The purpose of this study was to review the computed tomography (CT) features of thyroglossal duct cysts (TDCs) in children less than 11 years of age. A retrospective chart review was performed at Chonnam National University Hospital for the period of March 2005 to June 2011. CT scans of 16 patients having TDCs were evaluated for the following features: site of the mass, relationship to the midline, walls, margins, internal septa, rim enhancement, internal density, and the presence or absence of the thyroid gland. Of the 16 lesions, 8 (50%) were located in the midline and 12 (75%) were infrahyoid in location. Twelve (75%) of the 16 patients had well-circumscribed walls and peripheral rim enhancement. Internal septa were seen in four of the cysts, and all but one of the cysts demonstrated homogeneous or low-density attenuation. The most common CT findings of TDCs in children less than 11 years of age were a homogeneous or low-density lesion. TDCs in children under the age of 11 years were mostly located in the infrahyoid neck.
Thyroglossal cyst; Tomography; X-ray computed; Child
The purpose of endodontic therapy is to preserve the patient's natural teeth without compromising the patient's local or systemic health. Calcium hydroxide has been included in several materials and antimicrobial formulations that are used in several treatment modalities in endodontics, such as inter-appointment intracanal medicaments. The purpose of this article was to review the antimicrobial properties of calcium hydroxide in endodontics. Calcium hydroxide has a high pH (approximately 12.5-12.8) and is classified chemically as a strong base. The lethal effects of calcium hydroxide on bacterial cells are probably due to protein denaturation and damage to DNA and cytoplasmic membranes. Calcium hydroxide has a wide range of antimicrobial activity against common endodontic pathogens but is less effective against Enterococcus faecalis and Candida albicans. Calcium hydroxide is also a valuable anti-endotoxin agent. However, its effect on microbial biofilms is controversial.
Biofilm; Calcium hydroxide; Candida albicans; Endotoxin
The advances of interventional cardiology have been achieved by new device development, finding appropriate drug regimes, and understanding of pathomechanism. Drug-eluting stents (DES) implantation with dual anti-platelet therapy reduced revascularization without increasing mortality or myocardial infarction compared with bare-metal stenting. However, late-term stent thrombosis (ST) and restenosis limited its value and raised the safety concern. Main mechanisms of this phenomenon are impaired endothelialization and hypersensitivity reaction with polymer. The second generation DES further improved safety and/or efficacy by using thinner stent strut and biocompatible polymer. Recently, new concept DES with biodegradable polymer, polymer-free and bioabsorbable scaffold are under investigation in the quest to minimize the risk of ST.
Drug-eluting stents; Coronary thrombosis; Blood platelets
The present study investigated the changes that occurred in the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling pathway in the kidney as a result of deoxycorticosterone acetate (DOCA)-salt hypertension. Rats were implanted with DOCA strips (200 mg/kg) 1 week after unilateral nephrectomy and were then supplied with 0.9% saline to drink. Four weeks after DOCA implantation, systolic blood pressure (SBP) was measured by use of the tail-cuff method. The expression levels of phosphorylated phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K), Akt, and mTOR, as well as the protein expression levels of ED-1 and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1), α-smooth muscle actin (SMA), caspase-3, Bax, and Bcl-2, were then examined in the kidney by semiquantitative immunoblotting. DOCA-salt hypertensive rats were found to have significantly increased SBP as well as an increased kidney weight-to-body weight ratio. Moreover, the phosphorylation of PI3K, Akt, and mTOR was increased in the kidney of DOCA-salt hypertensive rats compared with the control, as was the protein expression of ED-1, COX-2, TGF-β1, and α-SMA. The expression levels of caspase-3 and Bax were increased significantly, whereas Bcl-2 expression was decreased. In conclusion, the phosphorylation of PI3K/Akt/mTOR was increased in the kidney of DOCA-salt hypertensive rats.
