The purpose of this study was to determine the outcomes of surgical clipping in patients with unruptured middle cerebral artery (MCA) aneurysms.
A retrospective single-center database of 125 consecutive patients with 143 small MCA aneurysms (< 10 mm) who underwent surgical clipping was reviewed from January 2007 to December 2010. Clinical outcomes were assessed based on surgery-related complications and follow-up (mean: 17 months) using the modified Rankin scale (mRS). Angiographic outcomes were evaluated by conventional angiography (N = 96) or computed tomography angiography (N = 29) at postoperative weeks 1 and 6.
There were no cases of mortality. There were three surgery-related complications (intracranial hemorrhage, meningitis and wound infection, respectively). The hemorrhagic event caused transient neurological deficits. All patients showed good clinical outcomes during follow-up (mRS 0-1). There was angiographic evidence of complete occlusion in 137 aneurysms (95.8%), a small residual neck in three aneurysms (2.2%) and partial for three aneurysms. In the three cases with partial clipping, the decision was made preoperatively to leave the residual sac to maintain distal flow, and muscular wrapping was performed.
Our study demonstrates that surgical clipping of unruptured small MCA aneurysms yields favorable clinical and angiographic outcomes. Aneurysmal clipping can be safely recommended for patients with small unruptured MCA aneurysms.
Aneurysm; Middle cerebral artery; Surgical clip; Treatment outcome
A fenestration of the supraclinoid internal carotid artery (ICA) is a rare congenital condition. We report an aneurysm arising from the proximal end of an ICA fenestration that was treated by endovascular coiling. Three-dimensional rotational angiography of preoperative cerebral angiography provided an understanding of the complex anatomy of the aneurysms associated with the fenestration and may facilitate the clinical decision regarding the treatment option. Endovascular coiling appears to be safe and effective for treating an aneurysm originating from a fenestration on the supraclinoid ICA, which is a difficult lesion to treat using a conventional surgical approach.
Internal carotid artery; Fenestration; Aneurysm; Coil embolization; Angiography
We report herein a case of a radiation-induced aneurysm. A 69-year-old woman presented with subarachnoid hemorrhage. Eight years previously, she had undergone cranial radiation therapy (total dose of 59.4 Gy) as adjuvant therapy after surgical resection for a chondrosarcoma that was destroying her sphenoid sinus. The patient underwent catheter angiography, which revealed an aneurysm of the anterior communicating artery and luminal narrowing and irregularity in the petrous and lacerum segments of the right internal carotid artery. We attempted surgical clipping of the aneurysm, but there was repeated bleeding. Finally the aneurysm was treated with endovascular trapping. Potentially fatal bleeding also occurred from her internal carotid artery, which had also been irradiated during the previous cranial radiation therapy. We stopped the bleeding with endovascular coil embolization. Because of diffuse vascular changes of the cerebral vessels within irradiated fields, special attention must be paid to their treatment.
Intracranial aneurysm; Subarachnoid hemorrhage; Radiotherapy
Intracranial pial arteriovenous fistula (AVF) is a rare cerebrovascular malformation, which has a single or multiple arterial connections to a single venous channel without intervening nidus, and is different from arteriovenous malformation (AVM). We report on a case of a surgically treated pial AVF. A 15-year-old girl with an altered mental state was brought to our hospital. Computed tomography (CT) showed a subcortical hematoma of approximately 24 ml in her right temporal lobe. Cerebral angiography showed an AVF supplied by the right middle cerebral artery with early drainage into the Sylvian vein and the vein of Labbe. She underwent surgical treatment with feeding artery obliteration using a clip and hematoma removal. The patient was discharged without neurologic deficits. Despite the rarity of pial AVF, for correct diagnosis and treatment, neurosurgeons should recognize this condition. Pial AVF can be managed simply by disconnection of the shunt by surgery or endovascular treatment, and a good result can be achieved.
