PMCC PMCC

Search tips
Search criteria

Advanced
Results 1-13 (13)
 

Clipboard (0)
None

Select a Filter Below

Journals
Year of Publication
1.  Summary Workshop Report: Facilitating Oral Product Development and Reducing Regulatory Burden Through Novel Approaches to Assess Bioavailability/Bioequivalence 
The AAPS Journal  2012;14(3):627-638.
This summary workshop report highlights presentations and over-arching themes from an October 2011 workshop. Discussions focused on best practices in the application of biopharmaceutics in oral drug product development and evolving bioequivalence approaches. Best practices leverage biopharmaceutic data and other drug, formulation, and patient/disease data to identify drug development challenges in yielding a successfully performing product. Quality by design and product developability paradigms were discussed. Development tools include early development strategies to identify critical absorption factors and oral absorption modeling. An ongoing theme was the desire to comprehensively and systematically assess risk of product failure via the quality target product profile and root cause and risk analysis. However, a parallel need is reduced timelines and fewer resources. Several presentations discussed applying Biopharmaceutics Classification System (BCS) and in vitro–in vivo correlations in development and in post-development and discussed both resource savings and best scientific practices. The workshop also focused on evolving bioequivalence approaches, with emphasis on highly variable products (HVDP), as well as specialized modified-release products. In USA, two bioequivalence approaches for HVDP are the reference-scaled average bioequivalence approach and the two-stage group-sequential design. An adaptive sequential design approach is also acceptable in Canada. In European Union, two approaches for HVDP are a two-stage design and an approach to widen Cmax acceptance limits. For some specialized modified-release products, FDA now requests partial area under the curve. Rationale and limitations of such metrics were discussed (e.g., zolpidem and methylphenidate). A common theme was the benefit of the scientific and regulatory community developing, validating, and harmonizing newer bioequivalence methodologies (e.g., BCS-based waivers and HVDP trial designs).
doi:10.1208/s12248-012-9376-z
PMCID: PMC3385831  PMID: 22684402
2.  Biopharmaceutic Planning in Pediatric Drug Development 
The AAPS Journal  2012;14(3):519-522.
Pediatric drug development is a required consideration for all drug development programs. Age-appropriate formulations such as suspensions, chewable tablets, oral disintegrating tablets, etc., are typically developed and used in the pediatric clinical studies. However, it is not uncommon to use enabling formulations in the pivotal pediatric clinical study followed by bridging bioavailability and/or bioequivalence studies. Development of age-appropriate formulations is an essential part of pediatric drug development and adds additional biopharmaceutical considerations to an already complex problem. Careful planning of biopharmaceutic data collection during the adult and pediatric development program can contribute significantly to the biopharmaceutic risk assessment and planning of appropriate clinical studies leading to successful development of pediatric formulations.
doi:10.1208/s12248-012-9364-3
PMCID: PMC3385835  PMID: 22562590
bioavailability; bioequivalence; biopharmaceutics; formulations; pediatric
3.  IL-12 Delivered Intratumorally by Multilamellar Liposomes Reactivates Memory T Cells in Human Tumor Microenvironments 
Using a novel loading technique, IL-12 is reported here to be efficiently encapsulated within large multilamellar liposomes. The preclinical efficacy of the cytokine loaded liposomes to deliver IL-12 into human tumors and to reactive tumor-associated T cells in situ is tested using a human tumor xenograft model. IL-12 is released in vivo from these liposomes in a biologically active form when injected into tumor xenografts that are established by the subcutaneous implantation of non-disrupted pieces of human lung, breast or ovarian tumors into immunodeficient mice. The histological architecture of the original tumor tissue, including tumor-associated leukocytes, tumor cells and stromal cells is preserved anatomically and the cells remain functionally responsive to cytokines in these xenografts. The local and sustained release of IL-12 into the tumor microenvironment reactivates tumor-associated quiescent effector memory T cells to proliferate, produce and release IFN-γ resulting in the killing of tumor cells in situ. Very little IL-12 is detected in the serum of mice for up to 5 days after an intratumoral injection of the IL-12 liposomes. We conclude that IL-12 loaded large multilamellar liposomes provide a safe method for the local and sustained delivery of IL-12 to tumors and a therapeutically effective way of reactivating existing tumor-associated T cells in human solid tumor microenvironments. The potential of this local in situ T cell re-stimulation to induce a systemic anti-tumor immunity is discussed.
doi:10.1016/j.clim.2009.03.516
PMCID: PMC2693480  PMID: 19395317
Tumor Immunotherapy; T Cells; Interleukin-12; Liposomes; SCID mice
4.  Lipid Binding Region (2303–2332) Is Involved in Aggregation of Recombinant Human FVIII (rFVIII) 
Journal of pharmaceutical sciences  2005;94(6):1288-1299.
