To evaluate the effect of anodal transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) over the lesioned leg motor cortex, which can enhance the strength and coordination of the contralateral lower extremity and furthermore, enhance the postural stability of the hemiplegic subject.
Anodal or sham stimulation on the lesioned cortex of a lower extremity was delivered to 11 ambulatory hemiplegic patients. The stimulation intensity was 2 mA. All subjects took part in two 10-minute tDCS sessions consisting of anodal stimulation and sham stimulation. The interval period between real and sham stimulation was 48 hours. The order was counter-balanced among the subjects. Before and after each stimulation session, static postural stability was evaluated with eyes opened and closed. Also, the isometric strength of the hemiplegic side of the treated knee was measured before and after each stimulation session. Repeated measure ANOVA was used to determine the statistical significance of improvements in postural stability and strength.
There was significant improvement for overall stability index with eyes opened and closed after anodal tDCS (p<0.05). Isometric strength of the lesioned quadriceps tended to increase after anodal tDCS (p<0.05). Postural stability and quadriceps strength were not changed after sham stimulation.
Anodal tDCS has potential value in hemiplegic stroke patients to improve balance and strengthen the affected lower extremity.
tDCS; Postural balance; Stroke; Strength
To investigate the analgesic effect of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) over the primary motor (M1), dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), and sham tDCS in patients with painful diabetic polyneuropathy (PDPN).
Patients with PDPN (n=60) were divided randomly into the three groups (n=20 per group). Each group received anodal tDCS with the anode centered over the left M1, DLPFC, or sham stimulation for 20 minutes at intensity of 2 mA for 5 consecutive days. A blinded physician rated the patients' pain using a visual analog scale (VAS), Clinical Global Impression (CGI) score, anxiety score, sleep quality, Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), and the pain threshold (PT) to pressure.
After the tDCS sessions, the M1 group showed a significantly greater reduction in VAS for pain and PT versus the sham and DLPFC groups (p<0.001). The reduction in VAS for pain was sustained after 2 and 4 weeks of follow-up in the M1 group compared with the sham group (p<0.001, p=0.007). Significant differences were observed among the three groups over time in VAS for pain (p<0.001), CGI score (p=0.01), and PT (p<0.001). No significant difference was observed among the groups in sleep quality, anxiety score, or BDI score immediately after tDCS.
Five daily sessions of tDCS over the M1 can produce immediate pain relief, and relief 2- and 4-week in duration in patients with PDPN. Our findings provide the first evidence of a beneficial effect of tDCS on PDPN.
Transcranial direct current stimulation; Chronic pain; Diabetic neuropathy
To examine whether the clinical severity of cervical dystonia (CD) significantly correlates with 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography (18F-FDG PET/CT) findings as well as to determine the threshold of the clinical severity of CD for positive 18F-FDG PET/CT study findings.
Forty-seven subjects with torticollis as one of the symptoms of CD were included. The clinical severity of CD was evaluated with the Toronto Western Spasmodic Torticollis Rating Scale (TWSTRS) at the time of 18F-FDG PET/CT. The correlation between the clinical severity of CD and the highest SUVmax was examined. The threshold of the clinical severity of CD necessary for positive 18F-FDG PET/CT findings was determined using receiver operating characteristics curve analysis.
Thirty-three of the 47 subjects (70.21%) showed positive 18F-FDG PET/CT findings. The ipsilateral splenius capitis/cervicis, oblique capitis inferior, and longus colli/capitis were the rotators most frequently involved. The highest SUVmax of 18F-FDG PET/CT was significant correlated with the TWSTRS. Subjects with a total TWSTRS exceeding 39 showed positive 18F-FDG PET/CT findings, with those having a total TWSTRS ≤22 showing negative 18F-FDG PET/CT results. The cutoff value of the total TWSTRS for positive 18F-FDG PET/CT findings was set at 27.5 with 90.9% sensitivity and 64.3% specificity.
A significant correlation was evident between the clinical severity of CD and 18F-FDG PET/CT findings, providing a threshold of the clinical severity of CD for acquisition of positive 18F-FDG PET/CT findings.
