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1.  Mitochondrial Dynamics in the Heart as a Novel Therapeutic Target for Cardioprotection 
Chonnam Medical Journal  2013;49(3):101-107.
Traditionally, mitochondria have been regarded solely as energy generators for cells; however, accumulating data have demonstrated that these complex organelles play a variety of roles within the cardiomyocyte that extend beyond this classic function. Mitochondrial dynamics involves mitochondrial movements and morphologic alterations by tethering, fusion, and fission, which depend on cellular energy requirements and metabolic status. Many studies have indicated that mitochondrial dynamics may be a fundamental component of the maintenance of normal cellular homeostasis and cardiac function. Mitochondrial dynamics is controlled by the protein machinery responsible for mitochondrial fusion and fission, but cardiomyocytes are densely packed as part of an intricate cytoarchitecture for efficient and imbalanced contraction; thus, mitochondrial dynamics in the adult heart are restricted and occur more slowly than in other organs. Cardiac mitochondrial dynamics is important for cardiac physiology in diseased conditions such as ischemia-reperfusion (IR) injury. Changes in mitochondrial morphology through modulation of the expression of proteins regulating mitochondrial dynamics demonstrates the beneficial effects on cardiac performance after IR injury. Thus, accurately defining the roles of mitochondrial dynamics in the adult heart can guide the identification and development of novel therapeutic targets for cardioprotection. Further studies should be performed to establish the exact mechanisms of mitochondrial dynamics.
doi:10.4068/cmj.2013.49.3.101
PMCID: PMC3881204  PMID: 24400211
Mitochondrial dynamics; Myocardial reperfusion injury; Myocytes, cardiac
2.  Increased Phosphorylation of PI3K/Akt/mTOR in the Obstructed Kidney of Rats with Unilateral Ureteral Obstruction 
Chonnam Medical Journal  2013;49(3):108-112.
The present study aimed to investigate changes in the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling pathway in the obstructed kidney of rats with unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO). Male Sprague-Dawley rats were unilaterally obstructed by ligation of the left proximal ureter for 7 days. Control rats were treated in the same way except that no ligature was made. The expression levels of phosphorylated phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K), Akt, and mTOR were determined in the kidney by semiquantitative immunoblotting. The protein expression levels of transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1, Bax, and Bcl-2 were also determined in the kidney. The phosphorylation of PI3K, Akt, and mTOR was increased in the kidney of ureteral obstruction rats compared with the control. In the obstructed kidney, the protein expression of TGF-β1 and Bax was also increased, whereas Bcl-2 expression was decreased. In conclusion, the phosphorylation of PI3K/Akt/mTOR was increased in the obstructed kidney of rats with UUO.
doi:10.4068/cmj.2013.49.3.108
PMCID: PMC3881205  PMID: 24400212
mTOR protein, rat; Ureteral Obstruction; Fibrosis; Apoptosis
3.  Factors Related to Catheter-Induced Hemorrhage after Brain Parenchymal Catheterization 
Chonnam Medical Journal  2013;49(3):113-117.
This article aimed to investigate the incidence rate and possible risk factors for catheter-induced hemorrhage (CIH) after brain parenchymal catheterization. Between January 2011 and March 2013, 381 patients (572 punctures) who underwent brain parenchymal catheterization were retrospectively evaluated. All patients were checked by computerized tomography scan for the detection of hemorrhage within 48 hours after catheter insertion. CIH was defined as any evidence of new hemorrhage on the post-procedural computerized tomography scan. The incidence rate and the possible risk factors were analyzed by surgeon (4 different surgeons performed the procedures), characteristics of the catheter device, and patient background. Of 381 patients, 572 punctures were performed and CIH developed in 122 puncture cases (122/572, 21.3%). The risk factors related to CIH were Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) score ≤8 (p<0.01) and prothrombin time international normalized ratio (PT INR) ≥1.3 (p=0.038). The amount of hemorrhage was minimal without additional operations. A low GCS score and high PT INR are implicated as potential risk factors for CIH after brain parenchymal catheterization. Careful and delicate operative technique can help to reduce postoperative complications in these patients.
doi:10.4068/cmj.2013.49.3.113
PMCID: PMC3881206  PMID: 24400213
Drainage; Cerebral Hemorrhage; Brain; Catheterization
4.  Effect of Atorvastatin-Eluting Stents in a Rabbit Iliac Artery Restenosis Model 
Chonnam Medical Journal  2013;49(3):118-124.
