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1.  A combined administration of Aragvādādi kaṣāyam and Syrup Talekt induced skin rashes 
Ancient Science of Life  2014;33(3):172-175.
It is a common notion among people in India that herbal or Ayurvedic products are safe and do not produce any adverse effect. This is not true since Ayurveda has evaded many adverse effects which occur by combination of herbs. This axiom is potentiated by our report that occurs in the form of skin rashes. A 20-year-old South Indian female of Pittakapha prakṛti (constitution) after beginning therapy with Aragvādādi kaṣāyam (ARK) (poly-herbal formulation) and Syrup Talekt (poly-herbal patent formulation) for the treatment of recurrent incidence of abscess. Rash disappeared after stopping the suspected drug and treatment with Vibhītakī kaṣāyam (decoction of Terminilia bellarica) and Śatadhauta ghṛtam. Possible and probable (score 6) were the causality according to WHO-Uppsala Monitoring Centre and Naranjo's Adverse Drug Reaction Probability Scale and grouped under type-B reaction. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case of skin rashes which seen after administration of ARK and Syrup Talekt. This report highlights the need of implementation of pharmacovigilance center in the hospital level and additional research in the field of skin toxicity of ARK and Syrup Talekt.
doi:10.4103/0257-7941.144622
PMCID: PMC4264306  PMID: 25538353
Abscess; Aragwadadi kashaya; Ayurveda; skin rashes; Talekt
2.  Ayurvedic education: Where to go from here? 
Ancient Science of Life  2014;33(3):143-145.
doi:10.4103/0257-7941.144615
PMCID: PMC4264300  PMID: 25538347
3.  Standardization of Rajanyādi cūrṇa: An ayurvedic preparation 
Ancient Science of Life  2014;33(3):146-150.
Background:
Rajanyādi cūrṇa (RC) is an ayurvedic classical preparation used in the treatment of digestive disorders, fever, jaundice, anemia, and asthma. We seek to standardize this drug to ensure its quality.
Objective:
The current investigation was aimed at the preparation of cūrṇa in three batches so as to standardize it.
Materials and Methods:
The cūrṇa was prepared in-house in three different batches according to directions given in The Ayurvedic Formulary of India. The cūrṇa was evaluated based on organoleptic characters, physical characteristics, and physico-chemical parameters. High performance thin layer chromatography was carried out for the quantification of curcumin.
Results:
The parameters were found to be comparable and sufficient for the evaluation of the cūrṇa.
Conclusion:
Ayurvedic medicine, RC has been standardized using the various parameters and can be incorporated while developing the pharmacopoeial standards.
doi:10.4103/0257-7941.144617
PMCID: PMC4264301  PMID: 25538348
High performance thin layer chromatography; physicochemical; Rajanyādi cūrṇa; standardization
4.  Chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of the essential oil of Ocimum basilicum L. (sweet basil) from Western Ghats of North West Karnataka, India 
Ancient Science of Life  2014;33(3):151-156.
Context:
Ocimum basilicum L. (Lamiaceae) commonly known as sweet basil, has been used as a traditional medicinal plant for the treatment of headaches, coughs, diarrhea, constipation, warts, worms, and kidney malfunctions.
Materials and Methods:
The essential oil of the flowering aerial parts of O. basilicum growing in the Western Ghats region of North West Karnataka, India, was obtained by hydro-distillation and analyzed by gas chromatography equipped with flame ionization detector and gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC–MS). The oil was tested against six Gram-positive, eight Gram-negative bacteria, and three fungi by the tube-dilution method at a concentration range of 5.00-0.009 mg/mL.
Results:
Twenty-five constituents were identified in the essential oil of O. basilicum. The major constituents were identified as methyl eugenol (39.3%) and methyl chavicol (38.3%), accounting for 98.6% of the total oil. The oil was found to be active against Gram-positive, Gram-negative bacteria, and fungi with minimal bactericidal concentration values in the range of 0.143 ± 0.031 to 0.572 ± 0.127 mg/mL, 0.781 ± 0.382 to 1.875 ± 0.684 mg/mL, and 0.312 ± 0.171 to 0.442 ± 0.207 mg/mL, respectively.
