Brunner's gland adenoma is a rare benign proliferative lesion developing most commonly in the posterior wall of the duodenum. It is usually small in size and asymptomatic. Depending on its size or location, however, the clinical manifestations of this tumor may be variable from nonspecific symptoms to gastrointestinal bleeding or obstruction. Brunner's gland adenoma in the proximal jejunum is extremely rare. We report a very rare case of giant Brunner's gland adenoma developing in the proximal jejunum which presented as iron deficiency anemia and mimicked intussusceptions on radiologic studies.
Brunner's gland adenoma; Jejunum; Enteroscopy
A secondary aortoenteric fistula (AEF) is a direct communication between the gastrointestinal tract and the aorta in a patient who has undergone major surgery on the aorta, often an aorta graft operation. We experienced a patient who had undergone graft interposition for abdominal aortic aneurysm and was admitted due to three episodes of hematemesis and following hamatochezia. Gastroscopy, colonoscopy, and radioactive iodine scan failed to identify the bleeding site in the patient. He was diagnosed with AEF by double balloon enteroscopy and recovered after surgical intervention.
Aortoenteric fistula; Double-balloon enteroscopy
Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a light based therapy used to ablate tumors. As practiced in oncology a photosensitizing agent is applied and then activated by a specific wavelength and energy of light. This light energy in the presence of oxygen will lead to the creation of the photodynamic reaction which is cyto and vasculo toxic. This paper will review the mechanisms of action of PDT and how they may be manipulated to improve clinical outcome in cancer patients.
Photochemotherapy; Mechanisms; Photosensitizing agents; Photodynamic reaction
This paper reviews the use of photodynamic therapy (PDT) in patients with Barrett's esophagus and esophageal carcinoma. We describe the history of PDT, mechanics, photosensitizers for PDT in patients with esophageal disease. Finally, we discuss its utility and limitations in this setting.
Barrett esophagus; Esophageal neoplasms; Dihematoporphyrin ether; Aminolevulinic acid; Ablation therapy
The most common form in bile duct cancers is a highly desmoplastic cancer with a growth pattern characterized by periductal extension and infiltration. The prognosis of bile duct cancers, especially hilar cholangiocarcinoma, is limited by tumor spread along the biliary tree leading to refractory obstructive cholestasis, cholangitis, and liver failure. Although biliary endoprosthesis improves occlusion rates and reduces the number of therapeutic interventions, median survival time is not ameliorated. Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a local photochemical tumor treatment that consists of a photosensitizing agent in combination with laser irradiation of a distinct wavelength. Tumor ablation with PDT combined with biliary stenting reduces cholestasis and significantly improves median survival time in selected patients with bile duct cancers.
Cholangiocarcinoma; Bile duct neoplasms; Endoprosthesis; Photodynamic therapy; Photosensitizing agents
Capsule endoscopy (CE) is considered as a noninvasive and reliable diagnostic tool of examining the entire small bowel. CE has been performed frequently at many medical centers in South Korea; however, there is no evidence-based CE guideline for adequate diagnostic approaches. To provide accurate information and suggest correct testing approaches for small bowel disease, the guideline on CE was developed by the Korean Gut Image Study Group, a part of the Korean Society of Gastrointestinal Endoscopy. Operation teams for developing the guideline were organized into four areas: obscure gastrointestinal bleeding, small bowel preparation, Crohn's disease, and small bowel tumor. A total of 20 key questions were selected. In preparing this guideline, MEDLINE, Cochrane library, KMbase, KISS, and KoreaMed literature searches were performed. After writing a draft of the guideline, opinions from various experts were reflected before approving the final document. The guideline should be regarded as recommendations only to gastroenterologists in providing care to their patients. These are not absolute rules and should not be construed as establishing a legal standard of care. Although further revision may be necessary as new data appear, this guideline is expected to play a role for adequate diagnostic approaches of various small bowel diseases.
Capsule endoscopy; Small bowel disease; Guideline
Laparoscopic Heller myotomy with antireflux procedure is considered to be a standard treatment for achalasia. Recently, peroral endoscopic myotomy (POEM) was developed and performed on patients with achalasia. However, there is no report on POEM use in South Korea. The aim of this study was to evaluate the technical feasibility of POEM in a porcine model.
POEM was performed on two mini pigs. We performed upper endoscopy under general anesthesia. A submucosal tunnel was created and the circular muscle layer was incised using several knives. The mucosal entry was closed using resolution clips. We performed a follow-up endoscopy and sacrificed the pigs 2 weeks after the POEM. The myotomy site was evaluated grossly and histologically.
POEM was successfully performed on the two mini pigs. No injuries to any abdominal or mediastinal structures occurred. Two weeks after the POEM, the esophageal mucosa healed without any endoscopic evidence of complications. Necropsy revealed that the circular muscle layer was completely lost and replaced with fibrotic tissue.
We found that POEM is a technically feasible method which can be performed on an animal model. However, to ensure safe use on patients with achalasia, further studies on technical methods and long-term follow-up examinations are required.