Factor VIII (FVIII) is a multi-domain protein that is important in the clotting cascade. Its deficiency causes Hemophilia A, a bleeding disorder. The unfolding of protein domains can lead to physical instability such as aggregation, and hinder their use in replacement therapy. It has been shown that the aggregation of rFVIIII is initiated by small fluctuations in the protein’s tertiary structure (Grillo et al., 2001, Biochemistry 40:586–595). We have investigated the domain(s) involved in the initiation of aggregation using circular dichroism (CD), size exclusion chromatography (SEC), fluorescence anisotropy, domain specific antibody binding, and clotting activity studies. The studies indicated that aggregation may be initiated as a result of conformational change in the C2 domain encompassing the lipid-binding region (2303–2332). The presence of O-phospho-L-Serine (OPLS), which binds to the lipid-binding region of FVIII, prevented aggregation of the protein.
doi:10.1002/jps.20340
PMCID: PMC2583467  PMID: 15858858
recombinant human FVIII (rFVIII); physical instability; multi-domain; lipid-binding region; hemophilia A; inhibitor development
5.  Lower Inhibitor Development in Hemophilia A Mice following Administration of Recombinant Factor VIII-O-Phospho-l-serine Complex* 
The Journal of biological chemistry  2005;280(18):17593-17600.
Factor VIII is a multidomain protein composed of A1, A2, B, A3, C1, and C2 domains. Deficiency or dysfunction of factor VIII causes hemophilia A, a bleeding disorder. Administration of exogenous recombinant factor VIII as a replacement leads to development of inhibitory antibodies against factor VIII in 15−30% of hemophilia A patients. Hence, less immunogenic preparations of factor VIII are highly desirable. Inhibitory antibodies against factor VIII are mainly directed against immunodominant epitopes in C2, A3, and A2 domains. Further, several universal epitopes for CD4+ T-cells have been identified within the C2 domain. The C2 domain is also known to interact specifically with phosphatidylserine-rich lipid vesicles. Here, we have investigated the hypothesis that complexation of O-phospho-l-serine, the head group of phosphatidylserine, with the C2 domain can reduce the overall immunogenicity of factor VIII. The biophysical (circular dichroism and fluorescence) and biochemical studies (ELISA and size exclusion chromatography) showed that O-phospho-l-serine binds to the phospholipid-binding region in the C2 domain, and this interaction causes subtle changes in the tertiary structure of the protein. O-Phospho-l-serine also prevented aggregation of the protein under thermal stress. The immunogenicity of the factor VIII-O-phospho-l-serine complex was evaluated in hemophilia A mice. The total and inhibitory antibody titers were lower for factor VIII-O-phospho-l-serine complex compared with factor VIII alone. Moreover, factor VIII administered as a complex with O-phospho-l-serine retained in vivo activity in hemophilia A mice. Our results suggest that factor VIII-O-phospho-l-serine complex may be beneficial to increase the physical stability and reduce immunogenicity of recombinant factor VIII preparations.
doi:10.1074/jbc.M500163200
PMCID: PMC2582172  PMID: 15728582
6.  Aggregation Kinetics of Recombinant Human FVIII (rFVIII) 
Journal of pharmaceutical sciences  2005;94(9):2023-2029.