Cervical dystonia; Fluorodeoxyglucose F18; Positron-emission tomography
To compare effectiveness on correcting cranial and ear asymmetry between helmet therapy and counter positioning for deformational plagiocephaly (DP).
Retrospective data of children diagnosed with DP who visited our clinic from November 2010 to October 2012 were reviewed. Subjects ≤10 months of age who showed ≥10 mm of diagonal difference were included for analysis. For DP treatment, information on both helmet therapy and counter positioning was given and either of the two was chosen by each family. Head circumference, cranial asymmetry measurements including diagonal difference, cranial vault asymmetry index, radial symmetry index, and ear shift were obtained by 3-dimensional head-surface laser scan at the time of initiation and termination of therapy.
Twenty-seven subjects were included: 21 had helmet therapy and 6 underwent counter positioning. There was no significant difference of baseline characteristics, head circumferences and cranial asymmetry measurements at the initiation of therapy. The mean duration of therapy was 4.30±1.27 months in the helmet therapy group and 4.08±0.95 months in the counter positioning group (p=0.770). While cranial asymmetry measurements improved in both groups, significantly more improvement was observed with helmet therapy. There was no significant difference of the head circumference growth between the two groups at the end of therapy.
Helmet therapy resulted in more favorable outcomes in correcting cranial and ear asymmetry than counter positioning on moderate to severe DP without compromising head growth.
Deformational plagiocephaly; Nonsynostotic plagiocephaly; Patient positioning; Cephalometry; Facial asymmetry
To investigate the effect of botulinum toxin type A (BTA) injection into the salivary gland and to evaluate the changes of drooling in varied postures in tetraplegic patients with brain injury.
Eight tetraplegic patients with brain injury were enrolled. BTA was injected into each parotid and submandibular gland of both sides under ultrasonographic guidance. Drooling was measured by a questionnaire-based scoring system for drooling severity and frequency, and the sialorrhea was measured by a modified Schirmer test for the patients before the injection, 3 weeks and 3 months after the injection. Drooling was evaluated in each posture, such as supine, sitting, and tilt table standing, and during involuntary mastication, before and after the injection.
The severity and frequency of drooling and the modified Schirmer test improved significantly at 3 weeks and 3 months after the injection (p<0.05). Drooling was more severe and frequent in tilt table standing than in the sitting position and in sitting versus supine position (p<0.05). The severity of drooling was significantly increased in the patients with involuntary mastication (p<0.05).
Salivary gland injection of BTA in patients with tetraplegia resulting from brain injury who had drooling and sialorrhea could improve the symptoms for 3 months without complications. The severity and frequency of drooling were dependent on posture and involuntary mastication. Proper posture and involuntary mastication of the patients should be taken into account in planning drooling treatment.
Botulinum toxins; Drooling; Posture; Salivary glands; Ultrasonography
To examine using surface electromyography whether stair climbing with abdominal hollowing (AH) is better at facilitating local trunk muscle activity than stair climbing without AH.
Twenty healthy men with no history of low back pain participated in the study. Surface electrodes were attached to the multifidus (MF), lumbar erector spinae, thoracic erector spinae, transverse abdominus - internal oblique abdominals (TrA-IO), external oblique abdominals (EO), and the rectus abdominis. Amplitudes of electromyographic signals were measured during stair climbing. Study participants performed maximal voluntary contractions (MVC) for each muscle in various positions to normalize the surface electromyography data.
AH during stair climbing resulted in significant increases in normalized MVCs in both MFs and TrA-IOs (p<0.05). Local trunk muscle/global trunk muscle ratios were higher during stair climbing with AH as compared with stair climbing without AH. Especially, right TrA-IO/EO and left TrA-IO/EO were significantly increased (p<0.05).
Stair climbing with AH activates local trunk stabilizing muscles better than stair climbing without AH. The findings suggest that AH during stair climbing contributes to trunk muscle activation and trunk stabilization.
Stair climbing; Abdominal hollowing; Local trunk stabilizing muscles
To translate the English version of the Pain Disability Questionnaire (PDQ) into Korean and to investigate the reliability and validity of the Korean version of the PDQ (K-PDQ) in patients suffering chronic disabling musculoskeletal disorders (CDMDs).
