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issn:2229-774
1.  Forensic Investigation of mass disasters in Nigeria: A review 
This paper is to establish the present state of things in the country in terms of legal framework and the availability of personnel with a view to presenting an overview of proper mass disaster investigations. This is a retrospective review of mass disasters in Nigeria that occurred within the last 20 years. The study therefore reviews the state of the forensic investigation of the mass disasters as well as the efforts made to identify the victims of the disaster. The process of proper forensic investigation from the stage of evaluation of the scene and recovery process to the final identification of victims are presented to serve as a protocol for the country. The assessment of the present state of preparedness in Nigeria is also examined with a view to improving the practice to international standards. Data were retrieved from official documents from the aviation industry as well as Nigeria news reports. The standard protocols for disaster victim identification were retrieved from the guide released by the INTERPOL. The state of preparedness of the country and recommendations for improvement are presented. The Federal government and the states of the federation should without further delay put in place the process of reviewing the law of Coroner's system and provide the enabling environment for the proper forensic investigation. The training curriculum of the first responders should incorporate mass disaster investigations in order to produce efficient officers and personnel. A functional disaster victim identification (DVI) team is strongly advocated to incorporate different professionals involved in mass disaster management.
doi:10.4103/0300-1652.149162
PMCID: PMC4314852  PMID: 25657485
Forensic investigation; identification; mass disaster
2.  Surgical management of recalcitrant peripheral bronchopleural fistula with empyema: A preliminary experience 
Background:
Peripheral bronchopleural fistula (BPF) and empyema from necrotising infections of the lung and pleural is difficult to treat resulting in increased morbidity and mortality rates. The aim of this study was to show the effectiveness of the Latissimus Dorsi muscle (LDM) flap and patch closure techniques in the management of recalcitrant peripheral BPFs with the aid of thoracotomy.
Materials and Methods:
Five patients with BPF and empyema out of 26 patients who were initially treated for empyema thoracis by single or multiple chest tube insertions and/or ultrasound-guided drainage were prospectively identified and followed up for 2 years, postoperatively. The postoperative hospital stay, dyspnoea score, function of the ipsilateral upper limb and any deformity of chest wall were assessed at follow-up visits by asking relevant questions.
Results:
The mean age was 46.8 years (23-69 years) (4 males and 1 female). The cause of the BPF in 18 patients was Mycobacterium tuberculosis and 8 was pneumonia. The mean total months of the chest tube insertions was 1.5 months (range 2.5-6 months) prior to the thoracotomy and closure of fistula procedures performed on the 5 patients (with LDM flap in 4 patients and pleural patch in 1 patient). The complications recorded were: subcutaneous emphysema, residual pus and haemothorax in three patients. The mean postoperative hospital stay was 20.8 days (13-28 days);There was improved dyspnoea score to 1 or 2 in the 5 (19.2%) patients. There was no recurrence of BPF or residual pus in all the patients; no loss of function or deformity of the chest wall.
Conclusion:
The use of LDM Flap was effective in treating peripheral BFP without any adverse long-term outcome.
doi:10.4103/0300-1652.149164
PMCID: PMC4314853  PMID: 25657487
Latissimus dorsi muscle flap; peripheral bronchopleural fistula; recalcitrant
3.  Efficacy of measuring procalcitonin levels in determination of prognosis and early diagnosis of bacterial resistance in sepsis 
Background:
Rapid and proper diagnosis of sepsis is one of the daily challenges of emergency department (ED) and intensive care units. The general aim of the present study was to determine the efficacy of measuring procalcitonin levels in the early diagnosis of bacterial resistance to antibiotics administered empirically in patients with sepsis.
Materials and Methods:
The present cross-sectional study consisted of patients with clinical evidence of sepsis or systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS), referring to the ED of a third-level hospital in Tehran, Iran in 2012. After collection of basic and clinical data of patients, venous blood samples were taken for routine laboratory tests and determination of procalcitonin serum levels at baseline and 6 and 24 hours after administration of the first dose of an empirical antibiotic. The subjects were divided into two groups of discharged and expired and then comparisons were made using t-test, Chi-squared test and Fisher's test. Specificity and sensitivity of procalcitonin were evaluated along with ROC curve.