The physical phenomenon of aggregation can have profound impact on the stability of therapeutic proteins. This study focuses on the aggregation behavior of recombinant human FVIII (rFVIII), a multi-domain protein used as the first line of therapy for hemophilia A, a bleeding disorder caused by the deficiency or dysfunction of factor VIII (FVIII). Thermal denaturation of rFVIII was investigated using circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy and size exclusion chromatography (SEC). The dependence of unfolding on heating rate indicated that the thermal denaturation of the protein was at least partly under kinetic control. The data was interpreted in terms of a simple two-state kinetic model, N(Native)→kA(Aggregated), where k is a first-order kinetic constant that changes with temperature, as given by the Arrhenius equation. Analysis of the data in terms of the above scheme suggested that under the experimental conditions used in this study, the rate-controlling step in the aggregation of rFVIII may be a unimolecular reaction involving conformational changes.
doi:10.1002/jps.20432
PMCID: PMC2574007  PMID: 16052549
rFVIII; physical instability; multi-domain; irreversible denaturation; kinetic control
7.  Influence of Aggregation on Immunogenicity of Recombinant Human Factor VIII in Hemophilia A Mice 
Recombinant human factor VIII (rFVIII), a multidomain glycoprotein is used in replacement therapy for treatment of hemophilia A. Unfortunately, 15%–30% of the treated patients develop inhibitory antibodies. The pathogenesis of antibody development is not completely understood. The presence of aggregated protein in formulations is generally believed to enhance the immune response. rFVIII has a tendency to aggregate but the effect of such aggregation on the immunogenicity of rFVIII is not known. We have, therefore, characterized aggregated rFVIII produced by thermal stress and evaluated its effect on the immunogenicity of rFVIII in hemophilia A mice. Aggregated rFVIII alone and mixtures of rFVIII with aggregated rFVIII were less immunogenic than native rFVIII. In vitro Th-cell proliferation studies and cytokine analyses conducted on splenocytes obtained from immunized animals suggest that aggregated rFVIII behaves as a unique antigen compared to native monomeric rFVIII. The antigenic properties of the aggregated and native rFVIII were compared using ELISAs (epitope availability) and cathepsin-B (an antigen processing enzyme) digestion. The data suggest significant differences in the antigenic properties of rFVIII and aggregated rFVIII. Overall it appears that aggregated rFVIII does not enhance the immunogenicity (inhibitor development) of rFVIII in hemophilia A mice but rather acts as a distinct antigen.
doi:10.1002/jps.20529
PMCID: PMC2574426  PMID: 16372314
circular dichroism; fluorescence spectroscopy; hemophilia A; inhibitor development; protein aggregation; protein structure; recombinant human Factor VIII; immunogenicity; immunology
8.  Phosphatidylserine Containing Liposomes Reduce Immunogenicity of Recombinant Human Factor VIII (rFVIII) in a Murine Model of Hemophilia A 
Journal of pharmaceutical sciences  2008;97(4):1386-1398.
Factor VIII (FVIII) is a multidomain protein that is deficient in hemophilia A, a clinically important bleeding disorder. Replacement therapy using recombinant human FVIII (rFVIII) is the main therapy. However, approximately 15-30% of patients develop inhibitory antibodies that neutralize rFVIII activity. Antibodies to epitopes in C2 domain, which is involved in FVIII binding to phospholipids, are highly prevalent. Here, we investigated the effect of phosphatidylserine (PS)-containing liposomes, which bind to C2 domain with high affinity and specificity, upon the immunogenicity of rFVIII. Circular dichroism studies showed that PS-containing liposomes interfered with aggregation of rFVIII. Immunogenicity of free- versus liposomal-rFVIII was evaluated in a murine model of hemophilia A. Animals treated with s.c. injections of liposomal-rFVIII had lower total- and inhibitory titers, compared to animals treated with rFVIII alone. Antigen processing by proteolytic enzymes was reduced in the presence of liposomes. Animals treated with s.c. injections of liposomal-rFVIII showed a significant increase in rFVIII plasma concentration compared to animals that received rFVIII alone. Based on these studies, we hypothesize that specific molecular interactions between PS-containing bilayers and rFVIII may provide a basis for designing lipidic complexes that improve the stability, reduce the immunogenicity of rFVIII formulations, and permit administration by s.c. route.
doi:10.1002/jps.21102
PMCID: PMC2574438  PMID: 17705286
hemophilia A; recombinant FVIII; immunogenicity; inhibitor antibodies; phosphatidylserine liposomes; protein delivery; protein formulation; lipids; immunology
9.  Passive Transfer of Polyethylene glycol to Liposomal-Recombinant Human FVIII Enhances its Efficacy in a Murine Model for Hemophilia A 
Journal of pharmaceutical sciences  2008;97(9):3753-3764.