Statins have pleiotropic effects, which include the inhibition of neointima hyperplasia, the inhibition of vascular inflammation, and platelet inhibition. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of an atorvastatin-eluting stent (AES) in a rabbit iliac artery overstretch restenosis model. Ten rabbits were used in this study (10 rabbits, 10 iliac arteries for each stent). An AES and paclitaxel-eluting stent (PES) were implanted in the left and right iliac arteries in a rabbit (2 stents in each rabbit). The stents were deployed with oversizing (stent/artery ratio 1.3:1), and histopathologic analysis was assessed at 28 days after stenting. There were no significant differences in the injury score, lumen area, or inflammation score. There were significant differences in the neointimal area (0.7±0.18 mm2 in the AES group vs. 0.4±0.25 mm2 in the PES group, p<0.01), in the percentage stenosis area (14.8±5.06% in the AES group vs. 10.5±6.80% in the PES group, p<0.05), and in the fibrin score (0.4±0.51 in the AES group vs. 2.7±0.48 in the PES group, p<0.001). Although the AES did not suppress neointimal hyperplasia compared with the PES, it showed a superior arterial healing effect in a rabbit iliac artery overstretch restenosis model.
doi:10.4068/cmj.2013.49.3.118
PMCID: PMC3881207  PMID: 24400214
Drug-eluting Stents; Coronary Restenosis; Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Reductase Inhibitors; Inflammation
5.  Parathyroid Cyst Presenting as Acute Pancreatitis: Report of a Case 
Chonnam Medical Journal  2013;49(3):125-128.
We report the first case of hypercalcemia-induced acute pancreatitis caused by a functioning parathyroid cyst in a 67-year-old man. Laboratory investigation revealed increased serum amylase and lipase, increased serum ionized calcium and parathyroid hormone (PTH) levels, and decreased serum phosphate, indicating pancreatitis and primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT). Abdominal computed tomography (CT) revealed mild swelling of the pancreatic head with peri-pancreatic fat infiltration and fluid collection around the pancreatic tail. Ultrasonography and CT of the neck showed a cystic lesion at the inferior portion of the left thyroid gland, suggesting a parathyroid cyst. There was no evidence of parathyroid adenoma by 99mTc sestamibi scintigraphy. PHPT caused by a functioning parathyroid cyst was suspected. The patient underwent surgical resection of the functioning parathyroid cyst owing to his prolonged hypercalcemia. At 3 weeks after the operation, his serum levels of PTH, total calcium, ionized calcium, inorganic phosphate, amylase, and lipase were normalized. At the follow-up examinations, he has remained asymptomatic.
doi:10.4068/cmj.2013.49.3.125
PMCID: PMC3881208  PMID: 24400215
Pancreatitis; Hyperparathyroidism, Primary; Cysts
6.  Percutaneous Treatment of an Injured Coronary Stent Using the Looping Wire Technique 
Chonnam Medical Journal  2013;49(3):129-132.
Drug-eluting stent implantation is an effective treatment for coronary artery disease, yet unexpected serious complications during stent implantation are possible. A 70-year-old man with unstable angina presented with a left main bifurcation lesion. Two drug-eluting stents were successfully deployed at the left main bifurcation lesion by the mini-crush technique under intravascular ultrasound guidance. However, after removal of the wire and intravascular ultrasound catheter, the stent of the proximal left circumflex artery was damaged and shortened at the distal edge. We used a looping wire technique to cross the injured stent and we successfully re-dilated the damaged portion of the stent. Finally, we deployed an additional drug-eluting stent at the left circumflex artery over the damaged stent. Our case illustrates the importance of gentle handling of devices during coronary intervention. Furthermore, interventionists should keep in mind the role of intravascular ultrasound when treating this kind of serious complication.
doi:10.4068/cmj.2013.49.3.129
PMCID: PMC3881209  PMID: 24400216
Drug-eluting Stents; Complication; Angioplasty
7.  A Case of Gastric Cancer Manifesting as a Solitary Brain Metastasis in the Cerebellopontine Angle That Mimicked Acoustic Neuroma 
Chonnam Medical Journal  2013;49(3):133-135.
