The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of insulin sensitizing agents on hormonal and metabolic parameters as well as menstrual patterns in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS).
One hundred and twenty-three patients with PCOS were included. Metformin was administered to patients at 1,500 mg or 1,700 mg daily for 3 months. If the patients had no improvement of the menstrual cycle or metformin-related adverse effects developed, the patients changed medication to a daily dose of either 15 mg pioglitazone or up to 45 mg. Then resumption of a regular menstrual cycle or recovery of ovulation was evaluated. Hormonal and metabolic profiles were compared between the response and non-response group to insulin sensitizing agents.
One hundred and five patients with PCOS were treated with metformin for 3 months. Forty-eight patients (45.7%) showed improvement of menstrual cycle regularity after 3 months of metformin use, whereas 57 patients (54.3%) had no change. The mean free testosterone measured after 3 months of treatment was significantly lower in metformin responders than in non-responders. The other parameters did not differ between the groups. Of the 23 patients who used pioglitazone for 3 to 6 months, 19 patients (82.6%) showed improvement in their menstrual cycles.
Metformin treatment seems to be effective for the improvement of menstrual cyclicity irrespective of insulin resistance in women with PCOS. When metformin related adverse effect occurred, pioglitazone would be effective for aiding the resumption of the menstrual cycle.
Polycystic ovary syndrome; Metformin; Pioglitazone
To overcome the difficulty of controlling stem cell fate and function in applications to regenerative medicine, a number of alternative approaches have been made. Recent reports demonstrate that a non-cellular niche modulating the biophysical microenvironment with chemical factors can support stem cell self-renewal. In our previous studies, early establishment was executed to optimize biophysical factors and it was subsequently found that the microgeometry of the extracellular matrix made huge differences in stem cell behavior and phenotype. We review here a three-dimensional, non-cellular niche designed to support stem cell self-renewal. The characteristics of stem cells under the designed system are further discussed.
Non-cellular niche; Stem cells; Self-renewal; Three-dimensional; Extracellular matrix
Endometriosis is defined as the presence of functional endometrial tissue outside the uterus, causing diverse progressive symptoms such as infertility, pelvic pain, and dysmenorrhea. Although endometriosis has been described since the 1800s, the mechanisms responsible for its pathogenesis and progression remain poorly understood. It is well established that endometriosis grows and regresses in an estrogen-dependent fashion and the disease can be effectively cured by definitive surgery. However, prolonged medical therapy may be needed in most of the cases since conservative surgery is usually performed especially in young women. This treatment modality is often associated with only partial relief and/or recurrence of the disease. In the present review, up-to-date findings on the treatment of endometriosis will be briefly summarized. The outcomes of surgery in patients with endometriosis will be reviewed in terms of pelvic pain relief as well as infertility treatment largely based on recent Cochrane reviews and clinical reports. The efficacy of newer drugs including aromatase inhibitor, anti-tumor necrosis factor-alpha, and dienogest will be also reviewed based on recent clinical studies.
Endometriosis; Pelvic pain; Infertility; Recurrence; Medical treatment
Impairment of spermatogenesis has been identified as an inevitable side effect of cancer treatment. Although estrogen treatment stimulates spermatogenic recovery from the impaired spermatogenesis by suppressing the intra-testicular testosterone (ITT) level, side effects of estrogen are still major impediments to its clinical application in humans. Soybeans are rich in genistein, which is a phytoestrogen that binds to estrogen receptors and has an estrogenic effect. We investigated the effects of genistein administration on ITT levels, testis weight, and recovery of spermatogenesis in rats treated with a chemotherapeutic agent, busulfan.
Busulfan was administered intraperitoneally to rats, and then a GnRH agonist was injected subcutaneously into the back, or genistein was administered orally.