Deoxycorticosterone; Hypertension; Kidney
In the present study, the residual antibacterial activity, or substantivity, of three concentrations of Tetraclean (Ogna Laboratori Farmaceutici, Muggiò, Italy) was assessed in bovine root dentin in vitro. One hundred ten dentin tubes prepared from bovine incisor teeth were infected in vitro for 14 days with Enterococcus faecalis. Thereafter, the specimens were divided into five groups as follows: 100% Tetraclean, 10% Tetraclean, 1% Tetraclean, sterile dentin tubes (negative control), and infected dentin tubes (positive control). Dentin chips were collected with round burs into tryptic soy broth and, after culturing, the number of colony-forming units (CFU) was counted. The number of CFU was minimal in the first cultures in all experimental groups, and the results obtained were significantly different in the different groups at all time periods (p<0.05). At all five experimental periods, the 100% Tetraclean group showed the most effective antibacterial action (p<0.05). In each group, the number of CFU increased significantly with time (p<0.05). There was a direct relationship between the concentration of Tetraclean and its substantivity. In conclusion, under the conditions of the study presented here, the substantivity of 100% Tetraclean was significantly higher than that of lower concentrations.
Tetraclean; Enterococcus faecalis; Dentin
Daily use of probiotic chewing gum might have a beneficial effect on oral health, and it is important that the viability of the probiotics be maintained in this food product. In this study, we examined the stability of probiotic chewing gum containing Weissella cibaria. We evaluated the effects of various factors, including temperature and additives, on the survival of freeze-dried probiotic W. cibaria powder. No changes in viability were detected during storage at 4℃ for 5 months, whereas the viability of bacteria stored at 20℃ decreased. The stability of probiotic chewing gum decreased steadily during storage at 20℃ for 4 weeks. The viability of the freeze-dried W. cibaria mixed with various additives, such as xylitol, sorbitol, menthol, sugar ester, magnesium stearate, and vitamin C, was determined over a 4-week storage period at 20℃. Most of the freeze-dried bacteria except for those mixed with menthol and vitamin C were generally stable during a 3-week storage period. Overall, our study showed that W. cibaria was more stable at 4℃ than that at 20℃. In addition, menthol and vitamin C had a detrimental effect on the storage stability of W. cibaria. This is the first study to examine the effects of various chewing gum additives on the stability of W. cibaria. Further studies will be needed to improve the stability of probiotic bacteria for developing a novel probiotic W. cibaria gum.
Temperature; Chewing gum; Probiotics
Foamy urine is widely regarded as a sign of proteinuria. However, there is no objective definition of foamy urine and there are no reports on the proportion of involved patients who have overt proteinuria or microalbuminuria. We performed this study to investigate this proportion and to identify possible risk factors for these two conditions. We reviewed all new outpatients from 1 November 2011 to 30 April 2012 and identified patients complaining of foamy urine. Their demographic data and medical records were examined. In particular, we tabulated the patients' spot urinary protein to creatinine ratio, spot urinary microalbumin to creatinine ratio (ACR), blood urea nitrogen (BUN), and serum levels of creatinine (Cr), uric acid, calcium, phosphate, and glucose. In addition, we calculated estimated glomerular filtration rates (eGFRs) by using the CKD-EPI equation. We also performed risk factor analysis with the Chi-squared test and by logistic regression. Seventy-two patients (6.3% of total new outpatients) complained of foamy urine; of these, there were 59 males with a median age of 65.5 years (range, 36-87 years). Of the 72 patients, 16 (22.2%) had overt proteinuria. We found that diabetes, poor renal function (high Cr, BUN, low eGFR), increased serum phosphate, and increased serum glucose were associated with overt proteinuria. Multiple logistic regression analysis showed that serum Cr and serum phosphate were associated with overt proteinuria. The ACR was available for 38 patients, and in this subgroup, 12 (31.6%) showed microalbuminuria or overt proteinuria. In this subgroup, a high serum Cr was the only statistically significant risk factor. Among patients who complained of foamy urine, approximately 20% had overt proteinuria, and increased serum Cr and phosphate were statistically significant risk factors.