At the time of diagnosis, about 20% of patients with gastric cancer have stage IV disease involving the liver, lung, and bone. Brain metastasis from gastric cancer is exceedingly rare, with an incidence of <1% of clinical cases. A 59-year-old man was admitted with hearing loss in the left ear and left facial palsy for 1 month. A magnetic resonance imaging scan revealed a tumor in the cerebellopontine angle that extended to the inner auditory canal and that was clinically diagnosed as acoustic neuroma. After complete resection, histological examination showed metastatic poorly differentiated carcinoma. Further investigation revealed advanced gastric cancer involving the antrum with no evidence of the involvement of other sites except the brain parenchyma. Palliative total gastrectomy was performed and the surgical specimen revealed a poorly cohesive carcinoma that was histopathologically identical to that of the resected brain tumor. Here we report this rare case of gastric cancer that initially presented as a solitary brain metastasis mimicking acoustic neuroma.
doi:10.4068/cmj.2013.49.3.133
PMCID: PMC3881210  PMID: 24400217
Stomach Neoplasms; Brain; Neuroma, Acoustic
8.  Recent Trends in Nuclear Cardiology Practice 
Chonnam Medical Journal  2013;49(2):55-64.
Over the past three decades, radionuclide myocardial perfusion scintigraphy (MPS) has become established as the main functional cardiac imaging technique for ischemic heart disease. It is currently appropriate for all aspects of detecting and managing ischemic heart disease, including diagnosis, risk assessment and stratification, assessment of myocardial viability, and evaluation of left ventricular function. The purpose of this article was to review recent trends in nuclear cardiology practice, excluding positron emission tomography. The past few years have brought several rapid developments that have increased photon sensitivity in nuclear cardiology scanner hardware. Additionally, software applying new methods of single photon emission tomography (SPECT) reconstruction on conventional and dedicated systems has preserved or even improved SPECT image quality with lower count statistics. On the other hand, much interest has been shown in lowering the radiation dose by the stakeholders of MPS.
doi:10.4068/cmj.2013.49.2.55
PMCID: PMC3759683  PMID: 24010067
Myocardial perfusion imaging; SPECT; Radiation
9.  Prevalence of Oral Mucosal Lesions in Male Smokers and Nonsmokers 
Chonnam Medical Journal  2013;49(2):65-68.
Tobacco smoking is one of the most important risk factors for the development of oral mucosal lesions such as leukoplakia and hairy tongue. Controversy exists in the literature, however, about the prevalence of oral lesions in smokers. The aim of this study was to evaluate oral lesions in male smokers compared with nonsmokers in Hamadan. A total of 516 male participants were assessed, 258 of whom were smokers and 258 of whom were healthy nonsmokers. The prevalence of lesions was evaluated by clinical observation and biopsy. We found that the most prevalent lesions among smokers were gingival problems and coated tongue; smokers had significantly more lesions than did nonsmokers. Malignant and premalignant lesions were found in a higher age range. Among all participants in our study, we found a large number of oral mucosal lesions in smokers that had a strong correlation with smoking. Dental services need to implement care and health education for smokers to promote health.
doi:10.4068/cmj.2013.49.2.65
PMCID: PMC3759684  PMID: 24010068
Mouth; Smoking; Prevalence
10.  Indirect Radionuclide Coronary Angiography to Evaluate Gradients of Myocardial Blood Flow and Flow Reserve Through Coronary Stenosis Using N-13 Ammonia PET/CT 
Chonnam Medical Journal  2013;49(2):69-74.
Although quantitative evaluation of myocardial blood flow (MBF) and myocardial flow reserve (MFR) has been perceived as an attractive advantage of positron emission tomography (PET) over other cardiac imaging technologies, application of the information to specific coronary lesions is a difficult task for nuclear cardiologists. We hypothesized that changes in MBF and MFR over a coronary lesion could be identified by use of a hybrid technology of CT coronary angiography (CTCA) and N-13 ammonia PET. To evaluate this hypothesis, we measured the gradient of MBF and MFR through coronary stenosis in seven patients (M:F=3:4, median age 56 years) with coronary artery disease who underwent N-13 ammonia PET, CTCA, and interventional coronary angiography. Two patients had proximal left anterior descending (LAD) coronary artery disease and five patients had mid to distal LAD disease. Mean global stress and rest MBF were 2.62±0.58 and 1.03±0.19 ml/min/g, respectively. Mean global MFR was 2.6±0.73. Regional stress and rest MBF in the LAD territory were 2.36±0.75 and 0.96±0.21 ml/min/g, respectively. Regional MFR in the LAD territory was 2.55±0.83 ml/min/g. Stress MBF changed dramatically according to the location of coronary stenosis. It dropped acutely in proximal lesions, whereas it diminished gradually in mid to distal lesions. In conclusion, by use of a hybrid technology of CTCA and PET, it was feasible to make a direct correlation of coronary lesions with the gradient of MFR and CFR through coronary stenosis, which indicated the severity of the coronary lesion. We named this technique indirect radionuclide coronary angiography.