The weight of the testes was significantly reduced by the treatment with busulfan. The testis weight was partially restored after busulfan treatment by additional treatment with either the GnRH agonist or genistein. Busulfan also induced atrophy of a high percentage of the seminiferous tubules, but this percentage was decreased by additional treatment with either the GnRH agonist or genistein. Treatment with genistein was effective at suppressing and maintaining ITT levels comparable to that in the GnRH agonist group.
Genistein effectively suppressed ITT levels and stimulated the recovery of spermatogenesis in rats treated with a chemotherapeutic drug. This suggests that genistein may be a substitute for estrogens, for helping humans to recover fertility after cancer therapy without the risk of side effects.
Drug therapy; Busulfan; Genistein; Recovery of spermatogenesis
To investigate the effect of peroxisome proliferator activated receptor γ (PPARγ) agonist on the cell proliferation properties and expression of human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) and aromatase in cultured endometrial stromal cell (ESC) from patients with endometriosis.
Human endometrial tissues were obtained from women with endometriosis and healthy women (controls) using endometrial biopsy. Isolated ESCs were cultured and the cell proliferation was measured by 3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5 diphenyl tetrazolium bromide assay and expression of hTERT, aromatase, and cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 by western blotting according to the addition of rosiglitazone (PPARγ agonist).
We demonstrate that the cultured ESCs of endometriosis showed hTERT protein overexpression and increased cellular proliferation, which was inhibited by rosiglitazone, in a dose-dependent manner. At the same time, PPARγ agonist also inhibited aromatase and COX-2 expression, resulting in decreased prostaglandin E2 production in the ESCs of endometriosis.
This study suggests that PPARγ agonist plays an inhibitory role in the proliferative properties of eutopic endometrium with endometriosis by down-regulation of hTERT and COX-2 expression; this could be a new treatment target for endometriosis.
Endometriosis; Peroxisome proliferator activated receptor γ; Rosiglitazone; Human telomerase reverse transcriptase; Aromatase; Endometrium
To compare the blood glucose levels, insulin concentrations, and insulin resistance during the two phases of the menstrual cycle between healthy women and patients with premenstrual syndrome (PMS).
From January of 2011 to the August of 2012, a descriptive cross-sectional study was performed among students in the School of Medicine of Jahrom University of Medical Sciences. We included 30 students with the most severe symptoms of PMS and 30 age frequency-matched healthy controls. We analyzed the serum concentrations of glucose, insulin, and insulin resistance by using the glucose oxidase method, radioimmunometric assay, and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance equation, respectively.
No significant differences between the demographic data of the control and PMS groups were observed. The mean concentrations of glucose of the two study groups were significantly different during the follicular and luteal phases (p=0.011 vs. p<0.0001, respectively). The amounts of homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance of the two study groups were significantly different in the luteal phase (p=0.0005).
The level of blood glucose and insulin resistance was lower during the two phases of the menstrual cycle of the PMS group than that of the controls.
Glucose; Insulin; Insulin resistance; Menstrual cycle; Premenstrual syndrome
To investigate outcomes of stimulated IVF cycles in which GnRH antagonist was omitted on the ovulation triggering day.
A total of 86 women who underwent controlled ovarian hyperstimulation with recombinant FSH and GnRH antagonist flexible multiple-dose protocols were recruited and prospectively randomized into the conventional group (group A) or cessation group (group B). The GnRH antagonist, 0.25 mg/day of cetrorelix, was started when the leading follicle reached 14 mm in diameter and was continuously administered until the hCG triggering day (group A, 43 cycles) or until the day before hCG administration (group B, 43 cycles). The maturity of oocytes, fertilization rate, embryo quality, and implantation and clinical pregnancy rates were evaluated.
The duration of ovarian stimulation, total dose of gonadotropins, serum estradiol levels on hCG administration day, and number of oocytes retrieved were not significantly different between the two groups. The total dose of GnRH antagonist was significantly lower in group B than group A (2.5±0.9 vs. 3.2±0.8 ampoules, p<0.05). There was no premature luteinization in any of the subjects. The proportion of mature oocytes and fertilization rate were not significantly different in group B than group A (70.7% vs. 66.7%; 71.1% vs. 66.4%, respectively). There were no significant differences in the implantation or clinical pregnancy rates.
