Increased atrial size is frequently seen in ischemic stroke patients in clinical practice. There is controversy about whether left atrial enlargement (LAE) should be regarded as a risk factor for cerebral infarction. We investigated the association between indexed left atrial volume (LAVI) and conventional stroke risk factors as well as stroke subtypes in acute ischemic stroke patients.
One hundred eighty two acute cerebral infarction patients were included in this study. Brain magnetic resonance imaging and transthoracic echocardiography were done for all patients within 30 days of diagnosis of acute cerebral infarction. Echocardiographic LAE was identified when LAVI was more than 27 mL/m2. Stroke subtypes were classified by the Trial of Org 10171 in acute stroke treatment classification.
There were significant differences between subjects with normal and increased LAVI in prevalence of stroke risk factors including atrial fibrillation (p = 0.001), hypertension (p = 0.000), valvular heart disease (p = 0.011) and previous stroke (p = 0.031). An increased LAVI was associated with cardioembolic subtype with an adjusted odds ratio was 6.749 (p = 0.002) compared with small vessel disease.
Increased LAVI was more prevalent in those who had cardiovascular risk factors, such as atrial fibrillation, hypertension, valvular heart disease and history of previous stroke. LAE influenced most patients in all subtypes of ischemic stroke but was most prevalent in the cardioembolic stroke subtype. Increased LAVI might be a risk factor of cerebral infarction, especially in patients with cardioembolic stroke subtype.
Left atrial enlargement; Ischemic stroke; Stroke subtype; Echocardiography
This study was conducted to assess the efficacy and safety of endovascular mechanical thrombectomy (EMT) for patients diagnosed with basilar artery (BA) occlusion.
Materials and Methods
We retrospectively analyzed clinical and imaging data of 16 patients diagnosed with BA occlusion who were treated with endovascular intervention from July 2012 to February 2013. Direct suction using the Penumbra system and thrombus retrieval by the Solitaire stent were the main endovascular techniques used to restore BA flow. The outcomes were evaluated based on rate of angiographic recanalization, rate of improvement of National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) score, rate of modified Rankin Scale (mRS) at discharge and after 3 months, and rate of cerebral hemorrhagic complications. Successful recanalization was defined as achieving Thrombolysis In Cerebral Infarction (TICI) of II or III.
Sixteen patients received thrombectomy. The mean age was 67.8 ± 11 years and the mean NIHSS score was 12.3 ± 8.2. Eight patients treated within 6 hours of symptom onset were grouped as A and the other 8 patients treated beyond 6 hours (range, 6-120) were grouped as B. Successful recanalization was met in six patients (75%) for group A and 7 (87.5%) for group B. Favorable outcome occurred in 4 patients (50%) for group A and 5 (62.5%) for group B.
Our study supports the effectiveness and safety of endovascular mechanical thrombectomy in treating BA occlusion even 6 hours after symptom onset.
Basilar artery occlusion; Endovascular mechanical thrombectomy; Therapeutic time window; Recanalization
The increased use of bypass surgery in the treatment of ischemic cerebrovascular diseases requires a better understanding of the superficial temporal artery (STA) anatomy. This study is to describe the gross anatomy of STA in adult Korean population with respect to cranial surgery and to provide basic anatomic data for bypass surgery.
The study evaluated retrospectively 35 patients who visited the neurosurgery department at a single institution. For each patient, both the left and right STA (70 vessels) were evaluated by a 3-dimensional computed tomographic angiogramfor diameter and anatomic relationships to external landmarks.
Of 70 STAs, 69 had a bifurcation. Among these, 57 (82.6%) were above the superior margin of the zygomatic arch. The STA bifurcation was 53.2 ± 5.9 mm posterior to the keyhole, 9.5 ± 5.3 mm anterior to the posterior margin of condylar process of the mandible, and 21.7 ± 15.8 mm superior to the superior margin of the zygomatic arch. The inner diameter of the STA was 1.8 ± 0.5 mm at the superior margin of the zygomatic arch, and 1.4 ± 0.4 mm and 1.4 ± 0.5 mm for frontal and parietal branches, respectively. The 75.7% of frontal and 66.7% of parietal branches were suitable for microvascular anastomosis.
This present study demonstrated the STA in Korean adults, which may benefit the clinician in dealing with the surgical procedures related to this STA.
