Return to Sender; Undeliverable mail; Communicable disease notification; Patient address
Public Health Reporting; Timeliness; Chlamydia; Data Quality; Communicable Disease Control
The objective of the study was to identify the active fraction(s) from AR aqueous extract responsible for promoting angiogenesis using bioassay-guided fractionation. The angiogenic activity was screened by monitoring the increase of sprout number in sub-intestinal vessel (SIV) of the transgenic zebrafish embryos after they were treated with 0.06-0.25 mg/ml of AR aqueous extract or its fraction(s) for 96 h. Furthermore, the angiogenic effect was evaluated in treated zebrafish embryos by measuring the gene expression of angiogenic markers (VEGFA, KDR, and Flt-1) using real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), and in human microvascular endothelial cell (HMEC-1) by measuring cell proliferation using 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay, 3H-thymidine uptake assay, and cell cycle analysis. A major active fraction (P1-1-1), which was identified as glycoproteins, was found to significantly stimulate sprout formation (2.03 ± 0.27) at 0.125 mg/ml (P < 0.001) and up-regulate the gene expression of VEGFA, KDR, and Flt-1 by 2.6-fold to 8.2-fold. Additionally, 0.031-0.125 mg/ml of P1-1-1 was demonstrated to significantly stimulate cell proliferation by increasing cell viability (from 180% to 205%), 3H-thymidine incorporation (from 126% to 133%) during DNA synthesis, and the shift of cell population to S phase of cell cycle. A major AR active fraction consisting of glycoproteins was identified, and shown to promote angiogenesis in zebrafish embryos and proliferation of endothelial cells in vitro.
Astragali Radix; Glycoproteins; Traditional Chinese Medicine; Wound healing
Public Health Surveillance; Disease Notification; Data Quality; Completeness; Communicable Disease Control
Understanding variation among users’ information needs and the quality of information in an electronic system is important for informaticians to ensure data are fit-for-use in answering important questions in clinical and public health. To measure variation in satisfaction with currently reported data, as well as perceived importance and need with respect to completeness and timeliness, we surveyed epidemiologists and other public health professionals across multiple jurisdictions. We observed consensus for some data elements, such as county of residence, which respondents perceived as important and felt should always be reported. However information needs differed for many data elements, especially when comparing notifiable diseases such as chlamydia to seasonal (influenza) and chronic (diabetes) diseases. Given the trend towards greater volume and variety of data as inputs to surveillance systems, variation of information needs impacts system design and practice. Systems must be flexible and highly configurable to accommodate variation, and informaticians must measure and improve systems and business processes to accommodate for variation of both users and information.
This study aimed to investigate and compare the fibroblast-proliferating activities of different Rehmanniae Radix (RR) samples and its chemical components using human normal fibroblast cells Hs27. Those active components were quantified in differently treated RR samples using UPLC so as to correlate activity with component content. Our results showed that dried RR aqueous extract exhibited the most potent fibroblast-proliferating activity. Stronger effect was observed when ethanol with heating was applied in the extraction process. Stachyose and verbascoside were demonstrated for their first time to exhibit significant stimulatory effects on fibroblast proliferation. However, the proliferating effect of dried RR extract did not correlate with the stachyose content, and verbascoside was not responsible for the fibroblast proliferative effect of RR since it was undetectable in all samples. In conclusion, stachyose only contributed in part to the activity of RR, suggesting that other active components might be present and yet to be found.
Rehmanniae Radix; Rehmannia glutinosa; Stachyose; Verbascoside; Fibroblast proliferation
inhalable nanoparticles; polysorbate 80; pulmonary toxicity; surface pressure-area isotherm
MLL-containing complexes methylate histone H3 at lysine 4 (H3K4) and have been implicated in the regulation of transcription. However, it is unclear how MLL complexes are targeted to specific gene loci. Here, we show that the MLL2 complex associates with the hematopoietic activator NF-E2 in erythroid cells and is important for H3K4 trimethylation and maximal levels of transcription at the β-globin locus. Furthermore, recruitment of the MLL2 complex to the β-globin locus is dependent upon NF-E2 and coincides spatio-temporally with NF-E2 binding during erythroid differentiation. Thus a DNA-bound activator is important initially for guiding MLL2 to a particular genomic location. Interestingly, while the MLL2-associated subunit Ash2L is restricted to the β-globin locus control region 38 kb upstream of the βmaj-globin gene, the MLL2 protein spreads across the β-globin locus, suggesting a previously undefined mechanism by which an activator influences transcription and H3K4 trimethylation at a distance.
Borna disease virus (BDV) infection of Lewis rats is the most studied animal model of Borna disease, an often fatal encephalomyelitis. In this experimental model, BDV-specific CD8+ cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) play a prominent role in the immunopathogenesis of infection by the noncytolytic, persistent BDV. Of the six open reading frames of BDV, CTLs to BDV X (p10) and the l-polymerase have never been studied. In this study, we used plasmid immunization to investigate the CTL response to BDV X and N. Plasmid-based immunization was a potent CTL inducer in Lewis rats. Anti-X CTLs were primed by a single injection of the p10 cDNA. Two codominant p10 epitopes, M1SSDLRLTLL10 and T8LLELVRRL16, associated with the RT1.Al major histocompatibility complex class I molecules of the Lewis rats, were identified. In addition, immunization with a BDV p40-expressing plasmid confirmed the previously reported RT1.Al-restricted A230SYAQMTTY238 peptide as the CTL target for BDV N. In contrast to the CTL responses, plasmid vaccination was a poor inducer of an antibody response to p10. Three injections of a recombinant eukaryotic expression plasmid of BDV p10 were needed to generate a weak anti-p10 immunoglobulin M response. However, the antibody response could be optimized by a protein boost after priming with cDNA.
The Borna disease virus (BDV) is the prototype member of the Bornaviridae, and it replicates in the cell nucleus. The BDV p24P and p40N proteins carry nuclear localization signals (NLS) and are found in the nuclei of infected cells. The BDV p10 protein does not have an NLS, but it binds with P and/or N and is translocated to the nucleus. Hence, p10 may play a role in the replication of BDV in the cell nucleus. Here, we show that the P-binding domain is located in the N terminus of p10 and that S3 and L16 are important for the interaction.
Though ethnic variation in growth is well recognized, little is known about the physical growth of Chinese Canadian children. The objectives of this study were to establish the growth parameters for Chinese Canadian children and to compare them with those of Caucasian Canadians. The authors measured height, weight and head circumference during periodic physical examinations of children who attended their clinic between 1980 and 1984. These children were residents of Calgary, Alberta. Children with congenital anomalies or acquired chronic diseases were excluded. A total of 2,149 children (946 ethnic Chinese and 1,203 Caucasians) were studied. Differences in growth characteristics of Chinese Canadian and Caucasian Canadian children were established. The data suggest that the use of normal growth charts derived from growth data on the North American population may not be appropriate for Chinese Canadians.
growth parameters; Chinese children; Calgary