Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a gastrointestinal disorder characterized by chronic abdominal pain and altered bowel habits in the absence of any organic cause. As the clinical manifestations are very diverse and associated with nonspecific symptoms, research seeking to identify organic causes to rule out IBS and to enable differential diagnosis is required. A 24-year-old man was referred to our hospital for specialized management of IBS. He had a 7-month history of intermittent epigastric and lower abdominal pain. On the basis of clinical examination, he was diagnosed with IBS and administered medication at a primary clinic. However, his symptoms did not improve after treatment. We performed capsule endoscopy at our hospital and identified a parasite (Ancylostoma duodenale) in the proximal jejunum. We therefore report a case of parasitic infection found by additional examination while evaluating symptoms associated with a previous diagnosis of refractory IBS.
Irritable bowel syndrome; Parasitic infection; Ancylostoma duodenale; Ancylostomatoidea
During the last decade, researchers have made great progress in the development of new image processing technologies for gastrointestinal endoscopy. However, diagnosis using conventional endoscopy with white light optical imaging is essentially limited, and ultimately, we still rely on the histopathological diagnosis from biopsy specimens. Molecular imaging represents the most novel imaging methods in medicine, and the future of endoscopic diagnosis is likely to be impacted by a combination of biomarkers and technology. Endoscopic molecular imaging can be defined as the visualization of molecular characteristics with endoscopy. These innovations will allow us not only to locate a tumor or dysplastic lesion but also to visualize its molecular characteristics and the activity of specific molecules and biological processes that affect tumor behavior and/or its response to therapy. In the near future, these promising technologies will play a central role in endoluminal oncology.
Gastrointestinal neoplasms; Technology; Molecular imaging
Imaging mass spectrometry (IMS) is currently receiving large attention from the mass spectrometric community, although its use is not yet well known in the clinic. As matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight (MALDI)-IMS can show the biomolecular changes in cells as well as tissues, it can be an ideal tool for biomedical diagnostics as well as the molecular diagnosis of clinical specimens, especially aimed at the prompt detection of premalignant lesions much earlier before overt mass formation, or for obtaining histologic clues from endoscopic biopsy. Besides its use for pathologic diagnosis, MALDI-IMS is also a powerful tool for the detection and localization of drugs, proteins, and lipids in tissue. Measurement of parameters that define and control the implications, challenges, and opportunities associated with the application of IMS to biomedical tissue studies might be feasible through a deep understanding of mass spectrometry. In this focused review series, new insights into the molecular processes relevant to IMS as well as other field applications are introduced.
Spectrometry, mass, matrix-assisted laser desorption-ionization; Imaging mass spectrometer; Biological markers; Premalignant gastrointestinal lesions; Chemoprevention
Real-time visualization of the molecular signature of cells can be achieved with advanced targeted imaging techniques using molecular probes and fluorescence endoscopy. This molecular optical imaging in gastrointestinal endoscopy is promising for improving the detection of neoplastic lesions, their characterization for patient stratification, and the assessment of their response to molecular targeted therapy and radiotherapy. In inflammatory bowel disease, this method can be used to detect dysplasia in the presence of background inflammation and to visualize inflammatory molecular targets for assessing disease severity and prognosis. Several preclinical and clinical trials have applied this method in endoscopy; however, this field has just started to evolve. Hence, many problems have yet to be solved to enable the clinical application of this novel method.
Molecular imaging; Endoscopy; Fluorescence probe; Intestinal diseases
We evaluated the performance, clinical role, and diagnostic accuracy of endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration (EUS-FNA) in gastrointestinal intramural lesions.
Procedural and pathologic data were reviewed from consecutive patients undergoing EUS-FNA for intramural lesions. Final diagnoses were determined by surgical histopathologic conformation and the diagnosis of malignancy, including clinical follow-up with repeat imaging.
Forty-six patients (mean age, 47 years; 24 males) underwent EUS-FNA. Lesions were located in the stomach (n=31), esophagus (n=5), and duodenum (n=10). The median lesion size was 2 cm (range, 1 to 20.6). Final diagnoses were obtained in 22 patients (48%). EUS-FNA was diagnostic in 40 patients (87%). The diagnostic accuracy of cytology for differentiating between benign and malignant lesions was 82%; diagnostic error occurred in three patients (6%). The cytologic results influenced clinical judgment in 78% cases. The primary reasons for negative or no clinical impact were false-negative results, misdirected patient management, and inconclusive cytology.