Carotid artery; External; Temporal arteries
We have observed, anecdotally, that the incidence of primary spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage (sICH), as well as spontaneous subarachnoid hemorrhage, varies in accordance with seasonality and meteorological conditions. This retrospective single-hospital-based study aimed to determine the seasonality of sICH and the associations, if any, between the occurrence of sICH and meteorological parameters in Incheon city, which is a northwestern area of South Korea.
Electronic hospital data on 708 consecutive patients admitted with primary sICH from January 2008 to December 2010 was reviewed. Traumatic and various secondary forms of ICHs were excluded. Average monthly admission numbers of sICH were analyzed, in relation with the local temperature, atmospheric pressure, humidity, and daily temperature range data. The relationships between the daily values of each parameter and daily admission numbers of sICH were investigated using a combination of correlation and time-series analyses.
No seasonal trend was observed in sICH-related admissions during the study period. Furthermore, no statistically significant correlation was detected between the daily sICH admission numbers and the meteorological parameters of temperature, atmospheric pressure and humidity. The daily temperature range tended to correlate with the number of daily sICH-related admissions (p = 0.097).
This study represents a comprehensive investigation of the association between various meteorological parameters and occurrence of spontaneous ICH. The results suggest that the daily temperature range may influence the risk of sICH.
Meteorology; Seasonality; Spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage; Weather
This study investigated the clinical and angiographic outcomes of treatment with stent-assisted coil embolization using the Solitaire AB stents for wide-necked intracranial aneurysms.
From October 2010 to December 2011, 22 patients with aneurysms were treated with the Solitaire AB stent. One patient with a dissecting aneurysm was excluded, thus 21 patients with 21 wide-necked saccular aneurysms were included in this study. The technical success rate, procedure-related complications, initial and follow-up angiographic results, and clinical outcomes were retrospectively collected.
The locations of aneurysms were as follows: paraclinoid in 14, distal internal carotid artery in 4, and vertebral artery in 3 patients. All aneurysms were unruptured and less than 10 mm-sized. The mean dome-to-neck ratio of the aneurysms was 1.00 (range: 0.45-1.81). The mean follow-up duration was 12.1 (7-15) months after the initial procedure. The technical success rate was 21 (95.5%) of 22 patients with aneurysms. Fortunately, there were no procedure-related complications. Follow-up angiography showed that the rate of complete occlusion was 57.1%, neck remnants 38.1%, and incomplete occlusion 4.8%.
We suggest that using Solitaire AB stent is technically feasible and safe in the stent-assisted coil embolization for wide-necked saccular intracranial aneurysms. To evaluate the long-term effects of this stent, further follow-up angiography is needed.
Solitaire stent; Coil embolization; Wide-necked aneurysm
This study proposes more objective methods for deciding the appropriate direction of the sylvian fissure dissection during surgical clipping in middle cerebral artery (MCA) bifurcation aneurysms.
We reviewed data of 36 consecutive patients with MCA bifurcation aneurysms. We measured 2 indices preoperatively on 3-dimensional computed tomography angiography (3D-CTA). Analysis of the calculated data allowed us to select the appropriate direction of sylvian fissure dissection for ease of proximal control of M1. Statistically, Mann-Whitney test was used.
We classified subjects into 2 groups based on the technical level of M1 exposure during surgical clipping. When it was difficult to expose M1, subjects were assigned to Group I, and Group II were subjects in whom M1 exposure was easy. The mean difference between the distances extending from the limbus sphenoidale (LS) line to the internal carotid artery bifurcation and extending from the LS line to the MCA bifurcation was 1.00 ± 0.42 mm in group I and 4.39 ± 2.14 mm in group II. The mean M1 angle was 9.36 ± 3.73° in the group I and 34.05 ± 16.71° in the group II (M1 slope gap p < 0.05, M1 angle p < 0.05).
We have found an objective method for preoperatively verifying ease of exposure of M1 artery during surgical clipping. Therefore, we suggest use of the preoperative M1 slope gap and M1 angle as indicators in 3D-CTA selecting the direction of sylvian fissure dissection for easy proximal control of M1.
Middle cerebral artery; Intracranial aneurysm; Dissecting; Three-dimensional cerebral angiography
In this study, we investigate the role of adiponectin in the interaction between leukocytes and endothelium in the secondary inflammatory reaction of cerebral ischemia.