Conclusion:
The essential oil of O. basilicum of this region contains methyl eugenol/methyl chavicol chemotype and has bactericidal properties.
doi:10.4103/0257-7941.144618
PMCID: PMC4264302  PMID: 25538349
Bactericidal property; essential oil composition; gas chromatography-mass spectrometry; Lamiaceae; methyl chavicol; methyl eugenol; Ocimum basilicum L.
5.  Detoxification of Croton tiglium L. seeds by Ayurvedic process of Śodhana 
Ancient Science of Life  2014;33(3):157-161.
Objective:
Croton tiglium seeds, known as Jamālgoṭa in Hindi, Marathi, and Urdu is well-known for its toxicity (severe purgative action). In Ayurvedic texts, the plant is known as Kumbhinī and is used for the treatment of constipation after Śodhana (detoxification process) of the seeds with Godugdha (cow milk).
Material and Methods:
In the present study, C. tiglium seeds were purified with cow milk as reported in Ayurvedic classics. Phorbol esters equivalent to phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate (PMA) and crotonic acid contents were quantified by high-performance liquid chromatography method in the seeds of C. tiglium before and after the purification process.
Results:
The content of the phorbol ester equivalent to PMA in unpurified and purified sample was found to be 5.2 mg/100 g and 1.8 mg/100 g of dried seeds of C. tiglium, respectively. The quantity of crotonic acid in unpurified seeds of C. tiglium was found to be 0.102 mg/100 g of dried seeds while it was absent in the purified seed extract of C. tiglium.
Conclusion:
The toxicity of C. tiglium seeds may be due to the presence of phorbol esters and crotonic acid along with other constituents. These constituents are oil soluble and may be removed by cow milk during the process of Śodhana. Reduction in the level of these constituents after the purification decreases the toxicity of C. tiglium seeds. Reduction in the oily content from the seeds of C. tiglium during the purification process is also supported by the results obtained from the physiochemical parameters.
doi:10.4103/0257-7941.144619
PMCID: PMC4264303  PMID: 25538350
Croton tiglium; crotonic acid; phorbol ester; purification
6.  In vitro thrombolytic potential of root extracts of four medicinal plants available in Bangladesh 
Ancient Science of Life  2014;33(3):162-164.
Context:
Thrombus formation inside the blood vessels obstructs blood flow through the circulatory system leading hypertension, stroke to the heart, anoxia, and so on. Thrombolytic drugs are widely used for the management of cerebral venous sinus thrombosis patients, but they have certain limitations. Medicinal plants and their components possessing antithrombotic activity have been reported before. However, plants that could be used for thrombolysis has not been reported so far.
Aims:
This study's aim was to evaluate the thrombolytic potential of selected plants’ root extracts.
Settings and Design:
Plants were collected, dried, powdered and extracted by methanol and then fractionated by n-hexane for getting the sample root extracts. Venous blood samples were drawn from 10 healthy volunteers for the purposes of investigation.
Subjects and Methods:
An in vitro thrombolytic model was used to check the clot lysis potential of four n-hexane soluble roots extracts viz., Acacia nilotica, Justicia adhatoda, Azadirachta indica, and Lagerstroemia speciosa along with streptokinase as a positive control and saline water as a negative control.
Statistical Analysis Used:
Dunnett t-test analysis was performed using SPSS is a statistical analysis program developed by IBM Corporation, USA. on Windows.
Results:
Using an in vitro thrombolytic model, A. nilotica, L. speciosa, A. indica, and J. adhatoda at 5 mg extract/ml NaCl solution concentration showed 15.1%, 15.49%, 21.26%, and 19.63% clot lysis activity respectively. The reference streptokinase showed 47.21%, and 24.73% clot lysis for 30,000 IU and 15,000 IU concentrations, respectively whereas 0.9% normal saline showed 5.35% clot lysis.