Esophagus; Esophageal achalasia; Endoscopy; Animal models; Feasibility studies
To asses the usefulness of flexible metallic stents in the palliation of malignant obstruction of gastric outlet and duodenum.
Retrospective review was performed between January 2006 and December 2011 in 30 patients. Thirty consecutive patients with obstruction of the gastric outlet underwent palliative treatment with self-expandable flexible metallic stents. Complications and clinical outcomes were assessed.
Twenty-four patients had advanced gastric carcinoma at the antrum and/or pylorus, four patients had obstruction at the pylorus due to pancreas tumours and one patient had duodedum and one patient had gall bladder tumour. Symptoms improved in 82.7% of the patients after the procedure. The improvement in ability to eat using the score system was statistically significant (p<0.001). Tumor ingrowth and/or overgrowth were seen in four patients (13.3%), and a second stent was inserted in these patients. The mean stent patency was 100 days (range, 5 to 410). The mean survival was 120.76±38.96 days.
Endoscopic placement of self-expendable metallic stents under fluoroscopy is a safe and effective treatment for the palliation of patients with inoperable malignant gastric outlet obstruction caused by stomach or pancreas cancer.
Gastric outlet obstruction; Self expendable metallic stents; Advanced malignancies
Approximately 5% to 10% of common bile duct (CBD) stones are difficult to remove by conventional endoscopic methods. Percutaneous transhepatic cholangioscopic lithotomy (PTCSL) can be an alternative method for this condition, but is not well established yet. The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical efficacy and safety of PTCSL for removal of difficult CBD stones.
This study is a retrospective review of 34 consecutive patients who underwent unsuccessful removal of CBD stones using conventional endoscopic methods between December 2008 and July 2010 and were subsequently treated using PTCSL.
Among 443 patients with CBD stones, 34 patients (7.8%) failed to achieve stone removal using conventional endoscopic methods. Of these 34 patients, 33 were treated using PTCSL. In all 33 cases (100%), complete stone removal was achieved using PTCSL. Most complications (15/17, 88.2%) were mild and transient. Major complications occurred in two patients (6.1%) who experienced hemobilia, and percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage tract disruption, respectively; which were fully recovered without mortality.
Despite prolonged hospital stay and temporary decline of quality of life, PTCSL is an effective and safe method in the management of difficult CBD stones, especially in patients with difficulty in approaching the affected bile duct.
Percutaneous transhepatic cholangioscopic lithotomy; Common bile duct stones
The brief history of photodynamic therapy (PDT) research has been focused on photosensitizers (PSs) and light delivery was introduced recently. The appropriate PSs were developed from the first generation PS Photofrin (QLT) to the second (chlorins or bacteriochlorins derivatives) and third (conjugated PSs on carrier) generations PSs to overcome undesired disadvantages, and to increase selective tumor accumulation and excellent targeting. For the synthesis of new chlorin PSs chlorophyll a is isolated from natural plants or algae, and converted to methyl pheophorbide a (MPa) as an important starting material for further synthesis. MPa has various active functional groups easily modified for the preparation of different kinds of PSs, such as methyl pyropheophorbide a, purpurin-18, purpurinimide, and chlorin e6 derivatives. Combination therapy, such as chemotherapy and photothermal therapy with PDT, is shortly described here. Advanced light delivery system is shown to establish successful clinical applications of PDT. Phtodynamic efficiency of the PSs with light delivery was investigated in vitro and/or in vivo.
Photochemotherapy; Photosensitizing agents; Chlorophyll and chlorins; Photothermal therapy; Light delivery
The pathogenesis of bone loss in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is complex, multifactorial, and only partly understood. We aimed to examine the extent and risk factors of bone mass reduction and to analyze the impact of early onset of a disease before attaining peak bone mass in IBD patients.
We compared the risk factors for osteoporosis and BMD at the lumbar spine and the hip bone in IBD patients.
A total of 44 patients with IBD were enrolled. Twenty-one and 23 patients were diagnosed as IBD before and after the age of 30 and designated as group A and group B, respectively. Group A had significant bone mass reduction at the lumbar spine than group B (BMD, 1.01±0.10 vs. 1.14±0.17, p<0.01; T-score, -1.22±0.84 vs. -0.08±1.39, p<0.01; Z-score, -1.11±0.81 vs. -0.03±1.32, p<0.01, respectively). Multivariate analysis showed that patients diagnosed as IBD before the age of 30 had possible risk factor of bone mass reduction (hazard ratio, 3.96; p=0.06).
Bone mass reduction was more severe in patients who were diagnosed with IBD before the age of 30 than in those diagnosed after the age of 30.