Adiponectin knock-out mice group (APN-KO) (n = 8) and wild-type mice group (WT) (n = 8) were prepared. Each group was sub-divided into 2 groups by reperfusion time. One-hour middle cerebral artery occlusion and reperfusion were induced using the intraluminal filament technique. At 6 and 12 hours after the occlusion, the mice were placed on a stereotactic frame to perform craniotomy in the left parietal area. After craniotomy, a straight pial venule was selected as a target vessel. With the fluorescence intravital microscope, the number of rolling leukocytes and leukocytes that adhered to endothelium were counted and documented at 6 and 12 hours after the reperfusion.
At 6 and 12 hours after the reperfusion, more rolling leukocyte and leukocyte adhesion were observed in the APN-KO mice than in the WT mice. The difference in leukocyte numbers between the APN-KO and WT mice was found to be statistically significant (p = 0.029) by Mann-Whitney U-test.
We found that adiponectin inhibits the interaction between the endothelium and leukocytes in cerebral ischemia-reperfusion. Therefore adiponectin might prevent the secondary insult caused by the inflammation reaction.
Adiponectin; Cerebral ischemia; Secondary inflammatory reaction; MCAO-R
The purpose of this study is to compare the surgical outcomes of pterional-subolfactory approach for the high positioned anterior communicating artery (ACoA) aneurysm with the conventional pterional approach.
Between February 2005 and December 2012, 463 ACoA aneurysms were surgically treated in our institution. Forty eight high positioned ACoA aneurysms were treated with pterional-subolfactory or conventional pterional approach. High positioned ACoA aneurysms were defined as aneurysms located higher than 10 mm above the anterior clinoid process. Pterional-subolfactory approach is a procedure including dissection of olfactory tract and resection of the gyrus rectus inferior and medial to the olfactory tract. Thirty-four of the 48 cases were treated with pterional-subolfactory approach and 14 were treated conventionally.
There were 2 postoperative cerebral infarction with the conventional pterional approach, but none with the pterional-subolfactory approach group (p = 0.026). Postoperative digital subtraction angiography revealed significant remnant aneurysm in the conventional pterional approach group. All patients with unruptured aneurysms had good clinical outcomes with Glasgow outcome score of 5. Among ruptured ACoA aneurysm patients, 2 patients with conventional pterional approach had postoperative cerebral infarctions but permanent neurologic deficit was found in only 1 patient. Three patients treated with the pterional-subolfactory approach, who had preoperative ruptured aneurysms had poor clinical outcomes. The mean operation time for the conventional pterional approach was 58 minutes longer than for the pterional-subolfactory approach (p = 0.001).
We concluded that pterional-subolfactory approach is highly preferable for cases of high positioned ACoA aneurysm, giving a wide and effective operation view.
Subolfactory; Anterior communicating aneurysm
There is no clear treatment strategy for the management of multiple intracranial aneurysms because of variable anatomical distribution, difficult identification of the aneurysm ruptured, and poor overall outcomes. The purpose of this study was to assess the efficacy and safety of single-session coil embolization for multiple intracranial aneurysms.
Between September 2008 and December 2012, 209 aneurysms in 117 patients were treated at our institute. Twenty eight among the 117 patients had multiple aneurysms with a total of 71, and 60 of the 71 aneurysms underwent coil embolization in a single-session.
A total of 60 aneurysms were treated with a single-session coil embolization, of which the most frequent locations were in the posterior communicating artery, followed by the middle cerebral artery. Immediate post-embolization angiographies showed total occlusion in 49 (81.7%) aneurysms, remnant neck in 6 (10%), and body-filling in 5 (8.3%). Procedure-related complications had developed in 2 (3.3%) of the 60 embolized aneurysms: an asymptomatic thromboembolic event, and a partial coil protrusion without a subsequent thromboembolic complication.
With careful evaluation of individual aneurysm characteristics and configuration, multiple intracranial aneurysms previously thought to require multimodality therapy can be safely treated in a single-session coil embolization.