Intracranial; Pial; Arteriovenous fistula
There are few observation papers regarding the natural history of an aneurysm. We report on a case of a completely occluded middle cerebral artery (MCA) aneurysm. A 47-year-old female patient presented with a headache and was diagnosed with rupture of a right MCA aneurysm. Due to a high risk of direct neck clipping, she received conservative treatment after craniotomy and wrapping of her aneurysm. The patient's condition showed improvement, with complete occlusion of the aneurysm and considerable reduction of the aneurysm in size after approximately three years. This is a rare case of an aneurysm of MCA that showed spontaneous resolution. Finally, on the angiogram, characteristics of an aneurysm to occlude spontaneously will be presumed based on literature reviews.
Middle cerebral artery aneurysm; Spontaneous remission; Angiography
Ruptured vertebrobasilar (VB) saccular aneurysm is a difficult lesion to treat, and is associated with high rates of morbidity and mortality. The aim of this study is to investigate the risk factors associated with the clinical outcome of ruptured VB aneurysms.
A retrospective review of 29 patients with ruptured VB saccular aneurysms between 2002 and 2010 was conducted between Jan 2002 and Dec 2010. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed for determination of the statistical significance of the Glasgow Outcome Scale (GOS) at three months, according to age, initial Hunt-Hess grade, the presence of acute hydrocephalus, and treatment modality.
The study included 24 (82.7%) females and five (17.3%) males, with a mean age of 59 years (range, 22-78 years). Seventeen patients were treated with surgical clipping and 12 patients were treated with endovascular coil embolization. No statistical significance was observed between clinical outcome and treatment modalities (clipping or coiling; p = 0.803). Seventeen (58.6%) patients achieved favorable outcome, defined as GOS score of 4-5, at 3 months. Procedure-related complications occurred in seven patients (24.1%). Results of multivariate analysis indicated that initial Hunt-Hess grade and the presence of acute hydrocephalus were independent predictors of unfavorable outcome, defined as GOS score of 1-3 (Odds ratio (OR) = 8.63, Confidence interval (CI) [95%] 1.11-66.84, p = 0.039 and OR = 36.64, CI [95%] 2.23-599.54, p = 0.012, respectively).
The present study suggests that the clinical outcomes are related to the initial Hunt-Hess grade and the presence of acute hydrocephalus in ruptured saccular VB aneurysms.
Aneurysm; Outcome; Risk factor; Vertebrobasilar
We report on our experience using a compliant balloon for treatment of thrombi resistant to simple mechanical thrombolysis.
We conducted a retrospective investigation of 46 consecutive acute ischemic stroke patients who were treated by intraarterial thrombolysis (IAT) between January 2008 and July 2010. We compared IAT results between the balloon group (BG) and the simple mechanical thrombolysis (with microcatheter and microguidewire) group (SG). The Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction (TIMI) grading system was used for grading of the degrees of vessel recanalization. In addition, a modified Thrombolysis in Cerebral Infarction (TICI) score was used for post-IAT TIMI grade 2 patients. Modified Rankin Scale scores were used at three months for assessment of clinical outcomes.
Twenty of the 46 subjects were treated with a compliant balloon. The mean initial National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale score was 15.1 in the BG and 14 in the SG. The mean time from symptom onset to initiation of IAT was 225 minutes in the BG and 177 in the SG (p = 0.004). The overall rate of successful recanalization (TIMI grade 2 or 3) was 85% in the BG and 73% in the SG (p = 0.476). In the TIMI grade 2 group, modified TICI 2b was 90% in the BG and 16% in the SG (p = 0.001). Postprocedure intraparenchymal hemorrhage occurred in two subjects in the BG and 10 subjects in the SG (p = 0.029). No significant difference in clinical outcomes was observed between the BG and SG (p = 0.347).
The compliant balloon showed high potential for recanalization following acute ischemic stroke, especially when simple mechanical thrombolysis had failed.
Balloon; Thrombolysis; Recanalization
A retrospective review of premedication method and drug resistance of aspirin and clopidogrel in association with thromboembolic events during and after coil embolization of an unruptured intracranial aneurysm was conducted.
Our premedication policy for coil embolization of an unruptured intracranial aneurysm has changed from administration of the loading dose before the procedure (i.e. loading group) to repeated administration of the maintenance dose for several days (i.e. preparation group). The loading group (27 patients with 29 aneurysms) and the preparation group (30 patients with 35 aneurysms) were compared for identification of the effect of premedication method on periprocedural thromboembolic events. The results of drug response assays of the preparation group were analyzed with respect to periprocedural thromboembolic events.