The English version of the PDQ was translated into Korean. Ten patients with CDMDs were randomly selected for a pilot study to assess the comprehensibility of the pre-final version. One hundred and thirty-nine patients suffering from CDMDs for more than 3 months were enrolled in this study. Follow-up questionnaires were obtained to examine the test-retest reliability. Concurrent validity was evaluated by comparing the K-PDQ with the visual analogue scale (VAS). Construct validity was evaluated by comparing the K-PDQ with the brief form of the World Health Organization quality of life assessment instrument (WHOQOL-BREF) using Pearson correlation coefficient. Reliability was assessed using the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC), and internal consistency was determined by Cronbach's alpha.
Test-retest reliability was assessed in 70 patients, with an average time interval of 12 days. The ICC was 0.958 (p<0.001). Internal consistency reached Cronbach's alpha of 0.933 for the functional component and 0.870 for the psychosocial component. The correlation coefficient for the K-PDQ when compared with the VAS was 0.834 in the first assessment and 0.831 in the second assessment. All domains of the WHOQOL-BREF showed a significant negative correlation with the K-PDQ.
The K-PDQ is a reliable and valid instrument for measuring disability and can be used to assess disability and treatment outcomes in Korean patients with CDMD.
Korean version pain disability questionnaire (K-PDQ); Validity; Reliability; Treatment outcome
To compare the treatment effects of epidural neuroplasty (NP) and transforaminal epidural steroid injection (TFESI) for the radiating pain caused by herniated lumbar disc.
Thirty-two patients diagnosed with herniated lumbar disc through magnetic resonance imaging or computed tomography were included in this study. Fourteen patients received an epidural NP and eighteen patients had a TFESI. The visual analogue scale (VAS) and functional rating index (FRI) were measured before the treatment, and at 2 weeks, 4 weeks and 8 weeks after the treatment.
In the epidural NP group, the mean values of the VAS before the treatment, and at 2 weeks, 4 weeks and 8 weeks after the treatment were 7.00±1.52, 4.29±1.20, 2.64±0.93, 1.43±0.51 and those of FRI were 23.57±3.84, 16.50±3.48, 11.43±2.44, 7.00±2.15. In the TFESI group, the mean values of the VAS before the treatment, and at 2 weeks, 4 weeks and 8 weeks after the treatment were 7.22±2.05, 4.28±1.67, 2.56±1.04, 1.33±0.49 and those of FRI were 22.00±6.64, 16.22±5.07, 11.56±4.18, 8.06±1.89. During the follow-up period, the values of VAS and FRI within each group were significantly reduced (p<0.05) after the treatment. But there were no significant differences between the two groups statistically.
Epidural NP and TFESI are equally effective treatments for the reduction of radiating pain and for improvement of function in patients with a herniated lumbar disc. We recommend that TFESI should be primarily applied to patients who need interventional spine treatment, because it is easier and more cost-effective than epidural NP.
Epidural neuroplasty; Transforaminal epidural steroid injection; Radiating pain; Herniated lumbar disc
Objective To evaluate the prevalence of generalized joint hypermobility (GJH) in healthy female Koreans and to determine whether the degree of GJH differs between children and adults.
Two groups of females were enrolled, a group of girls from an elementary school (n=404) and women from a call center (n=266). GJH was diagnosed using the Beighton score, which is composed of an evaluation of bilateral knees, elbows, thumbs, and fifth fingers as well as thoracolumbar joint. The GJH and localized hypermobility of each joint was compared between the two groups, and the pattern of hypermobility according to age and dominant hand was investigated.
Total prevalence of GJH was 50.0% (335/750), and it was more frequently observed in the group of girls (58.9%, 238/404) than women (36.5%, 97/266). The degree of GJH expressed in terms of Beighton score was inversely correlated with age (p<0.05). Significant differences in localized hypermobility of the thumb and fifth finger were found between the two groups and were postulated as the cause for the decline in GJH with age. The pattern of decreased mobility proportional to aging differed between the two joints. Decreased mobility occurred equally on both sides of the thumb but was biased toward the fifth finger of the dominant side (mostly the right).