Our prospective randomized study suggested that cessation of GnRH antagonist on the hCG administration day during a flexible multiple-dose protocol could reduce the total dose of GnRH antagonist without compromising its effects on pregnancy rates.
GnRH antagonist; Ovarian stimulation; Oocyte maturation; Fertilization in vitro; Pregnancy rate
To evaluate the efficacy of earlier oocyte retrieval in IVF patients with a premature LH surge on hCG day.
One hundred forty IVF patients (164 cycles) with premature LH surge on hCG day were included, retrospectively. We divided them into 2 study groups: LH surge with timed ovum pick-up (OPU) 36 hours after hCG injection (group B, 129 premature cycles), and LH surge with earlier OPU within 36 hours after hCG injection (group C, 35 cycles). Control groups were tubal factor infertility without premature LH surge (group A, 143 cycles).
The mean age (year) was statistically higher in group C than in groups A or B (38.2±5.4 vs. 36.2±4.2 vs. 36.8±4.9, respectively; p=0.012). The serum LH levels (mIU/mL) on hCG day were significantly higher in group B and C than in group A (22.7±14.9 vs. 30.3±15.9 vs. 3.2±2.9, respectively; p>0.001). Among groups A, B, and C, 4.9%, 31.7%, and 51.4% of the cycles, respectively, had no oocytes, and the overall rates of cycle cancellation (OPU cancellation, no oocyte, or no embryos transferrable) were 15.4%, 65.9%, and 74.3%, respectively. The fertilization rate (%) was significantly higher in group B than in group C (73.2±38.9 vs. 47.8±42.9, p=0.024). The clinical pregnancy rate was significantly higher in group C than in groups A and B (44.4% vs. 27.3% vs. 9.1%, respectively, p=0.021). However, the miscarriage rate was also higher in group C than in group B (22% vs. 0%, respectively, p=0.026).
Earlier OPU may not be effective in reducing the risk of cycle cancellation in patients with premature LH surge on hCG day. A larger scale study will be required to reveal the effectiveness of earlier ovum retrieval with premature LH surge.
Premature luteinization; Luteinizing hormone; Oocyte retrieval; Fertilization in vitro
To evaluate the correlation between serum levels of anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) and ovarian response to mild stimulation in normoovulatory women and anovulatory women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS).
Seventy-four cycles of mild stimulation (clomiphene citrate+gonadotropin followed by timed intercourse or intrauterine insemination) performed in normoovulatory women (57 cycles) and anovulatory women with PCOS (17 cycles). Ovarian sensitivity was defined by the number of mature follicles (≥14 mm) on triggering day per 100 IU of gonadotropin. A correlation between ovarian sensitivity and the baseline serum AMH level (absolute or multiples of the median [MoM] value for each corresponding age) was calculated. Correlation between ovarian response and serum AMH level was evaluated.
Ovarian sensitivity to mild stimulation was positively correlated with absolute serum AMH (r=0.535, p<0.001) or AMH-MoM value (r=0.390, p=0.003) in normoovulatory women, but this correlation was not observed in anovulatory women with PCOS (r=0.105, p>0.05, r=-0.265, p>0.05, respectively).
Ovarian response to mild stimulation is possibly predicted by the serum AMH level in normoovulatory women, but not in anovulatory women with PCOS.
Anti-Müllerian hormone; Ovarian stimulation; Polycystic ovary syndrome
Oocyte-specific homeobox 4 (Obox4) is preferentially expressed in oocytes and plays an important role in the completion of meiosis of oocytes. However, the Obox4 expression pattern has not been reported yet. In this study, we investigated the subcellular localization of Obox4 using a green fluorescent protein (GFP) fusion expression system.