No statistically significant difference in incidence of thromboembolic events was observed between the loading group and the preparation group. Analysis of the results of the drug response assay showed high prevalence (56.7%, 73.3%) of clopidogrel resistance and relatively low prevalence (6.7%) of aspirin resistance. Patients who had thromboembolic events tended to have lower responsiveness to both aspirin and clopidogrel than patients without it.
The method of antiplatelet premedication does not affect the rate of periprocedural thromboembolic events in coil embolization for treatment of an unruptured intracranial aneurysm. Nevertheless, considering the high prevalence of drug resistance, it is reasonable to premedicate antiplatelet agents in the preparation method for the drug response assay. Use of a higher dose of aspirin and clopidogrel or addition of an alternative drug (cilostazol or triflusal) can be applied against antiplatelet agent resistance. However, because the hemorrhagic risk associated with this supplementary use of antiplatelet agent has not been well-documented, the hemorrhagic risk and the preventive benefit must be weighed.
Antiplatelet agent premedication; Aspirin resistance; Clopidogrel resistance; Thromboembolic complication
The limitations of medical management of symptomatic intracranial arterial stenosis (ICS) have prompted development of new strategies, including endovascular treatment. However, stenting of symptomatic ICS remains investigational. Here, we have reported and analyzed a series of 19 endovascular procedures involving placement of a Wingspan stent.
We conducted a retrospective review of a series of ICS in which patients were treated with percutaneous transarterial balloon angioplasty and stent placement (PTAS). Patients included in the study were diagnosed as symptomatic ICS between May 2010 and September 2011.
Nineteen patients (median age, 65 years; 12 males, seven women) were treated with the Wingspan stent system for symptomatic ICS ranging from 50% to 99%. The technical success rate was 100%. The location of ICS included the internal carotid (n = 5; 1 petrous, 3 cavernous, and 1 clinoid segments), vertebral (n = 1; V4 segment), basilar (n = 1), and middle cerebral (n = 12; 9 M1, 3 M2) arteries. There was no occurrence of procedure-related mortality. Periprocedural morbidity occurred in two cases (10.5%), including carotid-cavernous fistula (n = 1) and subarachnoid hemorrhage (n = 1). No ipsilateral stroke was recorded beyond 30 days during a mean follow-up period of 13.2 months (range 9-19 months). Restenosis (> 50%) was observed in one patient (6.3%), who was asymptomatic, on follow-up imaging.
Wingspan stent for symptomatic ICS can be performed with a high rate of technical success and acceptable periprocedural morbidity rates. Our initial experience indicates that this procedure represents a viable treatment option for this patient population.
Intracranial stenosis; Angioplasty; Stent implantation; Wingspan stent
This study was conducted in order to demonstrate the initial experience of the Solitaire AB stent in mechanical intracranial thrombectomy.
We conducted a retrospective review of 40 consecutive patients who underwent intra-arterial Solitaire AB stent thrombectomy for treatment of acute ischemic strokes between October 2010 and November 2011. Demographic, clinical, and radiological presentations and outcomes were studied.
Twenty six men and 14 women with a mean initial National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) score of 14.1 (range, 8-26) and a mean age of 65.4 (range, 32-89) years were included in this study. Occlusion sites were as follows: internal carotid artery (n = 11), middle cerebral artery M1 (n = 22), M2 (n = 5), and basilar artery (n = 2). Successful revascularization was achieved in 36 (90%) patients. The mean NIHSS score was 11.6 (range, 1-23) at 24 hours after the procedure, and 42.5% of patients showed a modified Rankin scale score of ≤ 2 at 90 days. New occlusion by migrated emboli was observed in one (2.5%) case. Post-procedural intracerebral hemorrhage occurred in only one case (2.5%), with an all-cause mortality of two (5%).
The Solitaire AB device is a relatively safe and effective tool for use in performance of mechanical thrombectomy in patients with acute ischemic stroke.