The female Koreans appeared to have a high prevalence of GJH. The incidence of GJH decreased as age increased as a result of decreased mobility of the fifth finger on the dominant side.
Joint hypermobility; Beighton score; Dominant hand; Stiff joint
To evaluate the pathophysiological mechanism of hemifacial spasm (HFS), we performed electrophysiological examinations, such as supraorbital nerve stimulation with orbicularis oris muscle recording and lateral spread tests, after suppressing the patient's central nervous system by administering intravenous diazepam.
Six patients with HFS were recruited. Supraorbital nerve stimulation with orbicularis oris muscle recording and the lateral spread test were performed, followed by intravenous application of 10 mg diazepam to achieve facial motor neuron suppression. Subsequently, we repeated the two electrophysiological experiments mentioned above at 10 and 20 minutes after the patients had received the diazepam intravenously.
Orbicularis oris muscle responses were observed in all patients after supraorbital nerve stimulation and lateral spread tests. After the diazepam injection, no orbicularis oris muscle response to supraorbital nerve stimulation was observed in one patient, and the latencies of this response were evident as a slowing tendency with time in the remaining five patients. However, the latencies of the orbicularis oris muscle responses were observed consistently in all patients in the lateral spread test.
Our results suggest that ectopic excitation/ephaptic transmission contributes to the pathophysiological mechanisms of HFS. This is because the latencies of the orbicularis oris muscle responses in the lateral spread test were observed consistently in the suppressed motor neuron in our patients.
Hemifacial spasm; Pathophysiology; Electromyography; Blinking; Diazepam
To investigate disparities in the fear of falling between urban and rural communities in relation to socio-demographics, health status, and functional level.
A total of 974 subjects aged 40 years or older participated in this study (335 urban residents and 639 rural). They completed a questionnaire about socio-demographics, health-related variables, and experience with falls. We employed both direct questioning and the Korean version of Falls Efficacy Scale-International (KFES-I) to investigate fear of falling in terms of perceptive fear and higher level of concern over falling during daily activities. The Korean version of Instrumental Activities of Daily Living was used to assess functional independency.
Aging, female gender, fall history, and the presence of chronic medical problems were independently associated with higher prevalence for the fear of falling. Both perceptive fear of falling and a higher level of concern over falling were more prevalent in the rural senior population compared with those in the urban population when they had the following characteristics: lower income or educational background, physical laborer or unemployed, no chronic medical morbidity, or functional independency in daily activities.
The disparity in the fear of falling between the two areas is thought to be related to age structure, and it may also exist in healthy or functionally independent senior populations under the influence of socio-environmental factors. A senior population with lower socio-economic status residing in a rural area might be related with a greater vulnerability to the fear of falling. We should consider regional characteristics when we design fall-related studies or develop fall-prevention programs at the community level.
Accidental falls; Geriatric assessment; Activities of daily living
To explore the effect of visual and haptic vertical stimulation on standing balance in post-stroke patients.
Twenty-five post-stroke patients were recruited. We measured left/right standing pressure differences and the center of pressure (COP) parameters for each patient under three different conditions: no stimulation, visual, and haptic stimulated conditions. First, patients stood on a posturography platform with their eyes blindfolded. After a rest period, the patients stood on the same platform with their eyes fixed to a 1.5-m luminous rod, which was placed at a vertical position in front of the patients. After another rest period, the patients again stood touching a vertically placed long rod in their non-hemiplegic hand with their eyes blindfolded. We collected the signals from the feet in each condition and obtained the balance indices.
Compared with the no stimulation condition, significant improvements were observed for most of the COP parameters including COP area, length, and velocity for both the visual and haptic vertical stimulation conditions (p<0.01). Additionally, when we compared visual and haptic vertical stimulation, visual vertical stimulation was superior to haptic stimulation for all COP parameters (p<0.01). Left/right standing pressure differences, increased, although patients bore more weight on their paretic side when vertical stimulation was applied (p>0.01).