doi:10.4068/cmj.2013.49.2.69
PMCID: PMC3759685  PMID: 24010069
Radionuclide imaging; Coronary angiography; Mycocardium
11.  Analysis of Cariogenic Bacteria in Saliva of Cancer Patients 
Chonnam Medical Journal  2013;49(2):75-80.
This study examined salivary flow and salivary pH and the prevalence and levels of cariogenic bacteria in the saliva of oncological patients and healthy controls. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction was used to assess the levels of microbes including Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus sobrinus, Lactobacillus salivarius, and Lactobacillus acidophilus in the saliva of 41 patients with a solid tumor (SO), 30 patients with a hematologic malignancy (HE), and 40 healthy controls. Salivary flow and pH were lower in oncological patients than in controls. The frequencies of all four cariogenic bacteria were highest in the SO group. S. mutans and L. salivarius were the most commonly detected in all three study groups. Mean numbers of S. sobrinus and L. salivarius in the SO group were significantly higher than in controls (p<0.05). There were no significant differences between patients and controls with respect to mean numbers of S. mutans and L. acidophilus in saliva. However, the proportions of S. mutans, S. sobrinus, and L. salivarius versus total bacteria in the SO group were significantly higher than in controls. Within patients, both mean numbers and the proportions of S. mutans and S. sobrinus were significantly different (p<0.05). In summary, significant differences were found in salivary pH values and the levels of S. mutans, S. sobrinus, and L. salivarius between SO patients and healthy controls.
doi:10.4068/cmj.2013.49.2.75
PMCID: PMC3759686  PMID: 24010070
Lactobacillus; Real-time polymerase chain reaction; Saliva; Streptococcus
12.  Comparison of Minimally Invasive Total Hip Arthroplasty versus Conventional Hemiarthroplasty for Displaced Femoral Neck Fractures in Active Elderly Patients 
Chonnam Medical Journal  2013;49(2):81-86.
Fractures of the femoral neck in elderly patients can be treated by internal fixation, hemiarthroplasty, or total hip arthroplasty (THA), and the treatment modality used should be determined on the basis of considerations of the degree of fracture displacement, age, functional demands, and the risk factors for surgery and anesthesia. We studied 85 active elderly patients who underwent minimally invasive two-incision THA or conventional bipolar hemiarthroplasty (BHA) within 2 weeks of injury for the treatment of acute displaced femoral neck fractures. Patients were followed up for a minimum of 24 months. The average operation times were 70 minutes in the THA group and 46 minutes in the BHA group (p=0.002), and average blood losses during the perioperative period were 921 cc and 892 cc, respectively (p=0.562). In the THA group, the average postoperative Harris hip score was 88.3 and the average Western Ontario and McMaster University score was 28.8, whereas in the BHA group the corresponding scores were 80.4 (p=0.006) and 32.5 (p=0.012), respectively. There were 2 cases of hip dislocation in the THA group, and 2 cases in the BHA group underwent conversion to THA. Our short-term follow-up results were better for minimally invasive two-incision THA than for conventional BHA for the treatment of acute displaced femoral neck fractures in active elderly patients.
doi:10.4068/cmj.2013.49.2.81
PMCID: PMC3759687  PMID: 24010071
Femoral neck fractures; Arthroplasty; Hemiarthroplasty
13.  Pseudomyxoma Peritonei: A Rare Cause of Oliguric Acute Kidney Injury 
Chonnam Medical Journal  2013;49(2):87-90.