Acute ischemic stroke; Thrombectomy; Solitaire AB stent
Patients with severe spontaneous cerebellar hemorrhage typically undergo treatment with suboccipital craniectomy and hematoma evacuation. However, this is a stressful procedure for patients due to the long operating time and operation-induced tissue damage. In addition, the durotomy can result in pseudomeningocele. We investigated the efficacy of stereotactic or navigation-guided burr hole aspiration surgery as a treatment for spontaneous hypertensive cerebellar hemorrhage (SHCH).
Between January 2002 and December 2011, 26 patients with SHCH underwent surgery using the stereotactic or navigation-guided burr hole aspiration and catheter insertion technique in our institution.
Mean hematoma volume was 21.8 ± 5.8 cc at admission and 13.1 ± 5.4 cc immediately following surgery. Preoperative Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) score was 12.5 ± 1.3 and postoperative GCS score was 13.1 ± 1.2. Seven days after surgery, the mean hematoma volume was 4.3 ± 5.6 cc, and there was no occurrence of surgery-related complications during the six-month follow-up period. The mean operation time for catheter insertion was 43.1 ± 8.9 min, and a mean 31.3 ± 6.0 min was also added for extra-ventricular drainage. The mean Glasgow Outcome Scale (GOS) score after six months was 4.6 ± 1.0.
Stereotactic burr hole aspiration surgery for treatment of SHCH is less time-consuming and invasive than other interventions, and resulted in no surgery-related complications. Therefore, we suggest that this surgical method could be a safe and effective treatment option for selected patients with SHCH.
Cerebellar hemorrhage; Aspiration; Stereotactic; Navigation; Outcome
The objective of this study is to evaluate the clinical presentation and outcomes of patients with an intracerebral hematoma (ICH) associated with a ruptured middle cerebral artery (MCA) aneurysm, and the correlation factors associated with the aneurysm and characteristics of the hematoma.
A retrospective evaluation of clinical and radiologic characteristics and outcomes was conducted for 24 patients (11 men and 13 women; mean age, 53 years) with ruptured MCA aneurysms associated with ICH between September 2008 and December 2011.
Thirteen (54%) of the 24 patients had a favorable outcome, four (17%) suffered from severe disability, and seven (29%) died. Based on Hunt and Hess grade, one patient was classified as Grade II, three as Grade III, 12 as Grade IV, and eight as Grade V. Patients with an unfavorable outcome had significantly larger aneurysms (p = 0.047) and ICH volumes (p = 0.002), compared with patients in the group with a favorable outcome. The most frequent rupture point of aneurysms was the lateral aspect of the aneurysm (54.2%). When the rupture point is toward the lateral direction, the distribution of ICH tended to be located at the temporal lobe and intrasylvian.
Results of the present study suggest an association of the initial clinical state, the size of the aneurysm, and ICH volume with outcome. Although no difference was observed between the location of the rupture point and patient outcomes, an accurate assessment of ICH patterns and the rupture point in angiography may help to ensure surgical exposure and a safe aneurysm clipping.
Aneurysm; Middle cerebral artery; Intracerebral hematoma
The objective of this study is to verify the relationship between subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) volume (not Fisher grade) and development of cerebral vasospasm prospectively.
Patients who visited our hospital with a diffuse or localized thick subarachnoid blood clot seen on computed tomography (CT), taken within 48 hours after SAH and the aneurysm was confirmed by CT Angiogram (CTA) from March 2010 to July 2011 were enrolled in this study. CTA was checked at least twice after admission. Angiographic vasospasm (AVS) on CTA was defined as irregularity or narrowing of intracranial vessels on follow up CTA compared with initial CTA. Total intracranial hemorrhage (ICH) volume (subdural, SAH, intracerebral and intraventricular) was calculated and SAH volume (all supratentorial and infratentorial cisterns) was also calculated using the MIPAV software package.
A total of 55 patients were included in our study. Thirty six patients did not show AVS on CTA or clinical deterioration (non vasospasm group: NVS). AVS without ischemic neurologic symptoms was observed in four patients and development of symptomatic vasospasm (SVS), defined as AVS with ischemic symptoms, was observed in 15 patients. SAH volume in SVS patients was statistically larger than that in NVS patients (p < 0.05). Total ICH volume in SVS patients was larger than that in NVS patients. However, the difference was not statistically significant.