Conclusions:
The selected extracts of the plant roots possess marked thrombolytic properties that could lyse blood clots in vitro; however, in vivo clot dissolving properties and active components responsible for clot lysis are yet to be discovered.
doi:10.4103/0257-7941.144620
PMCID: PMC4264304  PMID: 25538351
Acacia nilotica; Azadirachta indica; cardiovascular disease; Justicia adhatoda; Lagerstroemia speciosa; streptokinase; thrombolytic potential
7.  Physicochemical standardization, HPTLC profiling, and biological evaluation of Aśvagandhādyariṣṭa: A comparative study of three famous commercial brands 
Ancient Science of Life  2014;33(3):165-171.
Background:
Aśvagandhādyariṣṭa is a polyherbal formulation that is available commercially as an over the counter drug. There are three famous brands that are available in the market. However, there are no comparative reports on the physicochemical, chromatographic, and biological profiles of Aśvagandhādyariṣṭa manufactured by these famous companies.
Aims:
The present study deals with the physicochemical standardization, high performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC) profiling, and biological evaluation of Aśvagandhādyariṣṭa.
Materials and Methods:
Aśvagandhādyariṣṭa manufactured by three leading companies were purchased from Jalandhar, Punjab. The physicochemical standardization of the samples was carried out in accordance with the Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India (API). Authentified Eisenia foetida were procured from Ujjwal Ujala Vermiculture Group, Amritsar. The anthelmintic activity, 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl scavenging, and hydrogen peroxide scavenging ability of Aśvagandhādyariṣṭa was determined.
Statistical Analysis Used:
The data of anthelmintic activity were expressed as mean ± standard error of the mean of six earthworms in each group. The statistical analysis was carried out using one-way analysis of variance, followed by Dunnet t-test. The difference in values at P < 0.05 was considered to be statistically significant.
Results:
Most of the physicochemical standardization parameters mentioned as per the API were found to be within limit. HPTLC profiling showed the presence of withanolide D in commercial samples. Out of three commercial brands, ASA-DAB was the most active as compared to the ASA-BDN and ASA-AVP at the concentration of 200 mg/ml for anthelmintic activity against E. foetida. ASA-DAB showed the best antioxidant activity in both the in vitro assay at the concentration of 100 μg/ml.
Conclusions:
The ability of this formulation to scavenge free radicals supports its medical claim of antistress formulation. The anthelmintic potential of this formulation helps us conclude that it can also be considered as a general tonic because it provides relief from helminths.
doi:10.4103/0257-7941.144621
PMCID: PMC4264305  PMID: 25538352
Anthelmintic; Aśvagandhādyariṣṭa; 1,1-diphenyl-2- picrylhydrazyl; hydrogen peroxide; high-performance thin layer chromatography
8.  A unique nonsurgical management of internal hemorrhoids by Jīmūtaka Lepa 
Ancient Science of Life  2014;33(3):176-181.
This is the era of fast foods. Irregularity in food timing, improper diet, and mental stress coupled with a sedentary life disturb the digestive system resulting in increased incidence of hemorrhoids. In the present report, we present two cases of intero-external hemorrhoids. Case 1: A 30-year old young male approached with intero-external hemorrhoid at 11 O’clock position as a primary. Case 2: A 41-year-old female visited with second degree intero-external hemorrhoid at 11 O’clock position. Hemorrhoids present in these patients can be considered as Kaphaja Arṣa. These cases were diagnosed by per rectal digital and proctoscopic examinations by ayurvedic proctologists. In both cases, application of Jīmūtaka Lepa was done under local anesthesia administered using lignocaine 2% with adrenaline. This was followed by manual anal dilatation. Jīmūtaka Lepa was applied to the internal hemorrhoids (Arṣa). Changes were observed in the form of edema, ulcer in 3-4 days and sloughing out of the pile mass up to 5-7 days. Subsequently fibrosis of hemorrhoidal masses started after 7 days. Jīmūtaka Lepa shows a significant effect in obliterating the hemorrhoidal mass within a month of application. The patients were followed-up regularly with proctoscopic examination in each visit and did not reveal any evidence of recurrence of the hemorrhoids.
doi:10.4103/0257-7941.144623
PMCID: PMC4264307  PMID: 25538354
Arṣa; hemorrhoids; Jīmūtaka; Lepa; Luffa echinata
9.  Management of rare, low anal anterior fistula exception to Goodsall's rule with Kṣārasūtra 
Ancient Science of Life  2014;33(3):182-185.
