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author:("azari, shiraz")
1.  Microcalorimetric Method to Assess Phagocytosis: Macrophage-Nanoparticle Interactions 
The AAPS Journal  2010;13(1):20-29.
This study evaluated the use of isothermal microcalorimetry (ITMC) to detect macrophage–nanoparticle interactions. Four different nanoparticle (NP) formulations were prepared: uncoated poly(isobutyl cyanoacrylate) (PIBCA), polysorbate-80-coated PIBCA, gelatin, and mannosylated gelatin NPs. Changes in NP formulations were aimed to either enhance or decrease macrophage–NP interactions via phagocytosis. Alveolar macrophages were cultured on glass slabs and inserted in the ITMC instrument. Thermal activities of the macrophages alone and after titration of 100 μL of NP suspensions were compared. The relative interactive coefficients of macrophage–NP interactions were calculated using the heat exchange observed after NP titration. Control experiments were performed using cytochalasin B (Cyto B), a known phagocytosis inhibitor. The results of NP titration showed that the total thermal activity produced by macrophages changed according to the NP formulation. Mannosylated gelatin NPs were associated with the highest heat exchange, 75.4 ± 7.5 J, and thus the highest relative interactive coefficient, 9,269 ± 630 M-1. Polysorbate-80-coated NPs were associated with the lowest heat exchange, 15.2 ± 3.4 J, and the lowest interactive coefficient, 890 ± 120 M-1. Cyto B inhibited macrophage response to NPs, indicating a connection between the thermal activity recorded and NP phagocytosis. These results are in agreement with flow cytometry results. ITMC is a valuable tool to monitor the biological responses to nano-sized dosage forms such as NPs. Since the thermal activity of macrophage–NP interactions differed according to the type of NPs used, ITMC may provide a method to better understand phagocytosis and further the development of colloidal dosage forms.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1208/s12248-010-9240-y) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
doi:10.1208/s12248-010-9240-y
PMCID: PMC3032094  PMID: 21057907
flow cytometry; isothermal microcalorimetry; macrophages; nanoparticles; phagocytosis
2.  Isothermal Microcalorimetry as a Quality by Design Tool to Determine Optimal Blending Sequences 
The AAPS Journal  2010;12(3):417-423.
This study was designed to assess the value of isothermal microcalorimetry (ITMC) as a quality by design (QbD) tool to optimize blending conditions during tablet preparation. Powder mixtures that contain microcrystalline cellulose (MCC), dibasic calcium phosphate dihydrate (DCPD), and prednisone were prepared as 1:1:1 ratios using different blending sequences. ITMC was used to monitor the thermal activity of the powder mixtures before and after each blending process. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD) were performed on all final powder mixtures. Final powder mixtures were used to prepare tablets with 10 mg prednisone content, and dissolution tests were performed on all tablet formulations. Using ITMC, it was observed that the powder mixtures had different thermal activity depending on the blending sequences of the ingredients. All mixtures prepared by mixing prednisone with DCPD in the first stage were associated with relatively fast and significant heat exchange. In contrast, mixing prednisone with MCC in the first step resulted in slower heat exchange. Powder mixture with high thermal activity showed extra DSC peaks, and their dissolution was generally slower compared to the other tablets. Blending is considered as a critical parameter in tablet preparation. This study showed that ITMC is a simple and efficient tool to monitor solid-state reactions between excipients and prednisone depending on blending sequences. ITMC has the potential to be used in QbD approaches to optimize blending parameters for prednisone tablets.
doi:10.1208/s12248-010-9202-4
PMCID: PMC2895446  PMID: 20461485
isothermal microcalorimetry; powders blending; quality by design; tablets
3.  Pulmonary Toxicity of Polysorbate-80-coated Inhalable Nanoparticles; In vitro and In vivo Evaluation 
The AAPS Journal  2010;12(3):294-299.
doi:10.1208/s12248-010-9190-4
PMCID: PMC2895437  PMID: 20405258
inhalable nanoparticles; polysorbate 80; pulmonary toxicity; surface pressure-area isotherm
4.  Design and evaluation of 1- and 3-layer matrices of verapamil hydrochloride for sustaining its release 
AAPS PharmSciTech  2005;6(4):E626-E632.
The present study was performed to design oral controlled delivery systems for the water-soluble drug, verapamil hydrochloride, using natural and semisynthetic polymers as carriers in the forms of 1- and 3-layer matrix tablets. Verapamil hydrochloride 1-layer matrix tablets containing hydroxypropylmethylcellulose, tragacanth, and acacia either alone or mixed were prepared by direct compression technique. 3-layer matrix tablets were prepared by compressing the polymers as release retardant layers on both sides of the core containing the drug. The prepared tablets were subjected to in vitro drug release studies. Tragacanth when used as the carrier in the formulation of 1- and 3-layer matrices produced satisfactory release prolongation either alone or in combination with the other 2 polymers. On the other hand, acacia did not show enough prolonging efficiency in 1- and 3-layer matrix tablets. The results also showed that the location of the polymers in the 3-layer tablets has a pronounced effect on the drug release. Kinetic analysis of drug release from matrices exhibiting sustained release indicated that release was predominantly attributable to the contribution made by Fickian diffusion, while the erosion/relaxation mechanisms had a minor role in the release.
doi:10.1208/pt060477
PMCID: PMC2750610  PMID: 16408864
verapamil; sustained release; 1- and 3-layer matrix; tragacanth; acacia; HPMC

Results 1-4 (4)