Results of this study indicate an association of development of vasospasm with the SAH volume, not intracranial hemorrhage.
Subarachnoid hemorrhage; Hemorrhage volume; Vasospasm
A dural arteriovenous fistula (DAVF) generally refers to a vascular malformation of the wall of a major venous sinus. These lesions have diverse symptoms according to the location and venous drainage, and require multidisciplinary treatment. We report on our experience and analyze the treatment outcome of intracranial DAVFs for a nine-year period.
Between January 2000 and December 2008, 95 patients with intracranial DAVFs were enrolled in this study. A retrospective review of clinical records and imaging studies of all patients was conducted. Endovascular embolization, surgical interruption, gamma knife stereotactic radiosurgery (GKS), or combinations of these treatments were performed based on clinical symptoms, lesion location, and venous drainage pattern.
Borden type I, II, and III were 34, 48, and 13 patients, respectively. Aggressive presentation was reported in 6% of Borden type I, 31% of Borden type II, and 77% of Borden type III DAVFs, respectively, and DAVFs involving transverse, sigmoid, and superior sagittal sinus. Overall, the rate of complete obliteration was 68%. The complete occlusion rates with a combination treatment of endovascular embolization and surgery, surgery alone, and endovascular embolization were 89%, 86%, and 80%, respectively. When GKS was used with embolization, the obliteration rate was 83%, although it was only 54% in GKS alone. Spontaneous obliteration of the DAVF occurred in three patients. There were a few complications, including hemiparesis (in microsurgery), intracranial hemorrhage (in endovascular embolization), and facial palsy (in GKS).
The hemorrhagic risk of DAVFs is dependent on the location and hemodynamics of the lesions. Strategies for treatment of intracranial DAVFs should be decided according to the characteristic of the DAVFs, based on the location and drainage pattern. GKS can be used as an optional treatment for intracranial DAVFs.
Dural arteriovenous fistula; Signs and symptoms; Therapeutics
A self-expanding retrievable intracranial stent, such as Solitaire AB, is useful for mechanical thrombectomy, producing novel results in the treatment of acute ischemic stroke. On the other hand, difficult situations can arise after a thrombectomy when using as in first-line treatment.
This was a retrospective, single-center study of 23 patients with an acute ischemic stroke attributable to a large artery occlusion within the first eight hours from symptom onset. The occlusion sites were the T segment in five patients, proximal middle cerebral artery in six patients, distal middle cerebral artery in three patients, vertebral and/or basilar artery in five patients, proximal internal cerebral artery in one patient and tandem in three patients. All patients underwent a mechanical thrombectomy using the Solitaire™ stent system as the first-line treatment but required additional procedures due to the unsatisfactory results of a thrombectomy.
Only six patients achieved complete recanalization by a thrombectomy using the Solitaire. Permanent stent deployment after the thrombectomy was performed in ten patients. Stent and balloon angioplasty was performed after a stent-based thrombectomy in six patients. Balloon angioplasty after thrombectomy was performed in one patient.
Mechanical thrombectomy with the Solitaire™ stent as a first-line treatment can produce unfortunate results that will require additional procedures.
Atherosclerosis; Intervention; Stent; Stroke; Thrombectomy
Patients with negative initial digital subtraction angiography (DSA) are at significant risk for re-bleeding, which can lead to severe disability and death. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the necessity of repeat DSA in subgroups of patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) with negative initial DSA.
A total of 904 spontaneous SAH patients were admitted to our department between May 2005 and May 2012. Twenty eight patients were selected for inclusion in this study because repeated DSA performed due to the etiology of the SAH could not be demonstrated on the initial DSA. According to the SAH pattern on initial computed tomography scans, patients were divided into perimesencephalic nonaneurysmal SAH (PN-SAH) and non PN-SAH (NPN-SAH) groups. Repeat DSA was performed in all patients, and two of these patients underwent a third DSA.