Results:
In the present study, 170 patients with sepsis were included. Evaluation of serum levels of procalcitonin 24 hours after administration of antibiotics exhibited the best sensitivity and specificity for each patient's response to antibiotics. Use of the cutoff point of 6.5 mg/mL for procalcitonin can predict the disease outcome with sensitivity and specificity of 67% and 80%, respectively.
Conclusion:
It is suggested that procalcitonin be used for the diagnosis of sepsis or SIRS resulting from an infectious disease, for follow-up of treatment and for evaluation of response to treatment.
doi:10.4103/0300-1652.149165
PMCID: PMC4314854  PMID: 25657488
Procalcitonin; sensitivity; sepsis; specificity
4.  Knowledge and perception of human papilloma virus vaccine among the antenatal women in a Nigerian tertiary hospital 
Background:
Cervical cancer is a major health problem globally, especially in sub-Saharan Africa, Nigeria inclusive. One of the preventive measures is the vaccination of teenagers against oncogenic human papilloma virus. The aim of this study was to find out the level of knowledge mothers possess about these vaccines and their willingness to administer vaccination to their teenage girls.
Materials and Methods:
This was a cross-sectional descriptive study of 255 consecutive women attending antenatal clinic at the University of Abuja Teaching Hospital, Abuja. They were given either a self-administered questionnaire or interviewer-administered questionnaire containing both closed and open-ended questions. Information recorded includes socio-demographic variables, knowledge of cervical cancer, knowledge of HPV/HPV vaccines and acceptance of these vaccines for their adolescent girls. The data was analysed using descriptive statistics.
Results:
The mean age of the respondents was 26.9 years. Over 90% had at least secondary education. A total of 102 (40%) had the knowledge of cancer of the cervix while 153 (60%) had never heard about it. Overall, 236 (92.5%) of them had no idea about the predisposing factors. The study showed that only 23 (9.0%) out of the total respondents had heard about human papilloma virus (HPV) infection. In the same vein, 20 (7.8%) had knowledge about HPV vaccine. Among the respondents, who had the knowledge of HPV and vaccination, 18.2% and 23.4% of them had secondary and tertiary levels of education respectively. Overall, 160 (62.8%) accepted that the vaccines could be administered to their teenage girls.
Conclusions:
Awareness of cervical cancer, HPV infections, and HPV vaccines is low among antenatal clinic attendees in Gwagwalada, Abuja. However, majority of them would want their girls vaccinated against HPV infections. There is a need for all stakeholders to step up awareness creation for improved HPV vaccination project in Nigeria.
doi:10.4103/0300-1652.149166
PMCID: PMC4314855  PMID: 25657489
Antenatal clinic attendees; awareness; cancer; cervical cancer; cervix; HPV infections; vaccines
5.  Cervical cancer screening in women referred to healthcare centres in Tabriz, Iran 
Background:
Cervical cancer is the second most common cancer among Iranian women and among the few cancers that could be easily diagnosed in the pre-malignant stage. We aimed to assess the status of cervical cancer screening in women referred to health care centres in Tabriz, northwest Iran.
Materials and Methods:
This descriptive-analytical study was done on 441 women referred to health care centres of Tabriz, northwest Iran. The centres were selected using the multi-stage cluster sampling method. The participants were selected from the active records of those centres. A questionnaire regarding the socio-demographic characteristics and cervical cancer screening and reasons for referring or not referring for screening was completed by the participants A P < 0.05 was considered as significant.