Both visual and haptic vertical stimulation improved standing steadiness of post-stroke patients. Notably, visual vertical stimulation was more effective than haptic stimulation.
Stroke; Rehabilitation; Hemiplegia; Postural balance; Stimulation
Bruxism is a diurnal or nocturnal parafunctional activity that includes tooth clenching, bracing, gnashing, and grinding. The dopaminergic system seems to be the key pathophysiology of bruxism and diminution of dopaminergic transmission at the prefrontal cortex seems to induce it. We report two patients with diurnal bruxism in whom a bilateral frontal lobe injury resulted from hemorrhagic stroke or traumatic brain injury. These patients' bruxism was refractory to bromocriptine but responded to low-dose metoclopramide therapy. We propose that administering low doses of metoclopramide is possibly a sound method for treating bruxism in a brain injury patient with frontal lobe hypoperfusion on positron emission tomography imaging.
Bruxism; Dopamine receptors; Metoclopramide
Low vital capacity is a risk factor for scoliosis correction operation in Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) patients, but pulmonary rehabilitation, including noninvasive intermittent positive pressure ventilator application, air stacking exercise, and assisted coughing technique, reduces the pulmonary complications and perioperative mortality risk. In this case, the patient's preoperative forced vital capacity (FVC) was 8.6% of normal predicted value in sitting position and 9.4% in supine position. He started pulmonary rehabilitation before the operation and continued right after the operation. Scoliosis correction operation was successful without any pulmonary complications, and his discomfort in sitting position was improved. If pulmonary rehabilitative support is provided properly, FVC below 10% of normal predicted value is not a contraindication of scoliosis correction operation in DMD patients.
Scoliosis; Low vital capacity; Duchenne muscular dystrophy; Pulmonary rehabilitation
Kernohan-Woltman notch phenomenon (KWP) is an ipsilateral motor weakness due to compression of the contralateral cerebral peduncle. We report two cases of KWP following traumatic brain injury. In case 1, ipsilateral hemiplegia was noted after right subdural hemorrhage. Although magnetic resonance imaging showed no abnormal signal changes on cerebral peduncle, diffusion tensor tractography (DTT) revealed interruption of corticospinal tract (CST) at lower level of the midbrain level. In case 2, there was abnormal signal change of the right cerebral peduncle contralateral to the primary lesion and we could not reconstruct right CST. Case 1 showed unsatisfactory motor recovery even after 15 months, and follow-up DTT showed no change. In case 2, follow-up DTT was not performed, but her ipsilateral hemiparesis had almost disappeared during the 15 months. DTT would be useful in detecting ipsilateral hemiparesis due to KWP and the clinical course may differ according to the lesion characteristics.
Traumatic brain injury; Hemiplegia; Diffusion tractography; Pyramidal tract
Sciatic nerve injury after stretching exercise is uncommon. We report a case of an 18-year-old female trained dancer who developed sciatic neuropathy primarily involving the tibial division after routine stretching exercise. The patient presented with dysesthesia and weakness of the right foot during dorsiflexion and plantarflexion. The mechanism of sciatic nerve injury could be thought as hyperstretching alone, not caused by both hyperstretching and compression. Electrodiagnostic tests and magnetic resonance imaging revealed evidence of the right sciatic neuropathy from the gluteal fold to the distal tibial area, and partial tear of the left hamstring origin and fluid collection between the left hamstring and ischium without left sciatic nerve injury. Recovery of motor weakness was obtained by continuous rehabilitation therapy and some evidence of axonal regeneration was obtained by follow-up electrodiagnostic testing performed at 3, 5, and 12 months after injury.
Sciatic nerve lesion; Lower extremity; Muscle stretching exercise
Ptosis could be caused by oculomotor nerve palsy in the midbrain infarction. Bilateral ptosis has been reported in several reports, which focused on clinical characteristics of midbrain infarction. Little research attention has been paid to the treatment of patients with bilateral ptosis in midbrain infarction. We experienced a case of severe bilateral ptosis occurring after midbrain infarction. The patient could not open her eyes, perform basic activities or achieve effective rehabilitation. Neurogenic ptosis can improved after the underlying cause is treated. However, in this case, bilateral ptosis was not improved after conservative care for 6 months and the patient remained limited in activities of daily living and mobility. Surgical correction of bilateral ptosis was done by the resection of both Muller's muscles. After surgical correction, the bilateral ptosis was much improved and the effect persisted for at least 6 months.