Multiple aneurysms; Coil embolization; Single-session
Our objective was a retrospective assessment of the management modalities that provided the most beneficial treatment in hemorrhagic moyamoya disease during the last 13 years at our institution. The clinical results of 44 patients with hemorrhagic moyamoya disease were investigated, comparing revascularization surgery (direct, indirect, and combined bypass) or conservative treatment. Angiographic features, rebleeding, and clinical outcome were investigated. Six of the 35 patients (17.1%) with revascularization surgery experienced rebleeding, as did 4 of 9 patients (44.4%) with conservative treatment. However, patients who underwent bypass surgery had a lower chance of rebleeding. No significant difference in chance of rebleeding was observed between bypass surgery and non surgery groups (p > 0.05). Cerebral angiography performed after bypass surgery showed that for achieving good postoperative revascularization, direct and combined bypass methods were much more effective (p < 0.05). While the risk of rebleeding in the revascularization group was generally lower than in the conservative treatment group, there was no statistically significant difference between treatment modalities and conservative treatment. Although statistical significance was not attained, direct and combined bypass may reduce the risk of hemorrhage more effectively than indirect bypass.
Hemorrhagic moyamoya disease; Revascularization surgery; Intracranial hemorrhage; Surgical results
To clarify the prognosis of the patients with intra-sylvian hematoma (ISH) and intracerebral hematoma (ICH) in ruptured middle cerebral artery (MCA) aneurysms.
We categorized hematoma into ISH and ICH by the presence of intra-hematomal contrast enhancing vessel (IHCEV) on computed tomography angiography (CTA). Forty-four ruptured MCA aneurysm patients with ICH or ISH were grouped by the grading system proposed by the authors in our previous study. We investigated the relevance of the following factors: patient's age, gender, Hunt-Hess grade, Glasgow outcome scale (GOS) and changes in Glasgow coma scale (GCS) between pre-operation and 7 days after operation.
There were no significant differences statistically in age, gender, Hunt-Hess grade, and GOS between the ISH and ICH groups. In their peri-operative GCS change, the ICH group showed greater improvement compared to the ISH group (p = 0.0391). The hematoma grade had a significant relevance with the patients' GOS.
Although there were no significant statistic differences in the GOS of the 2 hematoma groups, there were prominent improvements of post-operative GCS in the ICH group. Unlike in the ISH group, effective removal of hematoma was possible in most patients of the ICH group. Thus although there is no difference in the prognosis of the 2 groups, early surgical evacuation of hematoma seems to be effective in improving the short-term GCS score in peri-operative period.
Intracerebral hematoma; Cerebral aneurysm; Middle cerebral artery
Symptoms of posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES) include headache, altered mental status, visual disturbances, and seizures. Typical radiological features include edema of the parieto-occipital lobes. The purpose of this study is to review the clinical and radiological findings in patients diagnosed with PRES.
All patients diagnosed with PRES between January 2006 and December 2012 were retrospectively included in this study. We reviewed demographic and clinical characteristics, and radiological findings.
We identified 16 patients with PRES. The most common clinical presentation was seizure (n = 12, 75%). Clinical recovery occurred in all patients within days (mean, 5.7 ± 4.6 days). Comorbid conditions included hypertension (n = 4, 25%), cytotoxic medications (n = 3, 18.8%), sepsis (n = 4, 25%), malignancy (n = 4, 25%), subarachnoid hemorrhage (n = 1, 6.3%), autoimmune disorders (n = 1, 6.3%) and eclampsia (n = 1, 6.3%). The most commonly involved location was the parieto-occipital lobe (n = 13, 81.3%). Atypical radiological findings included significant basal ganglia involvement in 4 episodes; brainstem in 3, cerebellum in 2, and thalamus in 3. Eleven patients (68.8%) underwent diffusion-weighted imaging and apparent diffusion coefficient mapping. Of those, 9 patients (81.8%) had hypo- or isointensity on diffusion-weighted imaging. On the apparent diffusion coefficient map, 10 patients (90.9%) had hyperintensity, and the other had normal values.
We suggest that PRES may occur in patients with complex systemic conditions. The prognosis of PRES is usually benign. Physicians should be aware of certain atypical radiological findings to avoid a delayed diagnosis of PRES, as delayed diagnosis and treatment can result in permanent neurological sequlae.
Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome; Radiological findings; Clinical features
Spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) in young adults is rare. The purpose of this study was to investigate causes, sites and other factors affecting the prognosis of ICH in young adults aged ≤ 40 years.