Three regions of Obox4 were divided and fused to the GFP expression vector. The partly deleted homeodomain (HD) regions of Obox4 were also fused to the GFP expression vector. The recombinant vectors were transfected into HEK-293T cells plated onto coated glass coverslips. The transfected cells were stained with 4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindol and photographed using a fluorescence microscope.
Mutants containing the HD region as well as full-length Obox4 were clearly localized to the nucleus. In contrast, the other mutants of either the N-terminal or C-terminal region without HD had impaired nuclear localization. We also found that the N-terminal and C-terminal of the Obox HD contributed to nuclear localization and the entire HD was necessary for nuclear localization of Obox4.
Based on the results of the present study, we demonstrated that the intact HD region of Obox4 is responsible for the nuclear localization of Obox4 protein in cells.
Obox4; Homeodomain protein; Localization
We investigated the norepinephrine transporter (NET) expression in normal and pre-eclamptic placentas and analyzed the invasion activity of trophoblastic cells based on norepinephrine (NE)-NET regulation.
NET and NE expression levels were examined by western blot and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, respectively. Trophoblast invasion activity, depending on NE-NET regulation, was determined by NET-small interfering RNA (siRNA) and NET transfection into the human extravillous trophoblast cells with or without NE treatment and invasion rates were analyzed by zymography and an invasion assay.
NET mRNA was expressed at a low level in pre-eclamptic placentas compared with normal placentas and NE concentration in maternal plasma increased significantly in pre-eclamptic women compared to normal pregnant women (p<0.05). NET gene upregulation and NE treatment stimulated trophoblast cell invasion up to 2.5-fold (p<0.05) by stimulating matrix metalloproteinase-9 activity via the phosphoinositol-3-kinase/AKT signaling pathway, whereas NET-siRNA with NE treatment reduced invasion rates.
NET expression is reduced by inadequate regulation of NE levels during placental development. This suggests that a complementary balance between NET and NE regulates trophoblast cell invasion activities during placental development.
Placenta; Pre-eclampsia; Norepinephrine transporter; Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay; Small interfering RNA
The aim of the present study was to examine the relationship among male age, strict morphology, and sperm chromatin structure and condensation.
Sperm samples from a total of 100 men underwent semen analysis, and sperm chromatin structure and condensation were assessed with toluidine blue (TB) and aniline blue (AB) tests.
Prevalence of strict morphology of less than 4%, and abnormal sperm chromatin structure and condensation did not show any statistically significant differences according to male age (p=0.605, p=0.235, and p=0.080). No significant correlation was demonstrated among age of male partners, strict morphology, and abnormal sperm chromatin structure using TB and AB tests. However, abnormal sperm chromatin condensation was positively associated with sperm chromatin structure (r=0.594, p=0.000) and showed negative correlation with strict morphology (r=-0.219, p=0.029).
The tests for sperm chromatin condensation showed a significant association with strict morphology. Further study is needed to elucidate the relationship between clinical outcome and sperm chromatin tests.
Toluidine blue; Aniline blue; Semen analysis; DNA damage; Human
To investigate the influence of laparoscopic surgery on the natural conception rate in infertile women with endometriosis during the first year after the operation.
We retrospectively studied 43 infertile women with surgically proven endometriosis. The natural conception rate was investigated for the 12 months after the laparoscopy.
The overall pregnancy rate was 41.9% (18/43). 66.7% (12/18) and 94.4% (17/18) of the patients conceived within postoperative 3 months and 6 months, respectively. The spontaneous pregnancy rate was not associated with the severity of endometriosis or laparoscopic findings or the type of surgery. The pregnancy rate for stage IV was relatively low (20.0%) compared to stage I, II, and III (35.7%, 44.4%, and 53.3%, respectively), although it did not reach statistical significance.
Conservative surgical treatment with laparoscopy and a prompt attempt at natural conception may be effective for infertile patients with endometriosis.