Blepharoptosis; Cerebral infarction; Oculomotor nerve diseases
Schwannomas are benign, usually slow-growing tumors that originate from Schwann cells surrounding peripheral, cranial, or autonomic nerves. The most common form of these tumors is acoustic neuroma. Schwannomas of the brachial plexus are quite rare, and symptomatic schwannomas of the brachial plexus are even rarer. A 47-year-old woman presented with a 1-year history of dysesthesia, neuropathic pain, and mild weakness of the right upper limb. Results of physical examination and electrodiagnostic studies supported a diagnosis as thoracic outlet syndrome. Conservative treatment did not relieve her symptoms. After 9 months, a soft mass was found at the upper margin of the right clavicle. Magnetic resonance imaging showed a 3.0×1.8×1.7 cm ovoid mass between the inferior trunk and the anterior division of the brachial plexus. Surgical mass excision and biopsy were performed. Pathological findings revealed the presence of schwannoma. After schwannoma removal, the right hand weakness did not progress any further and neuropathic pain gradually reduced. However, dysesthesia at the right C8 and T1 dermatome did not improve.
Thoracic outlet syndrome; Brachial plexus; Schwannoma
Supernumerary phantom limb (SPL) resulting from spinal cord lesions are very rare, with only sporadic and brief descriptions in the literature. Furthermore, the reported cases of SPL typically occurred in neurologically incomplete spinal cord patients. Here, we report a rare case of SPL with phantom limb pain that occurred after traumatic spinal cord injury in a neurologically complete patient. After a traffic accident, a 43-year-old man suffered a complete spinal cord injury with a C6 neurologic level of injury. SPL and associated phantom limb pain occurred 6 days after trauma onset. The patient felt the presence of an additional pair of legs that originated at the hip joints and extended medially, at equal lengths to the paralyzed legs. The intensity of SPL and associated phantom limb pain subsequently decreased after visual-tactile stimulation treatment, in which the patient visually identified the paralyzed limbs and then gently tapped them with a wooden stick. This improvement continued over the 2 months of inpatient treatment at our hospital and the presence of the SPLs was reduced to 20% of the real paralyzed legs. This is the first comprehensive report on SPLs of the lower extremities after neurologically complete spinal cord injury.
Phantom limb pain; Spinal cord injury; Tetraplegia; Neuropathic pain
Videofluoroscopic swallowing study (VFSS) used for the diagnosis of dysphagia has limitations in objectively assessing the contractility of the pharyngeal muscle or the degree of the upper esophageal sphincter relaxation. With a manometer, however, it is possible to objectively assess the pressure changes in the pharynx caused by pharyngeal muscle contraction during swallowing or upper esophageal sphincter relaxation, hence remedying the limitations of VFSS. The following case report describes a patient diagnosed with lateral medullar infarction presenting a 52-year-old male who had dysphagia. We suggested that the manometer could be used to assess the specific site of dysfunction in patients with dysphagia complementing the limitations of VFSS. We also found that repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation was effective in treating patients refractory to traditional dysphagia rehabilitation.
Manometry; Dysphagia; Transcranial magnetic stimulation
Medial antebrachial cutaneous (MABC) nerve injury associated with iatrogenic causes has been rarely reported. Local anesthesia may be implicated in the etiology of such injury, but has not been reported. Two patients with numbness and painful paresthesia over the medial aspect of the unilateral forearm were referred for electrodiagnostic study, which revealed MABC nerve lesion in each case. The highly selective nature of the MABC nerve injuries strongly suggested that they were the result of direct nerve injury by an injection needle during previous brachial plexus block procedures. Electrodiagnostic studies can be helpful in evaluating cases of sensory disturbance after local anesthesia. To our knowledge, these are the first documented cases of isolated MABC nerve injury following ultrasound-guided axillary brachial plexus block.