Of the 904 patients, 28 patients (3.1%) had no vascular abnormality on initial DSA. Sixteen PN-SAH patients underwent a repeat DSA; however, no aneurysms were found. In contrast, 12 patients with NPN-SAH underwent repeat DSA, with detection of two cerebral aneurysms. Overall, the false-negative rate of the initial DSA was 7.1% (2/28 patients). No significant differences in false-negative results on initial DSA were observed between the PN-SAH and NPN-SAH groups.
In the line with the results of the current study, we should be highly suspicious of patients with a nonaneurysmal SAH, especially those with a NPN-SAH pattern. In order to reduce the morbidity and mortality resulting from a misdiagnosis, repeat DSA is necessary, and exclusion of an aneurysm is important.
Subarachnoid hemorrhage; Digital subtraction angiography; Aneurysm
The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy of indirect and combined bypass surgery for treatment of adult moyamoya disease (MMD). The definition of combined bypass surgery is a combination of superficial temporal artery-middle cerebral artery (STA-MCA) anastomosis and indirect anastomosis. Development of collateral circulation after surgery was investigated.
Forty three patients (58 hemispheres) with MMD were followed by cerebral angiography for at least six months after surgery, between May 2002 and July 2011. Indirect and combined revascularization surgeries were performed in 33 and 25 cases, respectively. Good outcome was defined as more than group B, in accordance with the method suggested by Matsushima.
Development of collateral circulation was not affected by sex (p = 0.493), clinical features (p = 0.206), or Suzuki stage (p = 0.428). Based on postoperative cerebral angiography, the combined bypass surgery group showed a better angiographic outcome, than the encephaloduroarteriomyosynangiosis (EDAMS) group (p = 0.100, odds ratio [OR] 4.107, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.700 - 24.096). The combined bypass group showed a better response than the encephaloduroarteriogaleosynangiosis (EDAGS) group (p = 0.088, OR 4.600, 95% CI 0.721 - 29.332). Similar responses were observed for EDAGS and EDAMS (p = 0.886, OR 1.120, 95% CI 0.239 - 5.251). The combined bypass group showed a better response than the indirect group (p = 0.064, OR 4.313, 95% CI 0.840 - 22.130).
Results of this study demonstrate that combined bypass results in better revascularization on angiographic evaluation in adult MMD. Therefore, among surgical procedures, combined bypass is a choice that can be recommended.
Moyamoya disease; Cerebral revascularization; Indirect bypass surgery; Combined bypass surgery
Aneurysms of the posterior inferior cerebellar artery (PICA) are rarely encountered. In particular, due to frequent anatomic complexity and the presence of nearby critical structures, PICA origin aneurysms are difficult to treat. However, recent reports of anecdotal cases using advanced endovascular instruments and skills have made the results of endovascular treatment rather outstanding. PICA preservation is the key to a successful endovascular treatment, based on the premise that a PICA origin aneurysm is well occluded. To secure PICA flow, stenting into the PICA would be the best method, however, it is nearly impossible technically via the ipsilateral vertebral artery (VA) if the PICA arose at an acute angle from the sac. In such a case, a bilateral approach for stent-assisted coiling can be a creative method for achievement of two goals of both aneurysm occlusion and PICA preservation: ipsilateral approach for coil delivery and contralateral cross-over approach for stent delivery via a retrograde smooth path into the PICA.
Posterior inferior cerebellar artery; Intracranial aneurysm; Endovascular treatment
The optimal treatment and appropriate follow-up period for an unruptured vertebral artery (VA) and/or posterior inferior cerebellar artery (PICA) dissection have not been established. Decisions regarding treatment of these vascular lesions are usually based on the manifesting symptoms and changes in radiologic findings during the follow-up period. We experienced a patient who had a simultaneous unruptured VA dissection and a contralateral PICA dissecting aneurysm. We did not find such a case in other literature.
Dissection; Posterior inferior cerebellar artery; Vertebral artery
Symptoms of deep cerebral vein thrombosis (DCVT) are variable and nonspecific. Radiologic findings are essential for the diagnoses. In the majority of cases of deep internal cerebral venous thrombosis, the thalamus is affected bilaterally, and venous hypertension by thrombosis causes parenchymal edema or venous infarction and may sometimes cause venous hemorrhage. Intravenous injections of mannitol can be administered or decompressive craniectomy can be performed for reduction of intracranial pressure. The objectives of antithrombotic treatment in DCVT include recanalization of the sinus or vein, and prevention of propagation of the thrombus. Herein, the authors report DCVT which was successfully treated by low molecular weight heparin.