Proteinuria; Creatinine; Phosphates
The Ministry of Health and Welfare of Korea recently designated cerebrovascularspecified centers (CSCs) to improve the regional stroke care system for acute ischemic stroke (AIS) patients. This study was performed to evaluate the changes in the flow of AIS patients between hospitals and to describe the role of the Emergency Medical Information Center (EMIC) after the designation of the CSCs. Data for coordination of interhospital transfers by the EMIC were reviewed for 6 months before and after designation of the CSCs. The data included the success or failure rate, the time used for coordination of interhospital transfer, and the changes in the interhospital transfer pattern between transfer-requesting and transfer-accepting hospitals. The total number of requests for interhospital transfer increased from 198 to 244 after designation of the CSCs. The median time used for coordination decreased from 8.0 minutes to 4.0 minutes (p<0.001). The success rate of coordination increased from 88.9% to 96.7% (p<0.001). The proportion of requests by CSCs decreased from 3.5% to 0.4% (p=0.017). However, the proportion of acceptance by non-CSC hospitals increased from 15.9% to 25.8% (p=0.015). With the designation of CSCs, the EMIC could coordinate interhospital transfers more quickly. However, AIS patients are more dispersed to CSC and non-CSC hospitals, which might be because the CSCs still do not have sufficient resources to cover the increasing volume of AIS patients and non-CSC hospitals have changed their policies. Further studies based on patients' outcome are needed to determine the adequate type of interhospital transfer for AIS patients.
Stroke; Patient transfer; Emergency treatment
The aquaporin (AQP) families of water channels are intrinsic membrane proteins that facilitate selective water and small solute movement across the plasma membrane. The purposes of this study were to determine the expression and localization of AQPs in benign prostatic hyperplasia and prostate cancer. Prostatic tissue was collected from patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia or prostate cancer by transurethral resection of the prostate. The expression and cellular localization of the AQPs were determined in the human prostate by Western blot and immunohistochemistry. AQP1, 3, and 9 were expressed in the human prostate. Western blot analysis revealed bands at 28-36 kDa for the AQP1, 3, and 9 proteins. Of these proteins, AQP3 and 9 were expressed in the epithelium. Immunolabeling showed that AQP1 was mainly expressed in the capillaries and venules of the prostate, AQP9 was expressed in the cytoplasm of the epithelium, and AQP3 was mainly associated with the plasma membrane of the prostatic epithelium. Only AQP3 expression was localized in the cell membrane, and expressed AQP3 was translocated to the cytoplasm in prostate cancer. The epithelium in the human prostate expresses AQP3 and 9 proteins, and the capillaries and venules of the prostate express AQP1. Characterizing or modifying the expression of AQP3 may lead to an understanding of the role of the AQPs in human prostatic disease.
Prostatic hyperplasia; Prostatic neoplasms; Aquaporins; Humans
The pathogenesis of juxtafacet cysts is closely related to degenerative instability of the lumbar spine and degenerative changes in the ligamentum flavum and the facet joint. A 56-year-old man presented with severe right thigh pain and numbness for 1 month after a laminar fracture of the L4 spine. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed a heterogenous cystic mass surrounding the facet joint between the fourth and fifth lumbar vertebrae on the right side. Conservative therapy was unsuccessful and the lesion was removed by surgical decompression alone without fusion. The histological examination showed a fragmented, cystic wall-like structure composed of myxoid degenerative tissue without lining epithelium. Here we present this case of a ganglion cyst that appeared to be associated with facet joint instability.
Ganglion cysts; Synovial cyst; Spine
There is no current guideline for percutaneous coronary angioplasty in stenotic ectatic coronary arteries because of the heterogeneity of the coronary artery morphology. We report two successful angioplasty cases in coronary artery ectasia with different clinical scenarios. One case showed atherosclerotic stenosis in the ectatic portion of the right coronary artery that was aggravated after a coronary artery bypass graft. In this case, balloon angioplasty alone without stenting showed acceptable results at the 6-month follow-up coronary angiography. In the other case, we used a peripheral artery balloon and stent for stenosis in the ectatic portion of a large coronary artery. Six-month follow-up coronary angiography showed excellent patency of the previously implanted peripheral stent.