Anal fistula (bhagandara) is a chronic inflammatory condition, a tubular structure opening in the ano-rectal canal at one end and surface of perineum/peri-anal skin on the other end. Typically, fistula has two openings, one internal and other external associated with chronic on/off pus discharge on/off pain, pruritis and sometimes passing of stool from external opening. This affects predominantly male patients due to various etiologies viz., repeated peri-anal infections, Crohn's disease, HIV infection, etc., Complex and atypical variety is encountered in very few patients, which require special treatment for cure. The condition poses difficulty for a surgeon in treating due to issues like patient hesitation, trouble in preparing kṣārasūtra, natural and routine infection with urine, stool etc., and dearth of surgical experts and technique. We would like to report a complex and atypical, single case of anterior, low anal fistula with tract reaching to median raphe of scrotum, which was managed successfully by limited application of kṣārasūtra.
doi:10.4103/0257-7941.144624
PMCID: PMC4264308  PMID: 25538355
Anal fistula; avagāha sveda; bhagandara; Goodsall's rule; kṣārasūtra
10.  Rasa Nirdhāraṇa (assessment of taste) of Leonotis nepetifolia (L.) R. Br.: A preliminary study in healthy volunteers 
Ancient Science of Life  2014;33(3):186-191.
Background:
Rasa (a concept corresponding to taste) is the only perceivable parameter for drug identification in Ayurveda. The Ayurvedic pharmacological principles such as guṇa (quality), vīrya (potency) and vipāka (effect of biotransformation) are inferred based on the identified Rasa of a drug. All these principles together predict the probable spectrum of drug action in Ayurveda. It is mandatory to screen a drug in the Ayurvedic pharmacological perspective to incorporate it into Ayurvedic materia medica.
Aim:
To assess the rasa of a non classical herb, Leonotis nepetifolia (L.).R.Br. based on the lakṣaṇas (characteristics) described in Ayurvedic texts for the identification of individual rasa.
Settings and Design:
The study was conducted at the Department of Dravyaguna, Institute for Post Graduate Teaching and Reaseach in Ayurveda, Gujarat Ayurved University, Jamnagar.
Materials and Methods:
The whole plant powder (3g) of Leonotisnepetifolia was administered to 50 participants (trained Ayurvedic physicians) and their responses after intake of the drug were elicited using a structured questionnaire.
Results and Conclusion:
On analyzing the data it was found that Leonotis nepetifolia possess predominantly tikta rasa (bitter taste) followed by Kaṣāya rasa (astringent taste). Recent researches and ethnomedicinal claims on Leonotis nepetifolia stand comparable with the pharmacological activities attributed to tikta and Kaṣāya rasa in Ayurvedic classics. Rasa nirdhāraṇa can be one of the preliminary steps to initiate the process of screening of an unknown drug along the lines of Ayurvedic pharmacology specially because rasa is the only perceivable parameter. According to Ayurveda, rasa of a dravya has a bearing on its karma (pharmacological action) and the identification of rasa could be one of the subjective means for inferring pāñcabhautika constitution of a substance which in turn could help in tentatively inferring guṇa, vīrya and vipāka of the dravya. This paper demonstrates how a simple method can be used without any instruments to do a preliminary assessment of the rasa or taste of a plant.
doi:10.4103/0257-7941.144625
PMCID: PMC4264309  PMID: 25538356
Ayurveda; Assessment of Taste; ethnomedicinal; Leonotisnepetifolia (L.) R.Br; Rasa nirdharana; structured questionnaire; Tikta rasa
12.  Remarks on “Tinospora cordifolia: One plant, many roles” 
Ancient Science of Life  2014;33(3):194.
doi:10.4103/0257-7941.144627
PMCID: PMC4264311  PMID: 25538358
13.  Evaluation of implementation status of national policy on Indian systems of medicine and homeopathy 2002: Stakeholders’ perspective 
Ancient Science of Life  2013;33(2):103-108.