Results:
Out of the participants 49.4% of women had done the Pap smear test while 50.6% had never done this test. The main reason why women had not performed cervical cancer screening was being unaware of the importance of it (46.1%). Logistic regression analysis with adjustment showed a significant relationship between screening and awareness scores (OR = 1.17, CI = 95%:1.12-1.23), when the effect of other confounding factors [total awareness scores, risk factors (marriage or having sexual intercourse at a young age, history of obvious cervical infection, cautery, cryotherapy or repeated curettage), age and type of family planning] in screening was controlled.
Conclusion:
Suitable and continuous educational programmes especially for high risk women should be implemented through the health care services. Preparing educational brochures and pamphlets and providing adequate training on the necessity of early referral and marriage counseling could also be effective in improving woman's awareness and performance.
doi:10.4103/0300-1652.149167
PMCID: PMC4314856  PMID: 25657490
Cervical cancer; Pap smear; performance
6.  Comparing the results of Pap smear and Direct Visual Inspection (DVI) with 5% acetic acid in cervical cancer screening 
Background:
Cervical cancer is the most second common cancer among Iranian women. This study was carried out to compare the results of Pap smear method and Direct Visual Inspection (DVI) with 5% acetic acid in cervical cancer screening in Tabriz, Iran.
Material and Methods:
This cross-sectional study was carried out in Alzahra Therapeutic-Educational Centre, Tabriz, Iran in 2013 on 1000 women. First, Pap smear was done for all women, and then the cervix exposed with 5% acetic acid by cotton swab for 30 seconds and observed under adequate light. At the end, women with abnormal results in Pap smear or DVI method were referred to colposcopy and biopsy. Test's sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), and negative predictive value (NPV), LR+, LR- and confidence interval (CI) were determined (P < 0.05).
Results:
Nine-hundred and seventy-four (94.7%) cases were normal and had no abnormal findings and 26 (2.6%) participants had positive results in Pap smear or DVI test. Twelve women had abnormal Pap smear (nine women with atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance, ASCUS, three women with dysplasia, atypical endocervical, and low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion, LSIL results) and 14 women had positive DVI (four women with human papillomavirus, HPV or koilocyte,) and one women with abnormality in both method had carcinoma in biopsy that referred to oncologist. In this study the sensitivity, specificity, PPV and NPV for DVI were 71.4%, 50%, 35.7%, and 81.8% respectively in comparison with 14.3%, 50%, 10%, and 60% for Pap smear.
Conclusion:
As the DVI method has higher sensitivity and positive predictive value than Pap smear, it could be used as a useful method beside the Pap smear.
doi:10.4103/0300-1652.149168
PMCID: PMC4314857  PMID: 25657491
Cervical cancer; direct visual inspection; Pap smear
7.  Serum level of copper in patients with coronary artery disease 
Background:
Atherosclerotic disease is the most important cause of mortality in the world. Oxidation is an important pathway in the pathogenesis of coronary artery disease (CAD) through oxidation of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and free radical formation. Copper (Cu) is an essential micronutrient for enzymes that catalyse LDL oxidation reactions. Therefore, an evaluation of Cu in the atherosclerotic disease is important.
Materials and Methods:
In this study, 334 subjects without recent cardiac event and history of collagen vascular or infectious disease were investigated. All patients divided into four groups to evaluate severity of CAD according to Syntax scoring system. All groups were matched in cardiovascular risk factors.
Results:
The serum level of Cu was significantly higher in total atherosclerotic groups than normal group (P value = 0.001) and significantly increased with severity of atherosclerosis.
Conclusion:
The finding indicated that the serum level of Cu is higher in atherosclerotic patients and it increases with severity of atherosclerosis. Therefore, it may be possible that the basic relationship exist between serum Cu level and atherosclerosis and an association between Cu level and severity of atherosclerosis.
doi:10.4103/0300-1652.149169
PMCID: PMC4314858  PMID: 25657492
Atherosclerotic disease; copper; syntax score
8.  Factors associated with antiretroviral treatment interruption in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1-infected children attending the Jos University Teaching Hospital, Jos, Nigeria 
Background:
Interrupting anti-retroviral therapy (ART) for any number of reasons is an indication of a compromised adherence to ART. Several factors, including the pill burden from other drugs used in treating co-infections in children with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), may influence ART adherence. The aim of this study was to identify the factors associated with ART interruption in HIV-1-infected children.