Endometriosis; Infertility; Laparoscopy; Pregnancy rate
Autophagy is a degradation process that acts in response to environmental stressors. Recently, autophagy has been detected in normal term, preeclamptic and intrauterine growth-restricted placentas. The object of this work was to investigate the presence of autophagy in first trimester voluntary interruption of pregnancy placental villi by the expression of autophagy-related proteins, light chain 3 (LC3), and Beclin-1. In first trimester placental villi laser scanning confocal microscopy (LSCM) analysis revealed LC3 and Beclin-1 immunoreactivity prevalently located in villous cytotrophoblasts. Using LSCM, LC3, and Beclin-1 were localized to the cytoplasm of the trophoblast layer in human full-term placentas. Beclin-1 expression and LC3 activation were confirmed by western blotting. These data emphasize that autophagy activation is different among cytotrophoblasts and syncytiotrophoblasts depending on the gestational age and thus we speculate that autophagy might play a prosurvival role throughout human pregnancy.
Autophagy; Light chain 3; Beclin-1; Villi; Cytotrophoblasts; Syncytiotrophoblasts
Liver damage induced by ovarian stimulation has been demonstrated in some cases reported in the literature. However, there has never been a fruitful debate on this topic. The present manuscript tried to fill this gap. We reported a case of a 35-year-old nulliparous woman admitted to our obstetric emergency room for severe pre-eclampsia. She had been subjected to four cycles of controlled ovarian stimulation for intrauterine insemination. At 32 weeks of gestation, she developed severe pre-eclampsia, which led to HELLP syndrome complicated by fatal liver failure. The etiological link between ovarian stimulation and HELLP syndrome is intriguing. Further investigations are needed to understand whether repeated ovarian stimulation may represent a risk factor in pre-eclamptic patients.
Controlled ovarian stimulation; Endothelial dysfunction; HELLP syndrome; Intrauterine insemination; Liver rupture; Ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome
Hypochondroplasia (HCH) is an autosomal dominant inherited skeletal dysplasia, usually caused by a heterozygous mutation in the fibroblast growth factor receptor 3 gene (FGFR3). A 27-year-old HCH woman with a history of two consecutive abortions of HCH-affected fetuses visited our clinic for preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD). We confirmed the mutation in the proband (FGFR3:c.1620C>A, p.N540K), and established a nested allele-specific PCR and sequence analysis for PGD using single lymphocyte cells. We performed this molecular genetic analysis to detect the presence of mutation among 20 blastomeres from 18 different embryos, and selected 9 embryos with the wild-type sequence (FGFR3:c.1620C). A successful pregnancy was achieved through a frozen-thawed cycle and resulted in the full-term birth of a normal neonate. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of a successful pregnancy and birth using single-cell allele-specific PCR and sequencing for PGD in an HCH patient.
Hypochondroplasia; Preimplantation genetic diagnosis; Receptor, fibroblast growth factor, type 3
We evaluated the fertilization potential of immature oocytes obtained from controlled ovarian hyperstimulation cycles of patients undergoing ICSI.
We retrospectively analyzed 463 ICSI cycles containing at least one immature oocyte at oocyte denudation. ICSI was performed on mature oocytes at oocyte denudation (metaphase-II [MII] oocytes) and the oocytes that extruded the first polar body between oocyte denudation and ICSI (MI-MII oocytes). Fertilization and early embryonic development were compared between MII and MI-MII oocytes. To investigate the pregnancy potential of MI-MII oocytes, the pregnancy outcome was analyzed in 24 ICSI cycles containing only immature oocytes at retrieval.
The fertilization rate of MI-MII oocytes (37.0%) was significantly lower than that of MII oocytes (72.3%). The rates of delayed embryos and damaged embryos did not significantly differ. Eighty-one immature oocytes were retrieved in 24 cycles that retrieved only immature oocytes and 61 (75.3%) of them were in the MI stage. ICSI was performed on 36 oocytes (59.0%) that extruded the first polar body before ICSI and nine MI-MII oocytes (25.0%) were fertilized. Embryo transfers were performed in five cycles. Pregnancy was observed in one cycle, but it ended in biochemical pregnancy.