Background:
National Policy on Indian systems of medicine and homoeopathy (ISM and H policy) was formulated in 2002 to encourage the development of Ayurveda, Sidhha, Unani, Yoga, Naturopathy and Homoeopathy in India. This study proposes to assess the views of public health experts on current implementation of ISM and H Policy.
Methods:
An online questionnaire was designed to ascertain the views of public health experts on ISM and H Policy and mailed to 100 public health experts. The tool was tested for content validity and a pilot study was done. Results were analyzed with the help of SPSS version 16.
Results and Conclusion:
Response rate was 61%. Majority of experts considered implementation status of ISM and H Policy as poor. Lack of quality education was mentioned as major factor responsible for current scenario of ISM and H Policy by most of experts. Lack of funds and government support were emerged as major bottlenecks in implementation of ISM and H Policy.
doi:10.4103/0257-7941.139048
PMCID: PMC4171850  PMID: 25284943
AYUSH; evaluation; implementation; ISM and H policy
14.  In-vitro antioxidant and antibacterial activities of Xanthium strumarium L. extracts on methicillin-susceptible and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus 
Ancient Science of Life  2013;33(2):109-113.
Background and Aims:
The excessive and repeated use of antibiotics in medicine has led to the development of antibiotic-resistant microbial strains, including Staphylococcus aureus whose emergence of antibiotic-resistant strains has reduced the number of antibiotics available to treat clinical infections caused by this bacterium. In this study, antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of methanolic extract of Xanthium strumarium L. leaves were evaluated on methicillin-susceptible and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) spp.
Materials and Methods:
Antiradical and antioxidant activities X. strumarium L. leaf extract were evaluated based on its ability to scavenge the synthetic 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical and by the paired diene method, respectively, whereas the antimicrobial activity was assayed by the disc diffusion method.
Statistical Analysis:
Data were subjected to analysis of variance following an entirely random design to determine the least significant difference at P < 0.05 using SPSS v. 11.5.
Results and Conclusions:
The IC50 values of the extract were 0.02 mg/mL and 0.09 mg/mL for the antioxidant and DPPH-scavenging capacity, respectively. X. strumarium extract affected both methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus and MRSA, though antibacterial activity was more effective on methicillin-susceptible S. aureus spp. The antibacterial and antioxidant activities exhibited by the methanol extract may justify the traditional use of this plant as a folk remedy worldwide.
doi:10.4103/0257-7941.139050
PMCID: PMC4171851  PMID: 25284944
1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl; antioxidant activity; methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus; methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus; Staphylococcus aureus; Xanthium strumarium L
15.  Studies on in vitro interaction of ampicillin and fresh garlic extract against Staphylococcus aureus by checkerboard method 
Ancient Science of Life  2013;33(2):114-118.
Objective:
Staphylococcus aureus has largely developed resistance to the multiple antimicrobial agents. Garlic (Allium sativum) is claimed to retard development of resistance and produce synergy with conventional antimicrobial agents. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of combination of ampicillin with fresh garlic extract (FGE) against S. aureus by using in vitro method.
Materials and Methods:
Antimicrobial activity of FGE was studied by well diffusion and broth dilution methods. The effect of combination of ampicillin with FGE was studied by using checkerboard method against the clinical isolates of S. aureus. The organisms were exposed to individual antimicrobial as well the different combinations of the two agents and minimum inhibitory concentration was measured.
Results:
Synergistic interaction was observed by the combination of FGE with ampicillin for all the strains of S. aureus. Mean minimum inhibitor concentration (MIC) of ampicillin per se was 24 μg/ml. Addition of 30-60 mg/ml of FGE reduced MIC of ampicillin to <2 μg/ml.