Materials and Methods:
A retrospective cohort study analysing data on 580 children consecutively enrolled on ART between February 2006 and December 2010 at the paediatric HIV clinic of Jos University Teaching Hospital (JUTH), Jos. Subjects were children aged 2 months — 15 years diagnosed with HIV-1 infection and on first-line ART. Cotrimoxazole prophylaxis was usually commenced at diagnosis while awaiting ART commencement. Children diagnosed with tuberculosis (TB) were also placed on multiple individual anti-TB drugs.
Statistical analysis used:
A comparison of the data on children with and without ART interruption was made. Variables associated with ART interruption in a univariate analysis were fit in a multivariate logistic model to determine the factors that were associated with ART interruption.
Results:
Children on anti-TB drugs were twice more likely to interrupt ART compared to those who were not, (adjusted odds ratio, AOR = 1.84 (1.03-3.28); P = 0.04). But children on cotrimoxazole prophylaxis had a 57% reduction in the odds of interrupting ART compared to those who were not, (AOR = 0.43 (0.20-0.93); P = 0.03).
Conclusion:
Children on ART and also taking multiple individual anti-TB drugs should be monitored closely for ART adherence. Cotrimoxazole prophylaxis should be encouraged in children diagnosed with HIV while awaiting ART commencement as this may prime them for a better ART adherence.
doi:10.4103/0300-1652.149170
PMCID: PMC4314859  PMID: 25657493
ART interruption; anti-TB drugs; ART adherence; cotrimoxazole prophylaxis; HIV-1; Pill burden
9.  Clinical and radiographic evaluation of biodegradable bone plates in the treatment of mandibular body fractures 
Background:
Many different systems are available for the treatment of fractures ranging from the heavy compression plates for mandibular reconstruction to low profile plates for mid-facial fixation, and are made either from stainless steel, titanium or vitallium. Recently, biodegradable, self-reinforced polylactide plates and screws have been used for the internal fixation of fractures of the mandible with good results.
Aim of this study:
This study evaluated clinically the biodegradable bone plates for treatment of mandibular body fracture and to evaluate bone healing during the follow-up period using digital radiography.
Materials and Methods:
Eight patients had been suffered from mandibular body fractures were treated using Inion CPSTM bioresorbable fixation system and the healing process were followed up using digitised panoramic radiography at first week and after 1, 3 and 6 months.
Results:
Clinical examination of fractured segments revealed stable fixation across the fracture sites while visual and quantitative assessment of radiograph showed healing process was comparable with results previously reported by titanium bone plates.
Conclusion:
Open reduction and internal fixation of mandibular fractures using bioresorbable fixation system with a brief period of inter-maxillary fixation have evolved to the point where the physical properties are sufficient to withstand the post-operative loads required for fracture repair of mandibular body fractures. The foreign body reaction is a major material-related problem which requires further studies.
doi:10.4103/0300-1652.149171
PMCID: PMC4314860  PMID: 25657494
Biodegradable bone plates; mandibular body; fractures
10.  Application of sigma metrics for the assessment of quality control in clinical chemistry laboratory in Ghana: A pilot study 
Background:
Sigma metrics provide a uniquely defined scale with which we can assess the performance of a laboratory. The objective of this study was to assess the internal quality control (QC) in the clinical chemistry laboratory of the University of Cape Cost Hospital (UCC) using the six sigma metrics application.
Materials and Methods:
We used commercial control serum [normal (L1) and pathological (L2)] for validation of quality control. Metabolites (glucose, urea, and creatinine), lipids [triglycerides (TG), total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C)], enzymes [alkaline phosphatase (ALP), alanine aminotransferase (AST)], electrolytes (sodium, potassium, chloride) and total protein were assessed. Between-day imprecision (CVs), inaccuracy (Bias) and sigma values were calculated for each control level.