EUS-FNA exhibited an 87% diagnostic yield for gastrointestinal intramural lesions; the accuracy of cytology for differentiating malignancy was 82%. The limitations of EUS-FNA were primarily because of nondiagnostic sampling (9%) and probable diagnostic error (6%); these factors may influence the clinical role of EUS-FNA.
Accuracy; Endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration; Extraintestinal mass; Intramural mass; Yield
Capsule endoscopy (CE) has become an important tool for the diagnosis of small bowel disease. Although CE does not require the skill of endoscope insertion, the images should be interpreted by a person with experience in assessing images of the gastrointestinal mucosa. This investigation aimed to document the number of cases needed by trainees to gain the necessary experience for CE competency.
Fifteen cases were distributed to 12 trainees with no previous experience of CE during their gastroenterology training as clinical fellows. Twelve trainees and an expert were asked to read CE images from one patient each week for 15 weeks. The diagnosis was reported using five categories (no abnormalities detected, small bowel erosion or ulcer, small bowel tumor, Crohn disease, and active small bowel bleeding with no identifiable source). We then examined, using the κ coefficient, how the degree of mean agreements between the trainees and the expert changed as the training progressed each week.
The agreement rate of CE diagnosis increased as the frequencies of interpretation increased. Most of the mean κ coefficients were >0.60 and >0.80 after week 9 and 11, respectively.
Experience with approximately 10 cases of CE is appropriate for trainees to attain CE competency.
Capsule endoscopy; Learning curve
Between endoscopic sphincterotomy (ES) alone and combined endoscopic sphincterotomy and large balloon dilation (ES-LBD) groups, efficacy and long-term complications, difference in biliary stone recurrence rate, and risk factors of stone recurrence were compared.
Medical records of 222 patients who underwent ERCP for biliary stone removal were retrospectively reviewed. Patients with dilated CBD ≥11 mm and follow-up longer than 6 months were included.
There were 101 patients in ES-LBD group and 121 patients in ES group. Mean follow-up duration was 25.0 (6-48) months and 13.0 (6-43) months, respectively (p=0.001). There was no difference in number of ERCP sessions, brown pigment stones, angle between mid and distal common bile duct (CBD angle) <135°, and lithotripsy rate. Complete retrieval success rate was excellent in both groups (100% vs. 99%). Early complication rate of ES-LBD and ES alone group was 4 and 4.1%, respectively (p=1.000). One patient in ES-LBD group died from delayed bleeding. Late complication rate was 5.9 and 3.3%, respectively (p=1.000). Stone recurrence rate was 6.9% and 5.8%, respectively (p=0.984). The only Independent risk factor of stone recurrence was presence of periampullary diverticulum.
Late complication and stone recurrence rates were similar between ES-LBD and ES alone groups.
Common bile duct stone; Sphincterotomy, endoscopic; Endoscopic large balloon dilation; Stone recurrence; Late complication
Stricture frequently occurs after endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) for superficial esophageal carcinoma with near- or whole-circumferential mucosal defects, and post-ESD stricture is difficult to treat and usually requires multiple sessions of endoscopic balloon dilatation. Intralesional steroid injection has previously been used to prevent stricture; however, there have been few experiences with this method after near- or whole-circumferential ESD. We present a case of a single session of intralesional steroid injection performed immediately after near-circumferential ESD to prevent post-ESD stricture. After a follow-up period of 6 months, the patient showed good outcome without dysphagia.