Pseudomyxoma peritonei is a rare clinical condition that causes the accumulation of mucinous ascites, which gradually results in the compression of intra-abdominal organs. Most published reports of pseudomyxoma peritonei concern the mass effect of the resulting ascites, which presents as abdominal pain or intestinal ileus in severe cases. However, few reports of renal complications of the disease have been published. Here, we present a case of oliguric acute kidney injury caused by external compression by pseudomyxoma peritonei. After decompression with external drainage, the patient's renal function rapidly improved.
doi:10.4068/cmj.2013.49.2.87
PMCID: PMC3759688  PMID: 24010072
Acute kidney injury; Oliguria; Pseudomyxoma peritonei
14.  Stress Cardiomyopathy Associated with Diffuse Alveolar Hemorrhage after Colonoscopy 
Chonnam Medical Journal  2013;49(2):91-95.
Stress cardiomyopathy (SCM) is usually precipitated by a physiologically or psychologically stressful event. Although it occurs only rarely, hypoxia- and hypercapnia-induced sympathetic activation may also cause SCM. We present the case of a 37-year-old woman affected with SCM after a routine colonoscopy. During the procedure, she aspirated residual polyethylene glycol from her stomach. Hypotension, resting dyspnea, and hemoptysis were subsequently observed. Laboratory findings revealed elevated cardiac enzymes, and a transthoracic echocardiogram revealed left ventricular (LV) global hypokinesia. She was ultimately diagnosed with diffuse alveolar hemorrhage-associated SCM. After successful treatment with a ventilator and corticosteroids, her LV systolic function and dimensions normalized and she was discharged without complications.
doi:10.4068/cmj.2013.49.2.91
PMCID: PMC3759689  PMID: 24010073
Cardiomyopathies; Hemorrhage; Polyethylene glycols; Colonoscopy
15.  Was 2009 Pandemic Influenza A (H1N1) Mild Among Pregnant Korean Women? 
Chonnam Medical Journal  2013;49(2):96-99.
Clinical and laboratory data from Western countries suggest that pregnant women are at an increased risk for severe illness and complications associated with 2009 pandemic influenza A (H1N1). However, previous data among Korean women suggested a less severe outcome. In this study performed at a single referral center in Korea, rates of admission, pneumonia, intensive care unit admission, and death related to 2009 pandemic influenza A (H1N1) were significantly higher in 33 pregnant women than in 723 nonpregnant women of reproductive age (p<0.05 each). We report two cases of 2009 pandemic influenza A (H1N1) in pregnant Korean women who were admitted to the intensive care unit because of severe pneumonia that led to maternal and fetal death in one of the patients. This case series suggests that pregnant Korean women were also at increased risk of severe illness and complications during the 2009 pandemic influenza A (H1N1) outbreak.
doi:10.4068/cmj.2013.49.2.96
PMCID: PMC3759690  PMID: 24010074
Pandemics; Influenza; H1N1; Pregnancy
16.  Role of Statins in Coronary Artery Disease 
Chonnam Medical Journal  2013;49(1):1-6.
Statins have been known to significantly reduce cardiovascular events in patients with cardiovascular disease. This review was undertaken to examine the current evidence for the effect of statins in patients with coronary artery disease. Further research is needed to clarify questions concerning the optimal timing, dosage, and type of statin therapy as well as the problems associated with adverse effects.
doi:10.4068/cmj.2013.49.1.1
PMCID: PMC3651980  PMID: 23678470
Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA reductase inhibitors; Coronary artery disease; Myocardial infarction
17.  Comparison of Endoscopic Variceal Ligation and Endoscopic Variceal Obliteration in Patients with GOV1 Bleeding 
Chonnam Medical Journal  2013;49(1):14-19.
The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy, rebleeding rates, survival, and complications of endoscopic variceal ligation (EVL) with those of endoscopic variceal obliteration (EVO) in patients with acute type 1 gastroesophageal variceal (GOV1) bleeding. Data were collected retrospectively at a single center. A total of 84 patients were selected (20 patients underwent EVL; 64 patients underwent EVO) from February 2004 to September 2011. Their clinical characteristics, laboratory results, vital signs, Child-Pugh score, Model for End-stage Liver Disease (MELD) score, and overall mortality were evaluated. There were no significant differences in baseline characteristics between the two groups. The success rate in initial control of active bleeding was not significantly different between the EVL and EVO groups (18/20 EVL, or 90.0%, compared with 62/64 EVO, or 96.9%; p=0.239). The early rebleeding rate was also not significantly different between the groups (3/18 EVL, or 16.7% compared with 17/62 EVO, or 27.4%; p=0.422). The late rebleeding rate of the EVL group was lower than that of the EVO group (3/18 EVL, or 16.7%, compared with 26/59 EVO, or 44.1%; p=0.042). The time-to-rebleeding was 594 days for the EVL group and 326 days for the EVO group (p=0.054). In the multivariate analysis, portal vein thrombosis (PVT) was a significant risk factor for early rebleeding. Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and previous history of bleeding were significant risk factors for very late rebleeding. In conclusion, EVL is better than EVO in reducing late rebleeding in acute GOV1 bleeding. HCC, PVT, and previous bleeding history were significant risk factors for rebleeding.