Inflammatory bowel diseases; Bone density; Steroids; Age
Intra-abdominal tuberculous lymphadenitis can mimic a variety of other abdominal disorders such as pancreatic cancer, metastatic lymph nodes, or lymphoma, which can make a proper diagnosis difficult. A correct diagnosis of intra-abdominal tuberculous lymphadenitis can lead to appropriate management. Endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS)-guided needle biopsy may be the procedure of choice for tissue acquisition when onsite cytopathology examination is unavailable because it is essential to obtain sufficient material suitable for the examination using an ancillary method, such as flow cytometry, molecular diagnosis, cytogenetics, or microbiological culture. We report a case of intra-abdominal tuberculous lymphadenitis diagnosed using an EUS-guided, 22-gauge histology new needle biopsy without an onsite cytopathology examination.
Endosonography; Fine needle biopsy; Tuberculosis
Pyogenic granuloma is a benign inflammatory vascular lesion, mainly found in the skin and oral mucosa. A few cases of pyogenic granuloma in the gastrointestinal tract have been reported, and the esophagus was the main site in these cases. These patients were diagnosed with pyogenic granuloma after they underwent upper endoscopy and biopsy. Endoscopic resection is a favorable treatment option for esophageal pyogenic granuloma. Recently, we observed characteristic endosonographic findings in two cases with esophageal pyogenic granuloma, which were then treated successfully by endoscopic resection.
Endosonography; Esophagus; Pyogenic granuloma
Cowden's disease, also known as a kind of phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) hamartoma tumor syndrome, is an uncommon autosomal dominant inherited complex disorder with various hamartomatous growths of multiple organs involving all three germ cell layers. It usually manifests with polyps throughout the gastrointestinal tract, ranging anywhere from 30% to 85%, and more common extra intestinal findings. Mucocutaneous lesions like facial trichilemmomas, acral keratoses, papillomatous papules and macrocephaly, and malignancies including breast, thyroid and endometrial carcinoma are the hallmark of the disease. Here we report on familial Cowden's diseases case of a 52-year-old male proband with mucocutaneous lesions and mutation on the PTEN gene obtained by extrapolating from gastrointestinal polyposis as a starter and his daughter who developed thyroid cancer.
Multiple hamartoma syndrome; Intestinal polyposis; Papilloma; Macrocephaly
The most common cause of esophagorespiratory fistulas (ERFs) is associated with malignancy. The use of self-expandable metal stents is effective for the treatment of malignant ERFs, but benign ERF is rare, which is why its optimal treatment is not defined yet. There have been few reports describing benign esophagopleural fistula and its treatments in South Korea. Here, we report a rare case of spontaneous esophagopleural fistula, which was successfully treated by endoscopic placement of a membrane covered metal stent.
Esophagopleural fistula; Membrane covered metal stent
The endoscopic insertion of the self-expandable metal stent (SEMS) in benign biliary stricture has become an alternative to surgery. Fracture or migration of SEMS can occur rarely as complications. We report a case of fracture of SEMS during endoscopic retrieval in patients with chronic pancreatitis. In this case, broken stent was successfully removed with endoscopic ballooning of bile duct and with a snare device.
Self-expandable metal stent; Fracture; Benign biliary stricture
Development of biliary casts is very unusual, especially in patients who have not undergone liver transplantation. Variable causes of biliary cast formation in nonliver transplantation patients have been suggested. However, stasis of bile flow and/or gallbladder hypocontractility is known to eventually result in the promotion of biliary sludge and subsequent cast formation. Here we present one case of biliary cast syndrome, which developed in a nonliver transplant patient who had biliary sludge for a long period of time, providing evidence that long-standing biliary sludge may lead to cast formation.
Cast; Biliary tract; Sludge; Gallbladder; Nontransplant
Introduction of endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) has brought about a renaissance in therapeutic endoscopy. For the globalization and universalization of ESD, the number of physicians who can perform ESD has rapidly increased with general ex vivo and in vivo training using animal models and hand-on courses. In this focused review series, world-renowned ESD experts described the published studies or their own precious experiences about ESD training and performing ESD with accurate and safe techniques. First, Dr. Adolfo Parra-Blanco reviewed on ex vivo and in vivo models for ESD training. Next, Dr. Joo Young Cho described detailed practical settings and current status of hands-on courses using ex vivo and in vivo models in Korea. Dr. Takashi Toyonaga described quality controlled ESD and basic techniques to prevent complications. Dr. Tsuneo Oyama reviewed recently published methods to facilitate ESD. Dr. Jae-Young Jang reviewed the usefulness of magnifying and narrow band imaging to measure the depth of invasion before ESD.
Endoscopic submucosal dissection; Animal models; Training; Globalization; Universalization
Endoscopic submucosal dissection is a technically challenging but highly effective technique for the treatment of well selected early neoplasms in the digestive tract. Although it is frequently performed in East Asian countries, the Western world has not adopted this technique yet, probably due in part to the difficulty to learn it. Ex vivo and in vivo animal models are invaluable tools to overcome at least the beginning of the learning curve, although the initial step is the acquisition of basic knowledge about early diagnosis of neoplasias, and observing real procedures in expert centers. The practical issues, advantages, and disadvantages of the ex vivo and in vivo models are discussed.
Endoscopic submucosal dissection; Animal models; Training