Angioplasty; Balloon; Coronary
Arcanobacterium haemolyticum was isolated from the blood cultures of a previously healthy 37-year-old man who met all the criteria of Lemierre syndrome, including a primary oropharyngeal infection, evidence of thrombophlebitis of the internal jugular vein, and metastatic infections. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case of Lemierre syndrome caused by A. haemolyticum in Korea and shows that A. haemolyticum alone can cause Lemierre syndrome.
Lemierre syndrome; Arcanobacterium; Tonsilitis
Percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL) is an integral component in the management of large volume renal stone disease either as monotherapy or in combination with shock wave lithotripsy. Stone disease in patients on chronic anticoagulation/antiplatelet therapy, however, poses a difficult scenario. Bleeding is a major concern for any patient undergoing PCNL. We retrospectively analyzed our series of patients with renal calculi who were on chronic anticoagulant therapy and who underwent PCNL. We reviewed the case records of patients undergoing PCNL during the period from January 2005 to December 2011. We analyzed the changes in preoperative and postoperative hemoglobin, serum creatinine, and clotting parameters, as well as intraoperative and postoperative bleeding and thromboembolic complications. During the 5-year study period, a total of 36 patients (30 males and 6 females) with a mean age of 46.33±9.96 years (range, 29-61 years) who were on chronic anticoagulant/antiplatelet therapy underwent PCNL for urolithiasis. The mean size of the stone was 6.40±1.98 cm2 (range, 2.8-9 cm2). The mean operating time was 62.08±10.10 min. The bleeding was successfully managed in all patients and the anticoagulant/antiplatelet agents were restarted after an appropriate duration. The mean rise in serum creatinine at discharge was 0.05±0.03 mg/dl and the mean fall in serum hemoglobin was 1.63±0.77 g/dl. At 3 months after surgery, the stone-free rate was 100%. With careful preoperative care and regulation of anticoagulation/antiplatelet therapy and appropriate intraoperative management, PCNL can be performed safely and successfully in properly selected patients with renal calculi who are on chronic anticoagulant/antiplatelet therapy.
Urolithiasis; Percutaneous nephrolithotomy; Anticoagulants; Antiplatelet agents; Kidney calculi
The potential relationship between vitamin D (VitD) status and metabolic control in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) warrants further study. We aimed to evaluate the relationship between the serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] level and various parameters in patients with T2DM. We analyzed retrospectively data from 276 Korean patients with T2DM whose serum 25(OH)D level was measured in our hospital. Nondiabetic healthy subjects who visited the hospital for health screening were selected as the control group (Non-DM, n=160). Compared with control subjects, patients with T2DM had a lower serum 25(OH)D level (15.4±0.5 vs. 12.9±0.4 ng/ml, p<0.01). Eleven percent of T2DM patients were VitD "insufficient" (20-29 ng/ml) and 87% of the patients were VitD "deficient" (<20 ng/ml). The serum 25(OH)D level was significantly related to serum fibrinogen, triglyceride (TG), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), ferritin, the urine albumin creatinine ratio, and hemoglobin A1C (HbA1C). In a multivariate logistic regression analysis, high levels of HbA1C, TG, and LDL-C were independently associated with VitD deficiency in T2DM patients. The results of the present study show that the majority of Koreans with T2DM are VitD deficient, and the serum 25(OH)D level in patients with T2DM is related to lipid and glucose parameters. Further studies are required of the relationship of VitD with fibrinogen and other related parameters.