doi:10.4068/cmj.2013.49.1.14
PMCID: PMC3651981  PMID: 23678472
Esophageal and gastric varices; Hemostasis; Endoscopy; Risk factors
18.  Clinical Usefulness of 18F-FDG PET/CT in the Detection of Early Recurrence in Treated Cervical Cancer Patients with Unexplained Elevation of Serum Tumor Markers 
Chonnam Medical Journal  2013;49(1):20-26.
We investigated the diagnostic value of 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) for restaging of treated uterine cervix squamous cell cancer with tumor maker elevation that was not explained by other conventional evaluation. We enrolled 32 cases who underwent PET/CT for the restaging of treated cervical cancer with tumor marker elevation that was not explained by recent conventional evaluation. All enrolled cases had squamous cell carcinoma. Increased tumor markers included squamous cell carcinoma antigen (SCC Ag) and carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA). PET/CT findings were determined by pathologic confirmation or clinical follow-up. We compared PET/CT accuracy and clinical parameters including normalization of tumor markers in both the SCC Ag elevation group and the CEA elevation group. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value of PET/CT in detecting recurrence were 100%, 83.3%, 82.4%, and 100%, respectively. Accuracy was significantly different between the SCC Ag elevation group and the CEA elevation group (p=0.0169). PET/CT with SCC Ag elevation was more accurate (100%) than PET/CT with CEA elevation (66.7%). Normalization of tumor markers was observed more often in the SCC Ag elevation group than in the CEA elevation group (p=0.0429). PET/CT showed high negative predictive value and sensitivity in the restaging of cervical cancer with unexplained tumor marker elevation. PET/CT was more accurate in patients with SCC Ag elevation than in those with CEA elevation.
doi:10.4068/cmj.2013.49.1.20
PMCID: PMC3651982  PMID: 23678473
Fluorodeoxyglucose F18; Positron-emission tomography and computed tomography; Recurrence
19.  Impact of Physician's Education on Adherence to Tuberculosis Treatment for Patients of Low Socioeconomic Status in Bangladesh 
Chonnam Medical Journal  2013;49(1):27-30.
Successful tuberculosis control depends on good adherence to treatment. Yet, limited data are available on the efficacy of methods for improving the adherence of patients of low socioeconomic status. We evaluated the impact of physician-provided patient education on adherence to anti-tuberculosis medication in a low socioeconomic status and resource-limited setting. A pre-/post-intervention study was conducted at a suburban primary health care clinic in Bangladesh where an intensive education strategy was established in May 2006. Treatment outcomes of tuberculosis patients from March 2005 to April 2006 (pre-intervention) and from May 2006 to December 2007 (post-intervention) were compared. Among 354 patients, 198 (56%) were treated before intervention and 156 (44%) were treated after intervention. Cumulative adherence to anti-tuberculosis medication was significantly greater in the intervention group than in the control group in univariate and multivariate analyses. Physician's education can contribute to increasing the adherence of patients in resource-limited settings.
doi:10.4068/cmj.2013.49.1.27
PMCID: PMC3651983  PMID: 23678474
Tuberculosis; Education; Socioeconomic factors
20.  Rosuvastatin Does Not Affect Fasting Glucose, Insulin Resistance, or Adiponectin in Patients with Mild to Moderate Hypertension 
Chonnam Medical Journal  2013;49(1):31-37.
