results 1-14 (14)