Diabetes mellitus, Type2; Fibrinogen; 25-Hydroxyvitamin D; Vitamin D
Our objective was to determine whether melatonin increases retinal ganglion cell (RGC) survival in ischemic mouse retina. Transient retinal ischemia was induced by an acute elevation of intraocular pressure in C57BL/6 mice. To evaluate the effect of melatonin on retinal ischemia, an equal amount of either melatonin or vehicle was intraperitoneally injected into the mice 1 hour before ischemia, at the time of ischemia, and 1 hour after ischemia. Hypoxia inducible factor 1α (HIF-1α) and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) expression were assessed 6, 12, and 24 hours after ischemia-reperfusion by Western blot. RGC survival was measured 2 weeks after ischemia-reperfusion. The expression of HIF-1α and GFAP peaked 24 hours after ischemia-reperfusion in ischemic retina. The treatment of ischemic retina with melatonin resulted in the inhibition of increased expression of HIF-1α and GFAP. RGC survival was greater in retinas treated with melatonin than in retinas treated with vehicle 2 weeks after ischemia-reperfusion. On the basis of our results, we suggest that melatonin treatment increased RGC survival in ischemic mouse retina. The neuroprotective effect of melatonin is mediated by the inhibition of HIF-1α stabilization and reduced activity of glial cells in ischemic mouse retina.
Glaucoma; Ischemia; Melatonin; Neuroprotection
This study aimed to evaluate the anti-adhesive effect of a mixed solution of sodium hyaluronate and sodium carboxymethylcellulose (HACMC, Guardix-sol®) during the transconjunctival approach to orbital wall reconstruction. Eighty-seven patients who underwent orbital wall reconstruction by the transconjunctival approach were enrolled in this prospective study. We applied HACMC between the orbicularis oculi muscle and the orbital septum after surgery in 47 patients and did not use it in 40 patients. Lower lid retraction and marginal reflex distance 2 (MRD2) were measured to analyze the degree of postoperative adhesion at 1 week and 1, 3, and 6 months. The degree of MRD2 showed clinically significant differences at postoperative 1 week and 1 month between the HACMC and control groups (p<0.05). Lower lid ectropion developed in two patients (5.0%) in the control group but did not occur in the HACMC group. In orbital wall reconstruction by the transconjunctival approach, the HACMC mixture solution is effective for preventing adhesion and lower lid ectropion during the early postoperative period.
Eyelid retraction; Eyelids; Orbital fractures
A 59-year-old female with diabetes mellitus presented with hypercalcemia and polycythemia. Her serum calcium and intact parathyroid hormone (iPTH) levels were increased, and Tc-99m sesta-MIBI scanning showed hot uptake in the lower portion of the left thyroid lobe. After parathyroidectomy, her calcium, iPTH, and polycythemia were normalized. In conclusion, the differential diagnosis of polycythemia and hypercalcemia should also include the possibility of a parathyroid tumor in addition to other neoplasms.
Hypercalcemia; Polycythemia vera; Parathyroid tumor
Although stent entrapment is a rare event during percutaneous coronary intervention, stent entrapment can cause stent breakage or loss, which results in fatal complications such as stent embolism or acute myocardial infarction. We report one case of stent entrapment that was successfully treated by a snare via a contralateral transfemoral approach.
Stents; Angioplasty; Complications
Until recently, the role of lysosomal cysteine protease cathepsins in intracellular protein degradation was believed to be mainly restricted to scavenging. However, recent studies have revealed nontraditional roles for cysteine protease cathepsins in the extracellular space during the development and progression of cardiovascular disease. Although the precise mechanisms are unknown, data from animal studies suggest that members of the cathepsin family, like other extracellular proteases, contribute to extracellular matrix protein remodeling and interstitial matrix degradation, as well as to cell signaling and cell apoptosis in heart disease. Inflammatory cytokines and hormones regulate the expression and secretion of cathepsins in cultured cardiovascular cells and macrophages. Serum levels of cathepsins L, S, and K and their endogenous inhibitor cystatin C may be useful predictive biomarkers in patients with coronary artery disease and cardiac disease. Furthermore, in vivo pharmacological intervention with a synthetic cathepsin inhibitor and cardiovascular drugs (including statins and angiotensin II type 1 receptor antagonists) has the potential for pharmacologic targeting of cathepsins in cardiovascular disease. This review focuses on cathepsin biology (structure, synthesis, processing, activation, secretion, activity regulation, and function) and the involvement of cysteinyl cathepsins in the pathogenesis of several heart and vessel diseases, especially with respect to their potential application as diagnostic and prognostic markers and drug targets to prevent inappropriate proteolysis in cardiovascular disease.