The replacement therapy using recombinant human FVIII (rFVIII) is the first line of therapy for hemophilia A. Approximately 15-30% of the patients develop inhibitory antibodies. Recently, we reported that liposomes composed of phosphatidylserine (PS) could reduce the immunogenicity of rFVIII. However, PS containing liposomal-rFVIII is likely to reduce the systemic exposure and efficacy of FVIII due to rapid uptake of the PS containing liposomes by the reticuloendothelial system (RES). Here, we investigated whether phosphatidylserine (PS) liposomes containing polyethyleneglycol (PEG) (PEGylated), could reduce the immunogenicity of rFVIII and reverse the reduction in systemic exposure of rFVIII. Animals given PEGylated liposomal-rFVIII had lower total and inhibitory anti-rFVIII antibody titers, compared to animals treated with rFVIII alone. The mean stimulation index of CD4+ T-cells from animals given PEGylated liposomal-rFVIII also was lower than for animals that were given rFVIII alone. Pharmacokinetic studies following intravenous dosing indicated that the systemic exposure (area under the activity curve, AUAC0-24h) of PEGylated liposomal-rFVIII was ∼59 IU/mL×h and significantly higher than that of non-PEGylated liposomal-rFVIII (AUAC0-24h∼36 IU/mL×h). Based on these studies, we speculate that PEGylated PS-containing liposomal rFVIII may improve efficacy of rFVIII.
doi:10.1002/jps.21266
PMCID: PMC2574432  PMID: 18300296
hemophilia A; recombinant FVIII; immunogenicity; inhibitory antibodies; PEGylated-liposomes
10.  Interaction of Dicaproyl Phosphatidylserine With Recombinant Factor VIII and Its Impact on Immunogenicity 
The AAPS journal  2006;8(2):E362-E370.
Replacement therapy with exogenous recombinant factor VIII (rFVIII) to control bleeding episodes results in the development of inhibitory antibodies in 15% to 30% of hemophilia A patients. The inhibitory antibodies are mainly directed against specific and universal immunodominant epitopes located in the C2 domain. Previously we have shown that complexation of O-phospho-L-serine (phosphatidylserine head group) with the phospholipid binding region of the C2 domain can lead to an overall reduction in the immunogenicity of rFVIII. Here, we have investigated the hypothesis that dicaproyl phosphatidylserine, a short-chain water-soluble phospholipid, can reduce the immunogenicity of rFVIII. Circular dichroism and fluorescence spectroscopy studies suggest that dicaproyl phosphatidyl-serine interacts with rFVIII, causing subtle changes in the tertiary and secondary structure of the protein. Sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay studies indicate that dicaproyl phosphatidylserine probably interacts with the phospholipid binding region of the C2 domain. The immunogenicity of FVIII-dicaproyl phosphatidylserine complexes prepared at concentrations above and below the critical micellar concentrations of the lipid were evaluated in hemophilia A mice. Our results suggest that micellar dicaproyl phosphatidylserine may be useful to reduce the immunogenicity of rFVIII preparations.
doi:10.1208/aapsj080241
PMCID: PMC2574005  PMID: 16796387
Hemophilia A; inhibitor development; aggregation; recombinant human factor VIII; protein folding; factor VIII-DCPS complex
11.  O-Phospho-L-Serine, Multi-functional Excipient for B Domain Deleted Recombinant Factor VIII 
The AAPS journal  2007;9(2):E251-E259.
Factor VIII (FVIII) is an important cofactor in the blood coagulation cascade. A deficiency or dysfunction of FVIII causes hemophilia A, a life-threatening bleeding disorder. FVIII circulates in plasma as a heterodimer comprising 6 domains (heavy chain, A1-A2-B and light chain, A3-C1-C2). Replacement therapy using FVIII is the leading therapy in the management of hemophilia A. However, ∼15% to 30% of patients develop inhibitory antibodies that neutralize the activity of the protein. Neutralizing antibodies to epitopes in the lipid binding region of FVIII are commonly identified in patients’ plasma. In this report, we investigated the effect of O-phospho-L-serine (OPLS), which binds to the lipid binding region, on the immunogenicity of B domain deleted recombinant factor VIII (BDDrFVIII). Sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) studies showed that OPLS specifically bind to the lipid binding region, localized in the C2 domain of the coagulation factor. Size exclusion chromatography and fluorescence anisotropy studies showed that OPLS interfered with the aggregation of BDDrFVIII. Immunogenicity of free-vs BDDrFVIII-OPLS complex was evaluated in a murine model of hemophilia A. Animals administered subcutaneous (sc) injections of BDDrFVIII-OPLS had lower neutralizing titers compared with animals treated with BDDrFVIII alone. Based on these studies, we hypothesize that specific molecular interactions between OPLS and BDDrFVIII may improve the stability and reduce the immunogenicity of BDDrFVIII formulations.