Injections, intralesional; Esophageal stenosis; Endoscopic submucosal dissection; Esophageal neoplasms
Mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma of the stomach is the most common extranodal lymphoma of the gastrointestinal tract. It is usually accompanied by Helicobacter pylori infection, and eradication of H. pylori remains the mainstay of treatment for gastric MALT lymphoma. However, there is no consensus on the second-line treatment for patients with gastric MALT lymphoma who do not improve after successful H. pylori eradication. Here, we report the case of a 34-year-old woman who presented with a polypoid type of gastric MALT lymphoma on the greater curvature side of the upper body. Despite successful H. pylori eradication, the tumor did not regress after 6 months. Because the tumor had a semipedunculated polypoid morphology, gastric polypectomy was implemented as a second-line treatment. No recurrence occurred during the 3-year follow-up period. We suggest that gastric polypectomy be considered an alternative treatment modality for polypoid gastric MALT lymphoma that is unresponsive to H. pylori eradication.
Gastric mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma; Polypectomy; Helicobacter
Amyloidosis is a group of disorders characterized by the extracellular accumulation of insoluble, fibrillar proteins in various organs and tissues. It is classified, on the basis of the identity of the precursor protein, as primary, secondary, or familial amyloidosis. Gastrointestinal amyloidosis usually presents as bleeding, ulceration, malabsorption, protein loss, and diarrhea. However, gastric amyloidosis with gastric outlet obstruction mimicking linitis plastica is rare. We report a case of gastrointestinal amyloidosis with gastric outlet obstruction in a patient with ankylosing spondylitis. The patient was indicated for subtotal gastrectomy because of the aggravation of obstructive symptoms, but refused the operation and was transferred to another hospital. Three months later, the patient died of aspiration pneumonia during medical treatment.
Gastrointestinal amyloidosis; Spondylitis, ankylosing; Linitis plastica
Duodenal neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) are rare neoplasms. In this study, the medical records of 14 patients with duodenal NETs diagnosed at Chonnam National University Hospital from July 2001 to August 2011 were reviewed and analyzed retrospectively. Four patients were diagnosed in the first 5 years, and 10 patients were diagnosed in the latter 5 years of the study. Ten of 12 patients (83.3%) who underwent endoscopic biopsy were confirmed to have NET before resection. Endoscopic resection was performed in 12 patients, surgical resection in one patient, and regular follow-up in one patient who refused resection. None of the patients showed recurrence or distant metastasis. Duodenal NETs are increasingly observed and are mostly detected during screening upper gastrointestinal endoscopy. Careful endoscopic examination and biopsy can improve the diagnostic yield of NETs. Most well-differentiated, nonfunctional duodenal NETs that are limited to the mucosa/submucosa can be treated effectively with endoscopic resection.
Neuroendocrine tumors; Endoscopic mucosal resection; Duodenum
Situs inversus totalis (SIT) is a rare condition in which there is complete right to left reversal of the abdominal and thoracic organs. SIT generally does not bear any pathophysiological significance, and the survival rate of patients with SIT does not differ from that of healthy individuals. However, patients with SIT require a thorough radiological examination to identify the presence of associated anatomic variations before undergoing invasive procedures such as surgery or hemostasis of gastrointestinal hemorrhage because they may have accompanying abnormalities in anatomical structures along with reversed organs. Percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG) is a relatively safe procedure that is most commonly performed for the enteral feeding of patients with dysphagia and a normal gastrointestinal function. However, the procedure requires extracaution because minor complications may lead to life-threatening situations due to the underlying illnesses. Here, we report the case of a patient with SIT who underwent a PEG procedure without complications, and review the existing literature on this subject.
Situs inversus totalis; Percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy; Anatomic variation
The incidence of early gastric cancer (EGC) has increased to >50% in Korea owing to a higher detection rate caused by rapid advances in diagnostic instrumentation. EGC with distant metastasis has been rarely reported. Here, we report the case of a 76-year-old woman in whom general EGC was initially diagnosed by endoscopy and endoscopic ultrasonography. She subsequently underwent endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD). Histological examination of the ESD specimen revealed that neoplastic cells were located predominantly in the submucosal layer and submucosal lymphatic channels. Metastatic cancer cells were also found in the pleural effusion. After conducting all analyses, including immunohistochemical staining, we concluded that the patient had primary EGC with pleural metastasis.
