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author:("Patel, devant")
1.  Interleukin-17 Stimulates C-reactive Protein Expression in Hepatocytes and Smooth Muscle Cells via p38 MAPK and ERK1/2-dependent NF-κB and C/EBPβ Activation* 
The Journal of biological chemistry  2007;282(37):10.1074/jbc.M703250200.
Elevated systemic levels of the acute phase C-reactive protein (CRP) are predictors of future cardiovascular events. There is evidence that CRP may also play a direct role in atherogenesis. Here we determined whether the proinflammatory interleukin (IL)-17 stimulates CRP expression in hepatocytes (Hep3B cell line and primary hepatocytes) and coronary artery smooth muscle cells (CASMC). Our results demonstrate that IL-17 potently induces CRP expression in Hep3B cells independent of IL-1β and IL-6. IL-17 induced CRP promoter-driven reporter gene activity that could be attenuated by dominant negative IκBα or C/EBPβ knockdown and stimulated both NF-κB and C/EBP DNA binding and reporter gene activities. Targeting NF-κB and C/EBPβ activation by pharmacological inhibitors, small interfering RNA interference and adenoviral transduction of dominant negative expression vectors blocked IL-17-mediated CRP induction. Overexpression of wild type p50, p65, and C/EBPβ stimulated CRP transcription. IL-17 stimulated p38 MAPK and ERK1/2 activation, and SB203580 and PD98059 blunted IL-17-mediated NF-κB and C/EBP activation and CRP transcription. These results, confirmed in primary human hepatocytes and CASMC, demonstrate for the first time that IL-17 is a potent inducer of CRP expression via p38 MAPK and ERK1/2-dependent NF-κB and C/EBPβ activation and suggest that IL-17 may mediate chronic inflammation, atherosclerosis, and thrombosis.
doi:10.1074/jbc.M703250200
PMCID: PMC3818724  PMID: 17652082
2.  Minocycline blocks lipopolysaccharide induced hyperalgesia by suppression of microglia but not astrocytes 
Neuroscience  2012;221:214-224.
Systemic injection of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induces a robust immune response as well as thermal and mechanical hyperalgesia. Spinal and peripheral glial cells have been implicated as important mediators in this hyperalgesia but the specific contributions of microglia versus astrocytes are not entirely clear. To better define these mechanisms, this study examined the febrile response, nociceptive sensitivity, glial cell reactivity and cytokine production in the dorsal root ganglion (DRG) and spinal cord in rats following systemic treatment with LPS and the effects of minocycline in countering these responses. Intraperitoneal LPS injection resulted in an increase in core body temperature and produced hyperalgesia to heat and mechanical stimuli. Western blot studies revealed increased expression of microgial cell, macrophage and satellite cell markers in DRG and microglial and astrocyte markers in spinal cord following LPS treatment. Real-time RT-PCR indicated that LPS treatment increased cytokine mRNA expression levels in both the DRG and the spinal cord. Minocycline suppressed all LPS-induced behavioral effects but not the febrile response. Moreover, minocycline prevented LPS induced microglia/macrophage activation and cytokine responses in spinal cord and DRG, but did not affect the activation of astrocytes/satellite cells. These data demonstrate that LPS-induced changes in nociceptive sensitivity are likely mediated by activation of microglial cells and/or macrophages in the spinal cord and DRG.
doi:10.1016/j.neuroscience.2012.06.024
PMCID: PMC3424316  PMID: 22742905
Lipopolysaccharide; Minocycline; Hyperalgesia; Dorsal root ganglion; Spinal cord; Inflammation; Microglia; Astrocyte; Satellite cell
3.  Therapeutic Potential of Mesenchymal Stem Cells in Regenerative Medicine 
Stem Cells International  2013;2013:496218.
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are stromal cells that have the ability to self-renew and also exhibit multilineage differentiation into both mesenchymal and nonmesenchymal lineages. The intrinsic properties of these cells make them an attractive candidate for clinical applications. MSCs are of keen interest because they can be isolated from a small aspirate of bone marrow or adipose tissues and can be easily expanded in vitro. Moreover, their ability to modulate immune responses makes them an even more attractive candidate for regenerative medicine as allogeneic transplant of these cells is feasible without a substantial risk of immune rejection. MSCs secrete various immunomodulatory molecules which provide a regenerative microenvironment for a variety of injured tissues or organ to limit the damage and to increase self-regulated tissue regeneration. Autologous/allogeneic MSCs delivered via the bloodstream augment the titers of MSCs that are drawn to sites of tissue injury and can accelerate the tissue repair process. MSCs are currently being tested for their potential use in cell and gene therapy for a number of human debilitating diseases and genetic disorders. This paper summarizes the current clinical and nonclinical data for the use of MSCs in tissue repair and potential therapeutic role in various diseases.
doi:10.1155/2013/496218
PMCID: PMC3615627  PMID: 23577036
4.  Updates to the World Health Organization’s Recommendations for the Use of Antiretroviral Drugs for Treating Pregnant Women and Preventing HIV Infection in Infants 
Medical journal of Zambia  2010;37(2):111-117.
Summary
In July 2010, the World Health Organization (WHO) released new guidelines entitled, “Antiretroviral Drugs for Treating Pregnant Women and Preventing HIV Infection in Infants: Towards universal access.” Previewed in November 2009 in abridged form, the completed document highlights the key WHO recommendations for antiretroviral treatment (ART) and prophylaxis in pregnant women, and contains substantial changes from the 2006 guidelines. Of note, the new guidelines recommend ART for all pregnant women with a CD4 cell count (CD4) less than 350 cells/mm3, regardless of their clinical stage; includes tenofovir (TDF) as an acceptable alternative component of an ART regimen in pregnant and breastfeeding women; encourages initiation of both ART and antiretroviral (ARV) prophylaxis early in pregnancy; eliminates single-dose nevirapine (sdNVP) per se as a prophylaxis option; lists three-drug ARV prophylaxis as an option for women who do not need ART for their own health; and introduces extended daily infant nevirapine (ED-NVP) as a strategy for prevention of breast milk transmission of HIV. This article reviews these new recommendations and their rationale, and highlights key implications and challenges to their implementation in the Zambian context.
PMCID: PMC3535284  PMID: 23293399
7.  Characterization of Nanoporous Surfaces as Templates for Drug Delivery Devices 
The AAPS Journal  2009;11(4):758-761.
doi:10.1208/s12248-009-9152-x
PMCID: PMC2782086  PMID: 19876743
cyanoacrylate; drug delivery; methyl orange; nanopores; volume calculation

Results 1-7 (7)