We reviewed 39 consecutive patients diagnosed with spontaneous ICH between January 2001 and June 2012. Patients with primary subarachnoid hemorrhage, previously diagnosed brain tumor bleeding, or vascular malformation were excluded. We analyzed the differences in prognostic factors such as hemorrhage location and vascular structural etiology. The outcome was measured using the Glasgow outcome scale (GOS), and a good outcome was defined as a score of 4 or more.
We retrospectively evaluated 39 patients (mean age, 33 years; SD = 6.4, range 17 to 40 years). The most common structural etiology was arteriovenous malformation. A statistically significantly higher proportion of patients with good outcomes had a lower initial systolic blood pressure (SBP ≤ 160 mmHg, p = 0.036), a higher initial Glasgow coma scale (GCS) (9 or more, p = 0.034), lower cholesterol levels (< 200 mg/dl, p = 0.036), and smoking history (at discharge, p = 0.008; 6 months after discharge, p = 0.019).
In this study, cryptogenic ICH was the leading cause of spontaneous ICH. A GCS score of 9 or more on admission, a lower serum cholesterol level (< 200 mg/dl), and a lower SBP (< 160 mmHg) predicted a good outcome.
Intracerebral hemorrhage; Outcomes; Prognostic factors; Spontaneous; Young adult
Intracranial embolization usually arises from the heart, a vertebrobasilar artery, a carotid artery, or the aorta, but rarely from the distal subclavian artery upstream of an embolus. We report on a patient who experienced left shoulder and forearm pain with weak blood pressure and pulse followed by concurrent onset of left hemiplegia. This case is a rare example of multiple cerebral embolic infarctions, which developed as a complication of distal subclavian artery thrombosis possibly associated with protein S deficiency.
Subclavian artery; Protein S deficiency; Thoracic outlet syndrome; Retrograde cerebral infarction
Isolated bilateral deafness is a rare but possible symptom of vertebrobasilar ischemia, primarily due to occlusion of the anterior inferior cerebellar arteries or their branch, the internal auditory artery. We reported on uncommon case of sudden bilateral sensorineural hearing loss without typical neurological symptoms resulting from vertebrobasilar ischemia. We performed the available examinations, including otoscopy, laboratory tests, and pure tone audiogram, however we were not able to identify the cause of bilateral sensorineural hearing loss. Brain magnetic resonance image showed the cerebellar infarction of the posterior inferior cerebellar artery territory. Brain magnetic resonance angiography showed bilateral vertebral and basilar artery occlusion. We suggest vertebrobasilar ischemia as a cause of sudden isolated deafness.
Vertebro-basilar ischemia; Sensori-neural hearing loss; Cerebral infarction; Sudden hearing loss; Magnetic resonance imaging; Audiometry
We report a case of spontaneous bilateral intracranial vertebral artery dissecting aneurysms with subarachnoid hemorrhage. One dissecting lesion was treated with a coronary balloon-mounted stent (BMS) technique; however, due to differences in access route tortuosity, the other lesion was treated with a self-expandable stent (SES) technique. After 2 months, the angiographic outcome showed complete healing of the dissected segment on the side that was treated with BMS; in contrast, the dissection lesion appeared to be re-growing on the side that was treated with SES. Complete treatment of the aggravated lesion was achieved by additional deployment of BMSs. Therefore, we have provided a discussion of the possible reasons for this difference in outcome according to the stent type.
Aneurysm; Dissection; Stent angioplasty; Vertebral artery
Mycotic aneurysms are rare inflammatory neurovascular lesions. Ruptured mycotic aneurysm manifesting as subdural hematoma is extremely rare. A 72-year-old male patient was admitted to our hospital with headache and drowsiness. Computer tomography (CT) of brain and CT angiography revealed subdural hematoma and an aneurysm located at the M4 segment of the left middle cerebral artery (MCA). Cerebral angiogram revealed 2 aneurysms; one located at the left distal MCA and the other at the bifurcation of left MCA. Laboratory studies showed leukocytosis and elevated inflammatory factors. The patent was treated with antibiotic therapy for 4 weeks. The follow-up CT and cerebral angiography showed that the mycotic aneurysm was completely resolved, and the patient was nearly free of symptoms.