Results:
Apart from sodium (2.40%, 3.83%), chloride (2.52% and 2.51%) for both L1 and L2 respectively, and glucose (4.82%), cholesterol (4.86%) for L2, CVs for all other parameters (both L1 and L2) were >5%. Four parameters (HDL-C, urea, creatinine and potassium) achieved sigma levels >1 for both controls. Chloride and sodium achieved sigma levels >1 for L1 but <1 for L2. In contrast, cholesterol, total protein and AST achieved sigma levels <1 for L1 but >1 for L2. Glucose and ALP achieved a sigma level >1 for both control levels whereas TG achieved a sigma level >2 for both control levels.
Conclusion:
Unsatisfactory sigma levels (<3) where achieved for all parameters using both control levels, this shows instability and low consistency of results. There is the need for detailed assessment of the analytical procedures and the strengthening of the laboratory control systems in order to achieve effective six sigma levels for the laboratory.
doi:10.4103/0300-1652.149172
PMCID: PMC4314861  PMID: 25657495
Imprecision; inaccuracy; quality control; six sigma
11.  Freedom from atrial fibrillation after cox maze III ablation during follow-up 
Background:
Nearly 60% of patients undergoing mitral valve (MV) operations are affected by atrial fibrillation (AF). Cox Maze III ablation is one of the effective ways for restoring sinus rhythm for patients undergoing open heart surgery. The aim of present study was to evaluate efficacy of Maze III ablation procedure for restoring sinus rhythm among patients who had underwent open heart surgery.
Materials and Methods:
During present descriptive-analytic prospective study 114 patients with chronic AF had undergone open heart surgery for their valvular or coronary artery diseases in Educational-Medical centres of Tabriz University of Medical Sciences (Tabriz, Iran) 2006-2012, were included in the study. For all patients Maze III ablation was done. Patients were evaluated by 12 lead electrocardiography (ECG) and 24 hours ambulatory ECG monitoring after 3-6 years (mean 4.8) of follow-up.
Result:
Patients' rhythm before Cox Maze III surgery was chronic AF in all patients. All patients were discharged from operating room with sinus rhythm. During intensive care unit (ICU) hospitalization, rhythm of 34 patients changed to AF and 80 patients had sinus rhythm. Sixteen patients had undergone electrical cardioversion for restoring sinus rhythm which was successful in 12 patients. Ninety-two patients had sinus rhythm when discharged from the hospital. After termination of follow-up, freedom from atrial fibrillation was 51%. Patients with AF during follow-up on surface ECG didn't have episodes of sinus rhythm in their ambulatory monitoring. One patient implanted cardiac pacemaker due to persistent sinus bradycardia.
Conclusion:
Based on the results of this study, Cox Maze III ablation procedure is an effective and safe way for restoring sinus rhythm among patients who are candidate for open heart surgery, while no significant complication was seen among patients.
doi:10.4103/0300-1652.149173
PMCID: PMC4314862  PMID: 25657496
Atrial fibrillation; mitral valve; maze ablation; open heart surgery
12.  Autopsy study of febrile deaths during monsoon at a tertiary care institute in India: Is malaria still a challenge? 
Background:
To utilise an autopsy-based approach to study the febrile deaths and deaths due to malaria during monsoon period of three years at a tertiary care teaching hospital in Mumbai, India.
Materials and Methods:
All autopsies done at the hospital during monsoon period from 2005 to 2007 when fever was the main presenting symptom were included in the study. Monsoon period was defined from June to September. A study on the duration of hospital stay of malaria deaths was also attempted.