Intracranial thrombosis; Venous thrombosis; Cerebral infarction; Brain edema
Infraoptic anterior cerebral artery (ACA) is an extremely rare congenital anomaly. This anomalous artery usually arises from the intradural internal carotid artery (ICA) near the level of the ophthalmic artery (OA) or rarely from the extradural ICA. This anomaly frequently harbors a cerebral aneurysm, and may involve other coexisting vascular anomalies. In the case of this anomaly, surgical treatment of the aneurysm at the proximal ACA or anterior communicating artery (ACoA) may sometimes be difficult, because the veiled proximal ACA by the optic nerve would make proximal control inconvenient and the vertical midline segment of the proximal ACA would frequently form a superiorly directing aneurysm with a relatively high position. We report on an extremely rare case of a ruptured aneurysm at the infraoptic azygous ACA, possibly having an extradural origin, accompanied by contralateral ICA agenesis, and also introduce a feasible method for treatment by Y-stent assisted coil embolization.
Infraoptic; Anterior cerebral artery; Y-stent
Distal thrombosed aneurysm of the superior cerebellar artery (SCA) is extremely rare and is often associated with cerebellar infarction or subarachnoid hemorrhage. We report herein on a case involving a patient with a ruptured thrombosed distal SCA aneurysm which was treated successfully through the endovascular approach.
Distal superior cerebellar artery aneurysm; Coil embolization; Thrombosed aneurysm
Use of stent assisted coiling of intracranial aneurysms has shown a recent increase. Despite technical improvement and accumulated clinical experiences, due to insufficient study data, debate over short and long term durability and associated complication has continued.
To the best of our knowledge, this case report, for the first time, demonstrates delayed self-expansion phenomenon occurring as an acute and unpredictable complication of Neuroform stent assisted coiling for treatment of a ruptured intracranial aneurysm.
Delayed self-expansion; Neuroform stent; Intracranial aneurysm; Complication
Superior sagittal sinus thrombosis (SSST) is an uncommon cause of stroke, whose symptoms and clinical course are highly variable. It is frequently associated with a variety of hypercoagulable states. Coagulation abnormalities are commonly seen in patients with hyperthyroidism. To the best of our knowledge, there are few reports on the association between hyperthyroidism and cerebral venous thrombosis. We report on a 31-year-old male patient with a six-year history of hyperthyroidism who developed seizure and mental deterioration. Findings on brain computed tomography (CT) showed multiple hemorrhages in the subcortical area of both middle frontal gyrus and cerebral digital subtraction angiography (DSA) showed irregular intra-luminal filling defects of the superior sagittal sinus. These findings were consistent with hemorrhagic transformation of SSST. Findings on clinical laboratory tests were consistent with hyperthyroidism. In addition, our patient also showed high activity of factors IX and XI. The patient received treatment with oral anticoagulant and prophylthiouracil. His symptoms showed complete improvement. A follow-up cerebral angiography four weeks after treatment showed a recanalization of the SSS. In conclusion, findings of our case indicate that hypercoagulability may contribute to development of SSST in a patient with hyperthyroidism.
Cerebral venous thrombosis; Superior sagittal sinus; Hyperthyroidism; Hypercoagulability
Churg-Strauss syndrome (CSS) is a systemic necrotizing vasculitis of the small and medium vessels, associated with extravascular eosinophilic granulomas, peripheral eosinophilia, and asthma. The exact etiology of CSS is unknown. This syndrome commonly affects the lungs, peripheral nerves, skin, heart, and gastrointestinal tract, but rarely the central nervous system. Subarachnoid and intracerebral hemorrhage in CSS patients is extremely rare; however, clinicians should consider that CSS may be a cause of intracranial hemorrhage and its high rate of mortality and morbidity. The authors report on two cases of subarachnoid and intracerebral hemorrhage with CSS and discuss a brief review of CSS.
Churg-Strauss syndrome; Intracerebral hemorrhages; Subarachnoid hemorrhage