In ICSI cycles, oocytes that extruded the first polar body between denudation and ICSI can be used as a source of oocytes for sperm injection. However, their fertilization and pregnancy potential are lower than that of mature oocytes. Therefore, ovarian stimulation should be performed carefully for mature oocytes obtained at retrieval, especially in cycles with a small number of retrieved oocytes.
Immature oocytes; Intracytoplasmic sperm injection; In vitro oocyte maturation, Fertilization
Primordial follicles are formed prenatally in mammalian ovaries, and at birth they are fated to be activated to primary follicles, to be dormant, or to die. During the early stage of folliclulogenesis, the oocyte undergoes dynamic alterations in expression of numerous genes, which are regulated by transcription factors. Several germ-cell specific transcriptional regulators are critical for formation and maintenance of follicles. These transcriptional regulators include: Figla, Lhx8, Nobox, Sohlh1, and Sohlh2. A subset of these transcriptional regulators is mutated in women with ovarian insufficiency and infertility. Establishment of this oocyte pool is essential for fertility. This review focuses on these transcriptional regulators of female primordial follicles.
Primordial follicles; Transcription factors; Figla; Lhx8; Nobox; Sohlh1; Sohlh2
Empty follicle syndrome (EFS) is a condition in which no oocytes are retrieved after an apparently adequate ovarian response to stimulation and meticulous follicular aspiration. EFS can be classified into 'genuine' and 'false' types according to hCG levels. It is a rare condition of obscure etiology. The existence of genuine EFS has been questioned and is still controversial. The limitation around EFS is that the definition of EFS is obscure. Management of patients with EFS is a challenge to physicians. No single treatment is known to be universally effective. However, patients should be adequately informed regarding the importance of correct hCG administration because improper hCG administration is a common and preventable cause of EFS. EFS is a syndrome that deserves additional study because such investigation could lead to a further understanding of ovarian biology and infertility.
Infertility; Ovarian stimulation; Retrieval; Oocyte; Chorionic gonadotropin
While Korea does not have any legal statement on surrogacy, treatments are carried out in practice. As a result, every Institutional Review Board (IRB) of each fertility clinic faces an ethical predicament in reviewing each case. There is a need to arrange the institutions' own standards of surrogate pregnancy procedures before the establishment of national or professional regulation. This article examines the legal, social, and medical issues of surrogacy to help IRBs to judge their cases.
Surrogacy; Institutional Review Board; Standard for surrogate pregnancy procedures
Concerns are growing about the decrease in male reproductive health. Caffeine is one of the popular nutrients that has been implicated as a risk factor for infertility. In the present study, we examined whether in utero and lactational exposure to caffeine affects the reproductive function of the offspring of rats.
Pregnant rats received caffeine via drinking water during gestation (26 and 45 mg/kg) and lactation (25 and 35 mg/kg). Body and reproductive organ weight, seminiferous tubule diameter, germinal epithelium height, sperm parameters, fertility rate, number of implantations, and testosterone level of the offspring were assessed from birth to adulthood.
Significant dose-related decreases were observed in the body and reproductive organ weight, seminiferous tubule diameter, and germinal epithelium height of the offspring. Sperm density had declined significantly in offspring of the low-dose and high-dose groups, by 8.81% and 19.97%, respectively, by postnatal day 150. The number of viable fetuses had decreased significantly in females mated with male offspring of the high-dose group at postnatal days 60, 90, 120, and 150. There were also significant reductions in testosterone levels of high-dose group offspring from birth to postnatal day 150.
It is concluded that maternal caffeine consumption impairs gonadal development and has long-term adverse effects on the reproductive efficiency of male offspring rats.
Caffeine; Fertility; Growth and development; Reproduction; Testis; Rat
The aim of this study was to compare vitrification optimization of mouse embryos using electron microscopy (EM) grid, cryotop, and thin plastic strip (TPS) containers by evaluating developmental competence and apoptosis rates.
