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1.  The Challenges of Assessing Osteoarthritis and Postoperative Pain in Dogs 
The AAPS Journal  2013;15(2):598-607.
The challenge of measuring pain in veterinary medicine is compounded by the lack of fully validated, reliable methods to measure and assess pain in nonverbal patients. In human medicine, there are numerous, validated pain assessment tools (PATs) for assessing various, specific types of pain. The advances in human medicine pain management and numerous validated pain scales should serve as incentives and templates to facilitate similar advances in the development of validated PATs for use in dogs (and other species). The limited number of canine PATs constrains our ability to adequately and reliably assess pain. Improving the ability to quantify osteoarthritis and postoperative pain in dogs would enhance the development of analgesics for animals, advance the management of animal pain, facilitate the use of animal pain models in preclinical trials for human analgesics, and provide insight into the quantification of pain responses in humans who lack the ability to adequately communicate. This review describes the need for practical, valid, and reliable PATs for use in veterinary patients and discusses some currently available PATs commonly used to evaluate acute and chronic pain in dogs.
doi:10.1208/s12248-013-9467-5
PMCID: PMC3675751  PMID: 23456420
pain assessment; veterinary pain scales
2.  Pharmacogenetic and Metabolic Differences Between Dog Breeds: Their Impact on Canine Medicine and the Use of the Dog as a Preclinical Animal Model 
The AAPS journal  2008;10(1):110-119.
There is limited information describing species related pharmacogenetic differences in animals. Despite the lack of genetic information in veterinary medicine, breed specific responses to endogenous and exogenous substances have been reported across many species. This finding underscores the importance of obtaining insight into the genotypic and phenotypic variation present across breeds. This article provides a summary of the literature pertaining to canine breed differences in physiology, drug response, drug pharmacokinetics, and metabolic idiosyncrasies. The existing knowledge of pedigrees and the known phenotypes and genotypes of dogs provides important information for determining mode of inheritance, penetration, and other major characteristics of heritable traits. Understanding these breed differences will improve canine population predictions (for canine drug products) and may be of value when extrapolating toxicology data from dogs to humans.
doi:10.1208/s12248-008-9011-1
PMCID: PMC2747081  PMID: 18446511
bioavailability; breed-related differences; canine pharmacodynamics; canine pharmacogenetics; canine pharmacokinetics; drug response; population diversity
3.  Pharmacogenetic and Metabolic Differences Between Dog Breeds: Their Impact on Canine Medicine and the Use of the Dog as a Preclinical Animal Model 
The AAPS Journal  2008;10(1):110-119.
There is limited information describing species related pharmacogenetic differences in animals. Despite the lack of genetic information in veterinary medicine, breed specific responses to endogenous and exogenous substances have been reported across many species. This finding underscores the importance of obtaining insight into the genotypic and phenotypic variation present across breeds. This article provides a summary of the literature pertaining to canine breed differences in physiology, drug response, drug pharmacokinetics, and metabolic idiosyncrasies. The existing knowledge of pedigrees and the known phenotypes and genotypes of dogs provides important information for determining mode of inheritance, penetration, and other major characteristics of heritable traits. Understanding these breed differences will improve canine population predictions (for canine drug products) and may be of value when extrapolating toxicology data from dogs to humans.
doi:10.1208/s12248-008-9011-1
PMCID: PMC2747081  PMID: 18446511
bioavailability; breed-related differences; canine pharmacodynamics; canine pharmacogenetics; canine pharmacokinetics; drug response; population diversity

Results 1-3 (3)