Peripheral nerve injuries; Local anesthesia; Electrodiagnosis
To investigate the hemispheric contributions to prosody recognitions and interference effects of semantic processing on prosody for stroke patients by using the Korean language.
Ten right hemisphere damaged patients (RHD), nine left hemisphere damaged patients (LHD), and eleven healthy controls (HC) participated. In pure prosody recognition task, four semantically neutral sentences were selected and presented in both sad and happy prosodies. In interference task, participants listened to emotionally intoned sentences in which the semantic contents were congruent or incongruent with prosody. Participants were asked to rate the valence of prosody while ignoring the semantic contents, and thus, reaction time and accuracy were estimated.
In pure prosody recognition task, RHD showed low accuracy as compared to HC (p=0.013), and the tendency of group response showed that RHD performed worse than HC and LHD with regards to accuracy and reaction time. In interference task, analysis of accuracy revealed a significant main effect of groups (p=0.04), and the tendency implied that RHD is less accurate as compared to LHD and HC. The RHD took longer reaction times than HC in congruent and incongruent items (p<0.001).
Right hemispheric laterality to prosody processing of Korean language in stroke patients was observed. Interference effects of semantic contents to prosody processing were not observed, which suggested unique characteristics of prosody for Korean language. These results could be referred as preliminary data for future researches on Korean languages.
Speech disorders; Speech perception; Functional laterality; Stroke
To investigate any additional effect of dual transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) compared with single tDCS in chronic stroke patients with aphasia.
Eleven chronic stroke patients (aged 52.6±13.4 years, nine men) with aphasia were enrolled. Single anodal tDCS was applied over the left inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) and a cathodal electrode was placed over the left buccinator muscle. Dual tDCS was applied as follows: 1) anodal tDCS over the left IFG and cathodal tDCS over the left buccinator muscle and 2) cathodal tDCS over the right IFG and anodal tDCS over the right buccinator muscle. Each tDCS was delivered for 30 minutes at a 2-mA intensity. Speech therapy was provided during the last 15 minutes of the tDCS. Before and after the stimulation, the Korean-Boston Naming Test and a verbal fluency test were performed.
The dual tDCS produced a significant improvement in the response time for the Korean-Boston Naming Test compared with the baseline assessment, with a significant interaction between the time and type of interventions. Both single and dual tDCS produced a significant improvement in the number of correct responses after stimulation with no significant interaction. No significant changes in the verbal fluency test were observed after single or dual tDCS.
The results conveyed that dual tDCS using anodal tDCS over the left IFG and cathodal tDCS over the right IFG may be more effective than a single anodal tDCS over the left IFG.
Stroke; Aphasia; Transcranial direct current stimulation; Electrical stimulation therapy
To investigate the correlation between visuospatial neglect and anemia in patients with right cerebral infarction, as well as to identify the risk factor of neglect and furnish preliminary data on rehabilitation management.
The line bisection test and Albert test were conducted on subjects with right cerebral infarction in order to analyze neglect severity. Multiple linear regression analysis was conducted to investigate correlation between neglect severity and hemoglobin and hematocrit level. Logistic regression analysis was applied to identify the risk factor of neglect.
Visuospatial neglect was observed in 33 subjects out of 124. Hemoglobin and hematocrit were not directly correlated with visuospatial neglect severity, whereas infarct size was directly correlated. Subjects with visuospatial neglect were characterized by a large infarct size, a low score in the Mini-Mental State Examination and long hospital stay.
In this study, visuospatial neglect was found to be uncorrelated with anemia. It implies that emphasis should be placed on the early detection of anemia and neglect in patients with left hemiplegia, the formulation of respective therapeutic plans and improvement of prognosis. The study found that the possibility of a visuospatial neglect occurrence increases with infarct size. In this regard, it is required that visuospatial neglect was detected and treated in the earliest possible stage, notwithstanding the difficulty that lies in the precise measurement of the severity.
Hemispatial neglect; Anemia; Hemoglobins