Neoplasm metastasis; Stomach neoplasms; Pleura; Lymphatic metastasis
Many new parasitic infections have emerged in Korea, with >35 new species appearing since the 1980s. Among them, Capillaria species are unique for contributing to morbidity in many countries as well as in Korea. Since the first reported case of a 41-year-old male patient diagnosed with intestinal capillariasis in 1991, a total of six cases have been reported thus far. In this case report, we present another imported case of intestinal capillariasis in Korea, in which a 42-year-old male patient presented with intractable diarrhea and weight loss. The diagnosis was confirmed by biopsy of the ileum. The pathognomonic radiographic presentation of a ribbon-like appearance in a small bowel series was crucial in raising an early suspicion of capillariasis and in deciding to perform diagnostic biopsy.
Capillaria; Capillaria philippinensis; Intestine, small; Colonoscopy; Albendazole
Afferent loop obstruction caused by enterolith formation is rare and cannot be easily treated with endoscopy because of the difficulty associated with the nonsurgical removal of enteroliths. A 74-year-old woman was admitted with fever and acute abdominal pain. Clinical features and imaging studies suggested afferent loop obstruction caused by an enterolith after Roux-en-Y hepaticojejunostomy. Percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage was initially performed because of severe cholangitis with septic shock. The enterolith was located in the jejunal limb adjacent to the hepaticojejunostomy site. Cholangioscopic lithotripsy was performed through the percutaneous transhepatic route to the enterolith, and the fragments were moved into the efferent loop using scope push and saline flush methods. Here, we describe a case of afferent loop syndrome caused by an enterolith that developed after Roux-en-Y hepaticojejunostomy and was treated with percutaneous transhepatic cholangio-enteroscopic lithotripsy.
Afferent loop syndrome; Anastomosis, Roux-en-Y; Lithotripsy
Rapid advances in the technology of gastrointestinal endoscopy as well as the evolution of science have made it necessary for us to continue update in either various endoscopic techniques or state of art lectures relevant to endoscopy. International Digestive Endoscopy Network (IDEN) 2013 was held in conjunction with Korea-Japan Joint Symposium on Gastrointestinal Endoscopy (KJSGE) during June 8 to 9, 2013 at Seoul, Korea. Two days of impressive scientific program dealt with a wide variety of basic concerns from upper gastrointestine (GI), lower GI, pancreaticobiliary endoscopy to advanced knowledge including endoscopic submucosal dissection forum. IDEN seems to be an excellent opportunity to exchange advanced information of the latest issues on endoscopy with experts from around the world. In this special issue of Clinical Endoscopy, we prepared state of art review articles from contributing authors and the current highlights will skillfully deal with very hot spots of each KJSGE, upper GI, lower GI, and pancreaticobiliary sessions by associated editors of Clinical Endoscopy.
International Digestive Endoscopy Network; Korean Society of Gastrointestinal Endoscopy; Japan Gastrointestinal Endoscopy Society; Highlight; Clinical Endoscopy
Endoscopic forceps biopsy is essential before planning an endoscopic resection of upper gastrointestinal epithelial tumors. However, forceps biopsy is limited by its superficiality and frequency of sampling errors. Histologic discrepancies between endoscopic forceps biopsies and resected specimens are frequent. Factors associated with such histologic discrepancies are tumor size, macroscopic type, surface color, and the type of medical facility. Precise targeting of biopsies is recommended to achieve an accurate diagnosis, curative endoscopic resection, and a satisfactory oncologic outcome. Multiple deep forceps biopsies can induce mucosal ulceration in early gastric cancer. Endoscopic resection for early gastric cancer with ulcerative findings is associated with piecemeal resection, incomplete resection, and a risk for procedure-related complications such as bleeding and perforation. Such active ulcers caused by forceps biopsy and following submucosal fibrosis might also be mistaken as an indication for more aggressive procedures, such as gastrectomy with D2 lymph node dissection. Proton pump inhibitors might be prescribed to facilitate the healing of biopsy-induced ulcers if an active ulcer is predicted after deep biopsy. It is unknown which time interval from biopsy to endoscopic resection is appropriate for a safe procedure and a good oncologic outcome. Further investigations are needed to conclude the appropriate time interval.