Mouse embryos were obtained from superovulated mice. Mouse cleavage-stage, expanded, hatching-stage, and hatched-stage embryos were cryopreserved in EM grid, cryotop, and TPS containers by vitrification in 15% ethylene glycol, 15% dimethylsulfoxide, 10 µg/mL Ficoll, and 0.65 M sucrose, and 20% serum substitute supplement (SSS) with basal medium, respectively. For the three groups in which the embryos were thawed in the EM grid, cryotop, and TPS containers, the thawing solution consisted of 0.25 M sucrose, 0.125 M sucrose, and 20% SSS with basal medium, respectively. Rates of survival, re-expansion, reaching the hatched stage, and apoptosis after thawing were compared among the three groups.
Developmental competence after thawing of vitrified expanded and hatching-stage blastocysts using cryotop and TPS methods were significantly higher than survival using the EM grid (p<0.05). Also, apoptosis positive nuclei rates after thawing of vitrified expanded blastocysts using cryotop and TPS were significantly lower than when using the EM grid (p<0.05).
The TPS vitrification method has the advantages of achieving a high developmental ability and effective preservation.
Container; Apoptosis; Vitrification; Mice; Embryos
To evaluate the effect of hysterosalpingo-contrast sonography (HyCoSy) on natural conception in the infertile patient.
We conducted a prospective observational study recruiting 180 patients admitted to Infertility Center of Ferrara University from January 2010 to February 2012. The essential inclusion criteria was the couple's desire to perform only diagnostic evaluation on infertility causes and to wait for natural conception before proceeding with further management. Couples were investigated with hormonal profile, semen analysis and HyCoSy. Expected time for spontaneous pregnancy was 180 days from HyCoSy. First datation sonography of pregnancy was used calculating time elapsed from HyCoSy at conception.
Forty patients (22.2%) obtained spontaneous pregnancy within 6 months after HyCoSy. The mean of "conception time" was 75 days. The pregnancy rate was significantly higher in the first 30 days (45%) compared to other the months of observation (p<0.0005). Multiple linear regression analysis showed that maternal age and sterility duration proved independent variables in detecting the "conception time" after HyCoSy (t=3.742, p=0.001, t=2.371, p=0.02, respectively).
A possible beneficial effect of HyCoSy is feasible especially in the days following its execution. This temporal correlation supports its therapeutic use.
Fallopian tubes; Hysterosalpingography; Sterility; Sonography; Human
We compared the assisted reproductive technology (ART) outcomes among infertile women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) treated with IVM, conventional IVF, GnRH agonist, and GnRH antagonist cycles.
The prospective study included a total of 67 cycles in 61 infertile women with PCOS. The women with PCOS were randomized into three IVF protocols: IVM/IVF with FSH and hCG priming with immature oocyte retrieval 38 hours later (group A, 14 cycles), GnRH agonist long protocol (group B, 14 cycles), and GnRH antagonist multi-dose flexible protocol (group C, 39 cycles). IVF outcomes, such as clinical pregnancy rate (CPR), implantation rate (IR), miscarriage rate (MR), and live birth rate (LBR), were compared among the three groups.
Age, BMI, and basal FSH and LH levels did not differ among the three groups. The number of retrieved oocytes and 2 pronucleus embryos was significantly lower in group A compared with groups B and C. The CPR, IR, MR, and LBR per embryo transfer showed no differences among the three groups. There was no incidence of ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome in group A.
The IR, MR, and LBR in the IVM cycles were comparable to those of the GnRH agonist and GnRH antagonist cycles. The IVM protocol, FSH and hCG priming with oocyte retrieval 38 hours later, is an effective ART option that is comparable with conventional IVF for infertile women with PCOS.
Polycystic ovary syndrome; In vitro maturation; GnRH antagonist; GnRH agonist; Assisted reproductive technology outcome