Mycotic aneurysm; Subdural hematoma; Middle cerebral artery
The Pipeline Embolization Device (PED) is an effective treatment approach for complex intracranial aneurysms. Intraprocedural complications during PED deployment are seldom reported. We report a rare complication of a PED malfunction identified immediately following complete deployment during endovascular treatment of a giant middle cerebral artery (MCA) bifurcation aneurysm. After multiple failed attempts at endovascular retrieval of the malfunctioned PED, the patient was taken for microsurgical extraction due to accumulation of thrombus on the proximal unopened portion of the stent and widespread distal dissemination of emboli. After removing the PED from the vessel lumen and resecting the giant aneurysm, we could not reanastamose the proximal MCA to the distal segment. The management of PED malfunction is poorly understood. While removal of an incompletely deployed PED may be undertaken with limited adverse effects, retrieval of a fully deployed PED is associated with a much higher risk of morbidity. Until larger case series of such complications better define the risks and benefits of endovascular or microsurgical retrieval of malfunctioned PEDs, the management of these rare intraprocedural complications will be based on the unique aspects of each individual case and the expertise of the treating neurointerventionalist.
Endovascular procedures; Intracranial aneurysm; Intraoperative complications; Stents; Stroke
We report a rare case of an idiopathic pseudoaneurysm causing intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH). A 28-year-old man presented with sudden onset of severe headache. He underwent external ventricular drainage for an isolated IVH in the right lateral ventricle. Digital subtraction angiography (DSA) revealed that the aneurysm (7.5×4.5 mm) arose from the distal part of the medial lenticulostriate artery. Following removal of the external ventricular drainage catheter, the aneurysm decreased in size (4.0×2.3 mm). However, follow-up DSA revealed a slightly enlarged aneurysm (4.2×3.2 mm) with morphologic change. The aneurysm was clipped via the interhemispheric transcallosal approach, but postoperative DSA revealed a residual aneurysm sac beside the clips. Given the risk of rebleeding, a second operation was planned for complete resection of the aneurysm. After revised craniotomy and careful dissection of the caudate nucleus, the aneurysm sac was completely resected. Histopathological examination revealed that the aneurysm was a pseudoaneurysm. The patient recovered without any neurological sequel and was discharged.
To the best of our knowledge, this is the first reported case of an idiopathic lenticulostriate artery pseudoaneurysm protruding into the right lateral ventricle and causing an IVH that was successfully treated with microsurgical resection.
Intraventricular pseudoaneurysm; Intraventricular hemorrhage; Lenticulostriate artery
Intraosseous arteriovenous malformation (AVM) in the craniofacial region is rare. When it occurs, it is predominantly located in the mandible and maxilla. We encountered a 43-year-old woman with Klippel-Trenaunay syndrome affecting the right lower extremity who presented with a left orbital chemosis and proptosis mimicking the cavernous sinus dural arteriovenous fistula. Computed tomography angiography revealed an intraosseous AVM of the sphenoid bone. The patient's symptoms were completely relieved after embolization with Onyx. We report an extremely rare case of intraosseous AVM involving the sphenoid bone, associated with Klippel-Trenaunay syndrome.
Arteriovenous malformations; Hemangioma; Primary intraosseous vascular malformation; Klippel-Trenaunay-Weber syndrome
Cerebral cavernous malformation with giant cysts is rare and literature descriptions of its clinical features are few. In this case study, the authors describe the clinical symptoms, radiological findings, and pathological diagnosis of cerebral cavernous malformations with giant cysts, reviewing the relevant literature to clearly differentiate this from other disease entities. The authors present a case of a 19-year-old male with a giant cystic cavernous malformation, who was referred to the division of neurosurgery due to right sided motor weakness (grade II/II). Imaging revealed a large homogenous cystic mass, 7.2×4.6×6 cm in size, in the left fronto-parietal lobe and basal ganglia. The mass had an intra-cystic lesion, abutting the basal portion of the mass. The initial diagnosis considered this mass a glioma or infection. A left frontal craniotomy was performed, followed by a transcortical approach to resect the mass. Total removal was accomplished without post-operative complications. An open biopsy and a histopathological exam diagnosed the mass as a giant cystic cavernous malformation. Imaging appearances of giant cavernous malformations may vary. The clinical features, radiological features, and management of giant cavernous malformations are described based on pertinent literature review.
Cavernous malformation; Giant cyst
The surgical clipping of paraclinoid segment internal carotid artery aneurysms is considered difficult because of the complex anatomical location and important neighboring structures. Our experiences of pterional craniotomy and extradural anterior clinoidectomy (EAC) to clip paraclinoid aneurysms are reported herein.