Forceps biopsy; Endoscopic resection; Histologic discrepancy; Ulcer
Subepithelial lesions are frequently encountered and remain a diagnostic challenge. Imaging of subepithelial lesions using endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) can be helpful in narrowing the differential diagnosis of the lesion; however, definitive diagnosis typically requires tissue. Many methods for acquiring tissue exist including EUS-guided fine needle aspiration, Trucut biopsy, and fine needle biopsy. Obtaining adequate tissue is important for cytologic and histologic exams including immunohistochemical stains, thus a great deal of effort has been made to increase tissue acquisition in order to improve diagnostic yield in subepithelial lesions.
Endosonography; Subepithelial masses; Endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration; Endoscopic ultrasound-guided core needle biopsy
Probe-based confocal microscopy (pCLE) is actively being investigated for applications in the esophagus and stomach. The use of pCLE allows real-time in vivo microscopy to evaluate the microarchitecture of the mucosal epithelium. pCLE appears to be particularly useful in identifying mucosal dysplasia and early malignancies that cannot be clearly distinguished using high-definition white light endoscopy, chromoendoscopy, or magnification endoscopy. In addition, the ability to detect dysplastic tissue in real-time may shift the current screening practice from random biopsy to targeted biopsy of esophageal and gastric cancers and their precursor lesions. We will review the use of pCLE for detection and surveillance of upper gastrointestinal early luminal malignancy.
Microscopy, confocal; Gastric intestinal metaplasia; Barrett esophagus; Dysplasia
Foregut neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) include those arising in the esophagus, stomach, pancreas, and duodenum and seem to have a broad range of clinical behavior from benign to metastatic. Several factors including the advent of screening endoscopy may be related to increased incidence of gastrointestinal NETs; thus, many foregut NETs are diagnosed at an early stage. Early foregut NETs, such as those of the stomach and duodenum, can be managed with endoscopic treatment because of a low frequency of lymph node and distant metastases. However, controversy continues concerning the optimal management of early foregut NETs due to a lack of controlled prospective studies. Several issues such as indications, technical issues, and outcomes of endoscopic treatment for early foregut NETs are reviewed based on some published studies.
Stomach; Duodenum; Neuroendocrine tumors; Endoscopic treatment
Although techniques and instruments for endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) have improved, bleeding is still the most common complication. Minimizing the occurrence of bleeding is important because blood can interfere with subsequent procedures. Generally, ESD-related bleeding can be divided into intraprocedural and postprocedural bleedings. Postprocedural bleeding can be further classified into early post-ESD bleeding which occurs within 48 hours after ESD and late post-ESD bleeding which occurs later than 48 hours after ESD. A basic principle for avoiding intraprocedural bleeding is to watch for vessels and coagulate them before cutting. Several countertraction devices have been designed to minimize intraprocedural bleeding. Methods for reducing postprocedural bleeding include administration of proton-pump inhibitors or prophylactic coagulation after ESD. Medical adhesive spray such as n-butyl-2-cyanoacrylate is also an option for preventing postprocedural bleeding. Various endoscopic treatment modalities are used for both intraprocedural and postprocedural bleeding. However, hemoclipping is infrequently used during ESD because the clips interfere with subsequent resection. Bleeding that occurs as a result of ESD can usually be managed easily. Nonetheless, more effective ways to prevent bleeding, including reliable ESD techniques, must be developed.
Endoscopic submucosal dissection; Hemorrhage; Prevention and control; Hemostasis
Endoscopic mucosal resection was introduced in the 1990s, and endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) in 2003. Currently, ESD is becoming the main procedure for the resection of early gastric cancer (EGC) and is leading to the development of extended indications for endoscopic resection. Many reports showed that the endoscopic and oncologic outcome of endoscopic treatment in the extended indication group was acceptable in terms of curability and safety. Especially, ESD showed better results to remove extended indication EGCs with relatively high resection rate and low local recurrence rate. However, more long-term follow-up data are needed for clinical application of the extended criteria of ESD due to the risk of lymph node metastasis. We should also keep in mind that accurate diagnosis, characterization of the lesion, and proper appreciation of technical aspects are most essential in therapeutic endoscopy.
Endoscopic submucosal dissection; Early gastric cancer; Extended indication; Long-term outcome