The effects of statins on insulin resistance and new-onset diabetes are unclear. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of rosuvastatin on insulin resistance and adiponectin in patients with mild to moderate hypertension. In a randomized, prospective, single-blind study, 53 hypertensive patients were randomly assigned to the control group (n=26) or the rosuvastatin (20 mg once daily) group (n=27) during an 8-week treatment period. Both groups showed significant improvements in systolic blood pressure and flow-mediated dilation (FMD) after 8 weeks of treatment. Rosuvastatin treatment improved total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol, and triglyceride levels. The control and rosuvastatin treatment groups did not differ significantly in the change in HbA1c (3.0±10.1% vs. -1.3±12.7%; p=0.33), fasting glucose (-1.3±18.0% vs. 2.5±24.1%; p=0.69), or fasting insulin levels (5.2±70.5% vs. 22.6±133.2%; p=0.27) from baseline. Furthermore, the control and rosuvastatin treatment groups did not differ significantly in the change in the QUICKI insulin sensitivity index (mean change, 2.2±11.6% vs. 3.6±11.9%; p=0.64) or the HOMA index (11.6±94.9% vs. 32.4±176.7%; p=0.44). The plasma adiponectin level increased significantly in the rosuvastatin treatment group (p=0.046), but did not differ significantly from that in the control group (mean change, 23.2±28.4% vs. 23.1±27.6%; p=0.36). Eight weeks of rosuvastatin (20 mg) therapy resulted in no significant improvement or deterioration in fasting glucose levels, insulin resistance, or adiponectin levels in patients with mild to moderate hypertension.
doi:10.4068/cmj.2013.49.1.31
PMCID: PMC3651984  PMID: 23678475
Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA reductase inhibitors; Insulin resistance; Adiponectin; Blood glucose
21.  Changes in 18F-Fluorodeoxyglucose Uptake in the Spinal Cord in a Healthy Population on Serial Positron Emission Tomography/Computed Tomography 
Chonnam Medical Journal  2013;49(1):38-42.
We aimed to determine the changes in 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) uptake in the spinal cord on two serial positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) scans in a healthy population. We retrospectively enrolled healthy people who underwent PET/CT twice for cancer screening. We excluded those who had degenerative vertebral disease, neurologic disease, or a history of a vertebral operation. The standardized uptake value (SUVmax) of the spinal cord of each mid-vertebral body was obtained by drawing a region of interest on an axial image of PET/CT. For analysis, the cord-to-background ratio (CTB) was used (CTB=SUVmax of each level/SUVmax of L5 level). Differences in pattern, sex, age, and intervals of the two serial PET/CT scans were analyzed. A total of 60 PET/CT images of 30 people were analyzed. The mean interval between the two PET/CT imaging studies was 2.80±0.94 years. On the follow-up PET/CT, significant change was shown only at the level of the C6 and T10 vertebrae (p<0.005). Mean CTB showed a decreasing pattern from cervical to lumbar vertebrae. There were two peaks at the lower cervical level (C4-6) and at the lower thoracic level (T12). Neither sex nor age significantly affected CTB. The FDG uptake of the spinal cord changed significantly on follow-up PET/CT only at the level of the C6 and T10 vertebrae. This finding is valuable as a baseline reference in the follow-up of metabolic changes in the spinal cord.
doi:10.4068/cmj.2013.49.1.38
PMCID: PMC3651985  PMID: 23678476
Spinal cord; Fluorodeoxyglucose F18; Positron-emission tomography and computed tomography
22.  Laparoscopic Management of Complicated Urachal Remnants 
Chonnam Medical Journal  2013;49(1):43-47.
Managing persistent and symptomatic urachal anomalies requires wide surgical excision of all anomalous tissue with a cuff of bladder tissue via the open approach. We report 7 cases with complete laparoscopic removal of symptomatic urachal remnants with or without a cuff of bladder tissue. We expected that this technique would be less invasive and have lower morbidity. We report on the feasibility of this approach, including efficacy and outcomes. Eight patients with a mean age of 36.5 years who had symptomatic urachal diseases underwent laparoscopic excision between July 2004 and July 2012. With the use of four ports, the urachal remnant was dissected transperitoneally and then removed via the umbilicus port. The clinical results of laparoscopic urachal remnant excision as a minimally invasive surgery, the perioperative records, and pathologic results were evaluated. There were no intraoperative or postoperative complications. Mean surgery time was 2.7 hours. Mean hospital stay was 14.6 days. The patients with bladder cuff resection had a long admission and Foley catheterization period (mean, 14.4 and 11 days). Pathological evaluations were 6 cases of infected urachal cysts, 1 case of infected urachal sinus, and 1 case of urachal adenocarcinoma. We found no postoperative complications including any symptom recurrence or voiding difficulty during a mean follow-up of 46.3 months. The perioperative surgical outcomes achieved infection control and symptomatic relief and additionally good cosmesis. Complete laparoscopic removal of symptomatic urachal remnants with or without a cuff of bladder tissue seems to be a safe, effective, and better cosmetic alternative with the advantages of a minimally invasive approach.
doi:10.4068/cmj.2013.49.1.43
PMCID: PMC3651986  PMID: 23678477
Laparoscopy; Urachal cyst; Surgical procedures, minimally invasive
23.  Gross Hematuria Associated with Genitourinary Tuberculosis 
Chonnam Medical Journal  2013;49(1):48-49.