Conclusion:
This in vitro study indicates synergism between FGE and ampicillin against S. aureus. Evaluation of these combinations in vivo may be warranted.
doi:10.4103/0257-7941.139053
PMCID: PMC4171852  PMID: 25284945
Ampicillin; checkerboard method; fresh garlic extract; Staphylococcus aureus
16.  Evaluation of a Unani polyherbal formulation (Tiryaqe wabai) as an immunostimulator in elderly persons 
Ancient Science of Life  2013;33(2):119-122.
Background and Aims:
Elderly subjects have a dysregulation of immune response mainly due to the changes in cell - mediated immunity. Due to their weakened immune response, the elderly are at increased risk of infection and related complications. In Unani medicine Tiryaq wabai was used for the prevention of epidemic diseases during outbreaks, but it has not been explored scientifically so far. The study was aimed to evaluate the immune-stimulating effect of Tiryaq wabai in elderly.
Materials and Methods:
A randomized placebo controlled trial was conducted at National Institute of Unani Medicine Hospital, Bangalore. Thirty immunocompromised elderly persons were selected on the basis of clinical examination considering parameters like history of recurrent infection, unexplained weight loss, persistent diarrhea etc. They were randomly assigned, 20 in test and 10 in the control group. Tiryaq wabai was given to test group 500 mg orally thrice in a week for 45 days. Placebo was given orally to the control group at a dose of 500 mg thrice in a week for 45 days. Response was assessed by total leucocyte count (TLC), lymphocyte percentage, absolute lymphocyte count (ALC), CD4 and CD8 count. The results were analyzed statistically using Graph Pad InStat 3.
Results:
The test drug showed statistically significant increase in TLC (P < 0.001), lymphocyte percentage (P < 0.001),ALC (P < 0.001), CD4 count (P < 0.001) in comparison to control group, but increase in CD8 count was not statistically significant. No major adverse effect was observed throughout the study.
Conclusion:
The findings outlined above indicate immune- stimulating activity of Tiryaq wabai and supports its use in conditions where immunostimulation is required and thus is suggestive of therapeutic usefulness.
doi:10.4103/0257-7941.139054
PMCID: PMC4171853  PMID: 25284946
Aging; immune-senescence; T-lymphocytes; Unani medicine
17.  Evaluation of Brāhmī ghṛtam in children suffering from Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder 
Ancient Science of Life  2013;33(2):123-130.
Introduction:
Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is characterized by a persistent pattern of inattention and/or hyperactivity-impulsivity. In view of the adverse effects associated with psycho-stimulants used for the treatment of this disorder, efficacy of Brāhmī ghṛtam was evaluated in this condition.
Materials and Methods:
After following due ethical considerations, children of either sex between the age group of 6 and 12 years diagnosed to be suffering from mixed variety of ADHD as per The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) IV criteria irrespective of other co-morbid psychiatric illnesses were recruited in the study. Initially a pilot study (n = 10) was carried out to confirm the efficacy of the identified dose of Brāhmī ghṛtam. Using this dose, further therapeutic confirmatory study (n = 27) was carried out, wherein Brāhmī ghṛtam was compared with methylphenidate. Effect on ADHD symptoms was assessed using the Dupaul ADHD rating scale and this was the main efficacy parameter.
Results:
In the pilot exploratory study, Brāhmī ghṛtam showed 66% decrease in total ADHD score. In the therapeutic confirmatory study, only 16% improvement was seen with Brāhmī ghṛtam, which was similar to methylphenidate, standard treatment for ADHD that was used as a comparator in the present study. No side-effects were reported in both studies.
Conclusion:
Our study thus has adequately demonstrated efficacy and safety of Brāhmī ghṛtam in ADHD.
doi:10.4103/0257-7941.139057
PMCID: PMC4171854  PMID: 25284947
Dupaul Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder rating scale; psychometry
18.  Pharmacological and therapeutic effects of Mentha Longifolia L. and its main constituent, menthol 
Ancient Science of Life  2013;33(2):131-138.