Cysteine proteases; Cathepsins; Cystatin C; Extracellular matrix proteins; Cardiovascular disease
Little is known about the clinicopathological features of female gastric carcinoma (FGC) patients. We compared the clinicopathologic features and outcomes of FGC patients with curative resection with those of male gastric carcinoma (MGC) patients. We reviewed the hospital records of 940 FGC patients between 1986 and 2005 at Chonnam National University Hospital. Multivariate analysis showed that presence of serosal invasion, lymph node metastasis, and operative type were significant prognostic factors for survival of FGC patients with curative resection. Furthermore, the overall 5-year survival rate of FGC patients with curative resection (53.4%) was higher than that of MGC patients (47.6%, p<0.05). In advanced cases, no significant difference was observed in the overall 5-year survival rate between the FGC and MGC patients (41.6% vs 37.4%, p>0.05). Therefore, serosal invasion, lymph node metastasis, and type of operation were statistically significant parameters associated with survival. Early detection is more important for improving the prognosis of female patients with gastric cancer than for male patients.
Female gastric carcinoma; Prognosis; Early detection of cancer
Previously, Pseudomonas putida was considered a low-virulence pathogen and was recognized as a rare cause of bacteremia. Recently, however, multidrug-resistant and carbapenem-resistant P. putida isolates have emerged, causing difficult-to-treat nosocomial infections in seriously ill patients. Currently, the outcome of multidrug-resistant or carbapenem-resistant P. putida bacteremia remains uncertain. Here, we report 18 cases of P. putida bacteremia with high rates of carbapenem resistance and mortality. From January 2005 through December 2011, all cases of nosocomial P. putida bacteremia were identified and analyzed at Chonnam National University Hospital and Chonnam National University Hwasun Hospital. Electronic medical records were reviewed retrospectively. Four (22%) and five (23%) of 18 P. putida isolates were resistant to imipenem and meropenem, respectively. Common primary infection sites were central venous catheter (7, 39%), pneumonia (5, 28%), and cholangitis (2, 11%). Fourteen (78%) patients had indwelling devices related to the primary site of infection. The 30-day mortality rate was 39% (7/18): 40% (2/5) in patients with carbapenem-resistant P. putida bacteremia vs. 38% (5/13) in patients with carbapenem-susceptible P. putida bacteremia. Nosocomial P. putida bacteremia showed high resistance rates to most potent β-lactams and carbapenems and was associated with high mortality rates.
Pseudomonas putid; Carbapenems; Drug resistance
Cisatracurium provides superior hemodynamic stability with only minor release of histamine, and its metabolism via Hoffman elimination is independent of organ function. However, use of cisatracurium is limited because of reportedly slower onset and unsatisfactory intubating conditions. Many studies have shown that remifentanil might provide reliable intubating conditions; thus, we hypothesized that pretreatment with remifentanil before administration of cisatracurium might result in acceptable intubating conditions. Sixty healthy patients scheduled for elective surgery were enrolled and randomly divided into three groups: saline (Group I, n=20), remifentanil 0.5 µg/kg (Group II, n=20), and remifentanil 1.0 µg/kg (Group III, n=20). The anesthesia was induced with propofol 2.0 µg/kg given intravenously over 30 s followed by injection over 30 s of a different dose of remifentanil according to the study protocol. We examined the intubating condition by jaw relaxation, vocal cord state, and diaphragmatic response 90 s after administering cisatracurium. We also measured mean blood pressure, heart rate, and the onset time, which is the interval from the end of neuromuscular blocking agent administration until suppression of maximal T1 on a train-of four sequence. The mean values of the intubating condition after endotracheal intubation in Groups II and III were significantly lower than that in Group I (p<0.005), although the overall onset time of cisatracurium did not differ significantly between the three groups. Our results suggest that supplementation with remifentanil in an induction regimen with cisatracurium improves the quality of the intubating condition even though the onset time of cisatracurium is not shortened.