A 27-year-old man presented to the emergency department with sudden onset of massive gross hematuria and urinary retention. Contrast-enhanced computed tomography imaging showed uneven, dilated calices and a narrowing of the renal pelvis in the left kidney; in addition, a large hematoma was noted in the urinary bladder. An emergency cystoscopy was performed following detection of the hematoma and blood clots were removed. A lesional biopsy, a tuberculosis (TB) culture, and urine cytology showed positive results for Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The clinical manifestations of genitourinary tuberculosis are nonspecific and are usually detected at a chronic stage. In conclusion, we report an unusual cause of acute kidney injury associated with a subacute stage of genitourinary tuberculosis that caused mucosal erosion and bleeding in the bladder.
doi:10.4068/cmj.2013.49.1.48
PMCID: PMC3651987  PMID: 23678478
Tuberculosis; Acute kidney injury; Hematuria
24.  Successfully Treated Femoral Artery Thrombosis in a Patient with Minimal Change Nephrotic Syndrome 
Chonnam Medical Journal  2013;49(1):50-53.
In contrast to widely recognized venous thrombotic complications, peripheral arterial thrombosis as a complication of nephrotic syndrome, especially without preceding iatrogenic venous puncture, corticosteroid treatment, or coagulation factor abnormalities, has rarely been reported in adult female patients. We report the case of a 39-year-old woman who presented with pain in the right lower leg accompanied by minimal change nephrotic syndrome. Lower-extremity angiography showed total occlusion of the right superficial femoral artery. Thrombectomy was performed with a balloon catheter, and the thrombi were successfully aspirated. Our experience indicates that even if few traditional risk factors for atherosclerosis are identified, a high index of suspicion and aggressive treatment of arterial thrombosis in adult nephrotic syndrome are crucial to minimize serious ischemic injuries.
doi:10.4068/cmj.2013.49.1.50
PMCID: PMC3651988  PMID: 23678479
Nephrotic syndrome; Nephrosis, lipoid; Peripheral arterial disease
25.  Mechanical and Histopathological Comparison between Commercialized and Newly Designed Coronary Bare Metal Stents in a Porcine Coronary Restenosis Model 
Chonnam Medical Journal  2013;49(1):7-13.
The aim of this study was to compare the stent designed by Chonnam National University Hospital (designated as CNUH) with commercial cobalt-chromium coronary stent in a porcine coronary overstretch restenosis model. CNUH stent was subjected to mechanical performance tests. Pigs were randomized into two groups in which the coronary arteries (10 pigs, 10 coronaries in each group) had either CNUH stent or control commercial bare metal stent. Histopathologic analysis was assessed at 28 days after stenting. In mechanical performance tests, CNUH stent showed 2.65N, 35.1N, 0.52N, 1.94%, 4.29% in the flat plate radial compression, radial force, 3 point bending, Foreshortening and recoil test, respectively. There was no significant difference in the injury score, internal elastic lamina (IEL), lumen area, neointima area, percent area stenosis, inflammation score and fibrin score between the two groups (1.2±0.35, 4.1±0.41 mm2, 2.7±0.56 mm2, 1.6±0.47 mm2, 36.7±11.2%, 1.2±0.62, 0.2±0.34 in CNUH stent group vs. 1.2±0.38, 3.7±0.64 mm2, 2.5±0.49 mm2, 1.5±0.61 mm2, 36.3±12.17%, 1.1±0.12, 0.4±0.46 in commercial stent group, respectively). In the mechanical performance test, CNUH stent showed the moderated performance under the guideline of FDA. CNUH stent demonstrated similar histological reactions compared with commercial cobalt-chromium stent in a porcine coronary overstretch restenosis model.
doi:10.4068/cmj.2013.49.1.7
PMCID: PMC3651989  PMID: 23678471
Stents; Percutaneous coronary intervention; Coronary restenosis; Inflammation

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