Mentha longifolia (wild mint) is a popular folk remedy. Some parts of this plant have been used in traditional medicine of Iran and other countries. Many studies have shown various pharmacological and therapeutic effects of the plant. Our aim in preparing this study was to review the traditional uses of M. longifolia together with the pharmacological and therapeutic effects of its entire extract and major compounds. Mentha longifolia is an herb with a wide range of pharmacological properties such as antimicrobial, gastrointestinal, and nervous system effects. Pulegone is the main compound of the plant responsible for most of its pharmacological effects followed by menthone, isomenthone, menthol, 1, 8-cineole, borneol, and piperitenone. Moreover, the plant may dose-dependently exert toxic effects in different systems of the body. Based on the review of various studies, it can be concluded that M. longifolia is a potential natural source for the development of new drugs. However, further studies are required to determine the precise quality and safety of the plant to be used by clinicians.
doi:10.4103/0257-7941.139059
PMCID: PMC4171855  PMID: 25284948
Mentha longifolia; menthol; pharmacological effects; traditional use
21.  In vitro cytotoxic activity of menispermaceae plants against HeLa cell line 
Ancient Science of Life  2013;33(2):81-84.
Background:
Menispermaceae, a family of flowering plants, is a medium-sized family of 70 genera totaling 420 extant species, mostly of climbing plants. It has various medicinal properties, which are used in the Ayurvedic system of medicine. Plants belonging to this family are rich in alkaloids, especially bisbenzylisoquinoline type. The hypothesis of this study is that the bisbenzylisoquinoline alkaloids present in the selected plants may exhibit in vitro cytotoxic property.
Aim:
The present study is aimed at estimating the total alkaloidal content of methanolic extract of Cocculus hirsutus and Cissampelos pareira and evaluating the in vitro cytotoxic activity of both the extracts on the HeLa cell line.
Settings and Design:
Methanolic extracts of both the plants in the concentrations of 500, 250, 125, 62.5, and 31.25 μg/ml were assessed for its cytotoxic activity by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay.
Materials and Methods:
Total alkaloidal content was studied for both the plants using ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy method. Methanol extracts of both the plants were tested for its inhibitory effect on HeLa cell line. Cytotoxicity of the plant extracts was evaluated by MTT assay. Nonlinear regression graph was plotted between % cell inhibition and Log10 concentration, and IC50 was determined using GraphPad Prism software.
Results:
Preliminary phytochemical studies confirm the presence of alkaloids in both the plants. The total alkaloids present in C. hirsutus and C. pareira were found to be 0.252%w/w and 0.1656%w/w respectively. The IC50 values of C. hirsutus and C. pareria were found to be 111 μg/ml and 129.3 μg/ml respectively.
Conclusion:
From this study, it is observed that C. hirsutus and C. pareira have in vitro cytotoxic activity against HeLa cell line.
doi:10.4103/0257-7941.139040
PMCID: PMC4171858  PMID: 25284939
3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2; 5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay; Cissampelos pareira; Cocculus hirsutus; cytotoxic
22.  A self-rating scale to measure tridoṣas in children 
Ancient Science of Life  2013;33(2):85-91.
Background:
Self – rating inventories to assess the Prakṛti (constitution) and personality have been developed and validated for adults. To analyze the effect of personality development programs on Prakṛti of the children, standardized scale is not available. Hence, present study was carried out to develop and standardize Caraka Child Personality inventory (CCPI).
Materials and Methods:
The 77- item CCPI scale was developed on the basis of translation of Sanskrit verses describing vātaja (a), pittaja (b) and kaphaja prakṛti (c) characteristics described in Ayurveda texts and by taking the opinions of 5 Ayurveda experts and psychologists. The scale was administered on children of the age group 8-12 years in New Generation National public school, Bangalore.