We present two patients with paraclinoid aneurysms who underwent surgical clipping using pterional craniotomy and EAC. The clinical results and operative techniques were reviewed from the patients' medical records.
EAC improves the surgical field in the suprasellar and periclinoid regions. Clinically, a good outcome was obtained in both cases. No surgical complications directly resulting from the EAC were observed.
Favorable surgical results can be obtained with pterional craniotomy and EAC for the clipping of paraclinoid aneurysms. EAC is advocated for the clipping of paraclinoid aneurysms.
Paraclinoid aneurysm; Extradural; Anterior clinoidectomy; Pterional craniotomy
In spite of the best medical treatment, large hemispheric infarction, resulting from acute occlusion of either the internal carotid or the proximal middle cerebral artery with insufficient collateral blood flow is associated with a high case fatality rate of approximately 60%. Thus, a decompressive hemicraniectomy is considered a life-saving procedure for this devastating disease. Findings of three recent randomized, controlled clinical trials and their meta-analysis showed that early surgical decompression not only reduced the number of case fatalities but also increased the incidence of favorable outcomes. The authors review the pathophysiology, historical background in previous studies, operative timing, surgical technique and clinical outcomes of surgical decompression for malignant hemispheric infarction.
Brain edema; Cerebral infarction; Decompressive surgery; Middle cerebral artery
We attempted to identify the presence of a so called 'March effect (or phenomenon)' (which had long been known as a 'July effect' in western countries), a transient increase in adverse outcomes during an unskilled period for new interns and residents in a teaching hospital, among a cohort of patients with spontaneous subarachnoid hemorrhage (sSAH).
A total of 455 consecutive patients with sSAH from our department database from 2008 to 2010 were enrolled retrospectively and the admission month, patient demographics and clinical characteristics, treatment modalities and discharge outcomes were analyzed. Multivariate regression analysis was used to determine whether unfavorable discharge and in-hospital mortality showed a significant increase during the unskilled months for new interns and residents (from March to May) in a pattern suggestive of a "March effect".
Among 455 patients with sSAH, 113 patients were treated during the unskilled period (from March to May) and the remaining 342 patients were treated during the skilled period (from June until February of the next year). No statistically significant difference in demographics and clinical characteristics was observed between patients treated during these periods. In addition, the mortality and unfavorable discharge rates of the un-skilled period were 16.8% and 29.7% and those of the skilled period were 15.5% and 27.2%, respectively. However, no statistically significant difference was observed between them.
Findings of our study suggest that there was no 'March effect' on the mortality rate and unfavorable discharge rate among patients with sSAH in our hospital during the study period.
Spontaneous subarachnoid hemorrhage; March effect; Mortality rate; July effect; Teaching hospital
Indocyanine green (ICG) videoangiography (VA) is being used in assessment of blood flow during cerebrovascular surgery. However, data collected during ICG angiography are usually interpreted qualitatively. In this study, quantitative analysis of ICG angiogram was attempted.
Materials and Methods
ICG VA, performed during aneurysm surgery was analyzed retrospectively. The angiogram was captured serially in regular time interval. The stacked images were then fed into an image analysis program, ImageJ. The selected areas of interest were as follows: parent and branch vessels, and dome of aneurysm. Changes of signals of measurement points were plotted. The time to peak, washout time, and the peak intensity between areas were compared.
Among the 16 cases enrolled in this study, five cases were anterior communicating artery aneurysms, and 11 cases were middle cerebral artery bifurcation aneurysms. There was no signal intensity of aneurysm dome in our series. No difference in time to peak or maximum signal intensity was observed between vessels in each case. The average time to peak was 9.0 and washout time was 31.3 seconds. No significant difference in time profile was observed between anterior communicating artery aneurysms and middle cerebral artery bifurcation aneurysms.
Findings of this study demonstrate that quantitative analysis is possible using a personal computer and common video capture and analysis software. It can be a good adjunctive to evaluation of vascular status during aneurysm surgery. It displays time profiles of multiple points of interest over time, and is helpful in objective evaluation of changes of blood flow over time. It might be helpful in various fields of cerebrovascular surgery.
Indocyanine green video angiography; Aneurysm; Quantitative analysis; ImageJ