doi:10.1208/aapsj0902028
PMCID: PMC2573386  PMID: 17907766
B domain deleted recombinant factor VIII; O-phospho-L-serine; protein formulation; excipient; physical stability; immunogenicity; inhibitor development
12.  O-phospho-L-serine, multi-functional excipient for B domain deleted recombinant factor VIII 
The AAPS Journal  2007;9(2):E251-E259.
Factor VIII (FVIII) is an important cofactor in the blood coagulation cascade. A deficiency or dysfunction of FVIII causes hemophilia A, a life-threatening bleeding disorder. FVIII circulates in plasma as a heterodimer comprising 6 domains (heavy chain, A1-A2-B and light chain A3-C1-C2). Replacement therapy using FVIII is the leading therapy in the management of hemophilia A. However, ∼15% to 30% of patients develop inhibitory antibodies that neutralize the activity of the protein. Neutralizing antibodies to epitopes in the lipid binding region of FVIII are commonly identified in patients' plasma. In this report, we investigated the effect of O-phospho-L-serine (OPLS), which binds to the lipid bindinding region, on the immunogenicity of B domain deleted recombinant factor VIII (BDDrFVIII). Sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) studies showed that OPLS specifically bind to the lipid binding region, localized in the C2 domain of the coagulation factor. Size exclusion chromatography and fluorescence anisotropy studies showed that OPLS interfered with the aggregation of BDDrFVIII. Immunogenicity of free-vs BDDrFVIII-OPLS complex was evaluated in a murine model of hemophilia A. Animals administered subcutaneous (sc) injections of BDDrFVIII-OPLS had lower neutralizing titers compared with animals treated with BDDRFVIII alone. Based on these studies, we hypothesize that specific molecular interactions between OPLS and BDDrFVIII may improve the stability and reduce the immunogenicity of BDDrFVIII formulations.
doi:10.1208/aapsj0902028
PMCID: PMC2573386  PMID: 17907766
B domain deleted recombinant factor VIII; O-phospho-L-serine; protein formulation; excipient; physical stability; immunogenicity; inhibitor development
13.  Interaction of dicaproyl phosphatidylserine with recombinant factor VIII and its impact on immunogenicity 
The AAPS Journal  2006;8(2):E362-E370.
Replacement therapy with exogenous recombinant factor VIII (rFVIII) to control bleeding episodes results in the development of inhibitory antibodies in 15% to 30% of hemophilia A patients. The inhibitory antibodies are mainly directed against specific and universal immunodominant epitopes located in the C2 domain. Previously we have shown that complexation of O-phospho-L-serine (phosphatidylserine head group) with the phospholipid binding region of the C2 domain can lead to an overall reduction in the immunogenicity of rFVIII. Here, we have investigated the hypothesis that dicaproyl phosphatidylserine, a short-chain water-soluble phospholipid, can reduce the immunogenicity of rFVIII. Circular dichroism and fluorescence spectroscopy studies suggest that dicaproyl phosphatidyl-serine interacts with rFVIII, causing subtle changes in the tertiary and secondary structure of the protein. Sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay studies indicate that dicaproyl phosphatidylserine probably interacts with the phospholipid binding region of the C2 domain. The immunogenicity of FVIII-dicaproyl phosphatidylserine complexes prepared at concentrations above and below the critical micellar concentrations of the lipid were evaluated in hemophilia A mice. Our results suggest that micellar dicaproyl phosphatidylserine may be useful to reduce the immunogenicity of rFVIII preparations.
doi:10.1007/BF02854907
PMCID: PMC2574005  PMID: 16796387
Hemophilia A; inhibitor development; aggregation; recombinant human factor VIII; protein folding; factor VIII-DCPS complex

Results 1-13 (13)