Results:
There were 202 autopsies of febrile illness during the study period. Malaria resulted in 20.8% of the deaths besides other causes. A majority of deaths had intrapulmonary haemorrhages as the only pathological finding. Incidence of malaria deaths was more during monsoon period than the non-monsoon period. Plasmodium falciparum was the most common species responsible for malaria deaths while cerebral malaria was the most common mode of death. In 27% of the cases, post-mortem examination helped to arrive at the correct final diagnosis. In 88.1% of the cases, malaria deaths occurred within the first 24 hours of admission to the hospital.
Conclusion:
The study reiterates the fact that malaria remains a preventable but major cause of death in India, predominantly during the monsoon period. The study also emphasises the importance of developing treatment protocols for malaria during such crucial times besides reinforcing the existing preventive measures.
doi:10.4103/0300-1652.149163
PMCID: PMC4314863  PMID: 25657486
Autopsy; cerebral malaria; death; fever; malaria; monsoon rains
13.  Early result of hemiarthroplasty in elderly patients with fracture neck of femur 
Background:
Fractured neck of femur is a frequent and severe injury in elderly patients with consequent high morbidity and mortality. Hemiarthroplasty is an established treatment modality for displaced intracapsular femoral neck fractures in elderly patients above 60 years. This study analysed the early functional outcome and complications of Austin Moore endoprosthesis in elderly patients above 60 years with fractured neck of femur.
Materials and Methods:
Retrospective data were obtained over a 5 year period from January 2007 to December 2012. Thirty-five elderly patients of 60 years and above with displaced intracapsular fracture neck of femur treated with hemiarthroplasty using Austin Moore endoprosthesis were included. Data were analysed using SPSS version 21.
Results:
A total of 35 patients were involved. The age-range was 60-90 years with mean age of 69.7 ± 7 years. The predominant mechanism of injury was trivial falls in 18 (66.7%) patients. The commonest complication was pressure sore in 2 (5.7%) patients, followed by surgical site infection in 1 (2.9%) patient and periprosthetic fracture in 1 (2.9%) patients. Early post-operative mortality was 2.9%. Post-operative hip functional status according to Postel and Merle d Aubigne revealed that majority (66.6%) of patients had satisfactory hip function.
Conclusion:
Functional outcome of Austin Moore in elderly patients above 60 years with fracture neck of femur was satisfactory in most of the cases with minimal morbidity. Careful patient selection for hemiarthroplasty is vital and may decrease the incidence of complications and ameliorate the outcomes in the treatment of intracapsular femoral neck fractures.
doi:10.4103/0300-1652.149174
PMCID: PMC4314864  PMID: 25657497
Austin Moore prosthesis; fracture neck femur; hemiarthroplasty
14.  Bee sting envenomation resulting in gross haematuria in an eight-year-old Nigerian male with sickle cell anaemia: A case report 
Gross haematuria is an unusual complication of Honey bee stings. Herein, we report a rare case of gross haematuria following multiple honeybees stings in an 8-year-old Nigerian child with sickle cell anaemia. The patient had evidence of massive intravascular haemolysis and was transfused with a unit of fresh whole blood. However, he died within 36 hours on admission despite medical intervention.
doi:10.4103/0300-1652.149175
PMCID: PMC4314865  PMID: 25657498
Envenomation; gross haematuria; honeybees; sickle cell anaemia
15.  Leiomyoma of the thyroid gland with psammoma bodies 
We report a rare case of leiomyoma of the thyroid gland associated with psammoma bodies. The patient was a 9-year-old black African boy. Prior to this, only five cases of primary thyroid leiomyoma have been reported. Histologically, thyroid leiomyoma was characterised by bundles of spindle smooth muscle cells with blunt-ended nuclei. Psammoma bodies were widely distributed within the tumour. Immunohistochemistry showed positive immunoreactivity for smooth muscle actin, vimentin and desmin, but was negative for a cytokeratin cocktail. Further reports of similar cases is required to ascertain the clinical significance of this lesion.