Cisatracurium; Remifentanil; Endotracheal intubation; Intubating condition; Onset time
Long-term potentiation (LTP) and long-term depression (LTD) of synaptic transmission are forms of synaptic plasticity that have been studied extensively and are thought to contribute to learning and memory. The reversal of LTP, known as depotentiation (DP) has received far less attention however, and its role in behavior is also far from clear. Recently, deficits in depotentiation have been observed in models of schizophrenia, suggesting that a greater understanding of this form of synaptic plasticity may help reveal the physiological alterations that underlie symptoms experienced by patients. This review therefore seeks to summarize the current state of knowledge on DP, and then put the deficits in DP in models of disease into this context.
Neuronal plasticity; Long-term potentiation; Long-term synaptic depression; Schizophrenia
Infective endocarditis (IE) is an infection of the endothelial surface of the heart and heart valves with serious, even fatal, complications and that often requires long-term and expensive treatment. Dental procedures may lead to IE in high-risk patients. The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare the knowledge of general dentists and dental students concerning the prevention of IE in Hamadan, Iran. In this cross-sectional study, the awareness of general dentists and dentistry students concerning the prevention of IE was evaluated during 2010. A questionnaire was prepared and administered to 58 final-year dental students and 96 general dental practitioners in Hamadan. A total of 154 persons completed the questionnaire. The questionnaire consisted of some demographic questions and questions about awareness of IE in three sections. The gathered data were analyzed by using descriptive statistics, Pearson's chi-square test, Mann-Whitney test, and independent t-tests. The gathered data showed that dentistry students answered the questions about awareness of the prevention of IE more correctly than did general dentists. The overall knowledge of endocarditis prophylaxis among students and dentists was about 65% and 56%, respectively. The students' knowledge was better because 94.9% of the students had desired (acceptable) and relatively desired knowledge; this result for dentists, however, was 82.3%. In our study, the overall awareness level of the study population was moderate. Dentist and students believed that patients with prosthetic valves and previous IE were the most common cardiac disease cases that required prophylaxis. The most common prophylactic regimen was in accordance with the guidelines of the American Heart Association and was a single dose of 2 g amoxicillin 1 hour before treatment. The results indicated that gender had no effect on the level of knowledge; however, there was a statistically significant relationship between age and level of knowledge.
Hepatitis C, chronic; Endocarditis; Knowledge; Dentists; Students
Pegylated-interferon plus ribavirin is the standard treatment for chronic hepatitis C. Sustained virological response (SVR) rates of up to 80% are reported in genotype 2 and 3 chronic hepatitis C cases. Obesity, a modifiable risk factor, may have a deleterious effect on antiviral treatment. We performed this study to examine the efficacy and safety of pegylated-interferon and ribavirin therapy in Korean patients with genotype 2 and 3 chronic hepatitis C and to investigate the risk factors for nonresponse to antiviral treatment. A total of 121 patients were treated with peginterferon alpha-2a 180 mcg/week plus ribavirin 800 mg/day for 24 weeks. The end-of-treatment virologic response (ETVR), the SVR, the end-of-treatment biochemical response (ETBR), the sustained biochemical response (SBR), and the adverse events were analyzed. The ETVR and SVR were 94.1% and 89.1%, respectively. The ETBR was 80.2% and the SBR was 96%. Multivariate analysis showed that a body mass index of 25 and over was the only independent factor that affected the SVR (odds ratio=10.5, 95% confidence interval: 2.006-54.948, p=0.005). Twenty patients (16.5%) dropped out at the end of treatment, and 7 (5.8%) patients discontinued treatment because of treatment-related adverse events. Our study showed that combination therapy with pegylated-interferon and ribavirin as an initial treatment for genotype 2 and 3 chronic hepatitis C is very effective and safe, and that body mass index is an independent risk factor for nonresponse to antiviral treatment in patients with genotype 2 and 3 chronic hepatitis C.
Hepatitis C, chronic; Peginterferon alfa-2a; Ribavirin; Body mass Index