Results:
This inventory was named CCPI and showed excellent internal consistency. The Cronbach's alpha for A, B and C scales were 0.54, 0.64 and 0.64 respectively. The Split - Half reliability scores for A, B and C subscales were 0.64. 0.60 and 0.66 respectively. Factor validity coefficient Scores on each item was above 0.4. Scores on vātaja, pittaja and kaphaja scales were inversely correlated. Test-retest reliability scores for A,B and C scales were 0.87,0.88 and 0.89 respectively. The result of CCPI was compared with a parent rating scale Ayurveda Child Personality Inventory (ACPI). Subscales of CCPI correlated significantly highly (above 0.80) with subscales of ACPI which was done for the purpose of cross-validation with respect to ACPI.
Conclusions:
The prakṛti of the children can be measured consistently by this scale. Correlations with ACPI pointed toward concurrent validity.
doi:10.4103/0257-7941.139042
PMCID: PMC4171859  PMID: 25284940
Tridosha; prakriti; vāta; pitta; kapha; Ayurveda
23.  The folklore medicinal orchids of Sikkim 
Ancient Science of Life  2013;33(2):92-96.
Background:
Orchids are well-known for decorative and aromatic values than its medicinal properties. Jīvantī, Jīvaka, Ṛṣabhaka, Rāsnā, Mānakanda, Pañcagula are used in Ayurveda are said to be orchids. There are 50 species of orchids in medicine. Sikkim has identified 523 species of wild orchids so far.
Aim:
The aim of this study is to determine the folklore medicinal use of orchids in Sikkim.
Materials and Methods:
To assess the traditional medicinal uses of orchid species, close contacts were made with native people particularly, traditional healers, religious leaders, nursery growers and villagers of Sikkim. The information was gathered with the help of the questionnaire and personal interviews with various knowledgeable respondents during the field visit in between August 2009 and December 2011.
Results and Conclusion:
We found that 36 species of orchids are used as medicines for different purposes of health. The botanical and ayurvedic name, phenology, parts used and medicinal uses of 36 orchids are presented in this paper along with its local distribution.
doi:10.4103/0257-7941.139043
PMCID: PMC4171860  PMID: 25284941
Analgesic; aphrodisiac; folklore medicine; orchids in medicine; orchids of Sikkim; wound healing
24.  Pharmaceutical standardization of Svarṇa vaṅga 
Ancient Science of Life  2013;33(2):97-102.
Background:
Kūpīpakva Rasāyana is a category of Rasauṣadhis (herbomineral medicines) prepared by unique pharmaceutical process explained in Rasaśāstra. Svarṇa Vanga (SV) is one such medicament indicated mainly in diseases such as Madhumeha (diabetes mellitus), Śvāsa (respiratory disorders), Pradara (menorrhagia), and as a Vrṣya (aphrodisiac).
Aims and Objectives:
The aim of this study is to establish the standard manufacturing process for SV and analyze its organoleptic and physicochemical properties.
Design:
Pharmaceutical standardization.
Materials and Methods:
Śodhita Vaṅga was melted and triturated with purified Pārada (mercury) to form an amalgam. The amalgam so formed was mixed with Saindhava Lavaṇa and levigated with Nimbu Svarasa (Citrus medica Var.) and washed until blackness of the mixture disappeared. On drying, śuddha Gandhaka (Sulfur) and Navasadara (Ammonium chloride) were added and ground into a fine powder. The powder thus formed was filled in the Kupī and processed in an electrical muffle furnace for 18 h. On cooling, the product formed at the bottom of the Kūpī was collected. Organoleptic and physicochemical parameters of SV were analyzed and tabulated.
Results and Conclusion:
SV is a Talastha Kūpīpakva Rasāyana. It requires Mṛdu (<250 C) and Madhyama Agni (250-500 C) for a period of 9 h each to prepare SV with 42.9% yield and having 63.2 and 34.4% tin and sulfur, respectively.
doi:10.4103/0257-7941.139046
PMCID: PMC4171861  PMID: 25284942
Ayurveda; Kupipakva Rasayana; standardization; Swarna Vanga
25.  Consideration of Ayurvedic diagnostics in design of clinical trials 
Ancient Science of Life  2013;33(1):1-3.
doi:10.4103/0257-7941.134553
PMCID: PMC4140014  PMID: 25161322

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