doi:10.4103/0300-1652.149176
PMCID: PMC4314866  PMID: 25657499
Leiomyoma; psammoma bodies; smooth muscle tumours; thyroid
16.  Coexistence of JAK2 and BCR-ABL mutation in patient with myeloproliferative neoplasm 
The World Health Organisation (WHO) classifies myeloproliferative neoplasm (MPN) into BCR-ABL positive chronic myeloid leukaemia (CML Ph+) and Ph− MPN. The JAK2 V617F mutation is specific for Ph− MPN and occurs in approximately 50% of primary myelofibrosis. Earlier reports suggest that the occurrence of JAK2 and BCR-ABL mutations are mutually exclusive. However, recent reports have documented the coexistence of BCR-ABL and JAK2 mutation in the same patient mostly following treatment with tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs). We thus report a 60-year-old male with atypical clinical and laboratory features of MPN and the presence of both BCR-ABL and JAK2 Mutations.
doi:10.4103/0300-1652.149177
PMCID: PMC4314867  PMID: 25657500
BCR-ABL; CML; JAK2; mutation; myelofibrosis
17.  Maxillary tumour as first sign of endocrine abnormality: A report of a rare case 
Brown tumour is a non-neoplastic giant cell lesion resulting as a complication of hyperparathyroidism (HPT). HPT usually results from increased secretion of parathyroid hormone (PTH). We present a rare case of brown tumour of anterior maxilla presenting as a first sign of previously undiagnosed secondary HPT, to emphasise that giant cell lesions of jaw bones should routinely be screened for PTH levels to rule out underlying endocrine abnormalities and oral manifestation is the earliest manifestation of many systemic diseases and careful evaluation of oral cavity by physician gives information to underlying systemic pathology.
doi:10.4103/0300-1652.149178
PMCID: PMC4314868  PMID: 25657501
Brown tumour; maxillary tumour; parathyroid hormone; secondary hyperparathyroidism
18.  Surgical management of acromegaly in a resource-challenged environment 
The management of acromegaly caused by an uncommon growth hormone-secreting pituitary adenoma can be challenging in low-resource African subregion. We conducted a study over a 2-year period to describe the results and challenges following surgical treatment of this rare condition in our centre. The clinical outcome was defined as successful based on the surgeon's intraoperative observation, postoperative neuroimaging findings and neuroendocrinological results. A total of three patients (two males and one female) aged 19-32 years were included. Visual impairment was the main presenting symptom in all the three patients. The postoperative period was uneventful. Acromegaly is an uncommon disorder in our region. Surgery is the treatment of choice in low-resource practice.
doi:10.4103/0300-1652.149181
PMCID: PMC4314869  PMID: 25657502
Acromegaly; growth hormone-secreting pituitary adenoma; insulin-like growth factor-I; pterional craniotomy
19.  The surgical waiting time initiative: A review of the Nigerian situation 
SUMMARY
The concept of surgical waiting time initiative (SWAT) was introduced in developed countries to reduce elective surgery waiting lists and increase efficiency of care. It was supplemented by increasing popularity of day surgery, which shortens elective waiting lists and minimises cancellations. It is established in Western countries, but not in developing countries like Nigeria where it is still evolving. A search was carried out in Pub Med, Google, African journals online (AJOL), Athens and Ovid for relevant publications on elective surgery waiting list in Nigeria, published in English language. Words include waiting/wait time, waiting time initiative, time to surgery, waiting for operations, waiting for intervention, waiting for procedures and time before surgery in Nigeria. A total of 37 articles published from Nigeria in relation to various waiting times were found from the search and fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Among them, 11 publications (29.7%) were related to emergency surgery waiting times, 10 (27%) were related to clinic waiting times, 9 (24.3%) were related to day case surgery, 2 (5.5%) were related to investigation waiting times and only 5 (13.5%) articles were specifically published on elective surgery waiting times. A total of 9 articles (24.5%) were published from obstetrics and gynaecology (OG), 7 (19%) from general surgery, 5 (13.5%) from public health, 3 (8%) from orthopaedics, 3 (8%) from general practice (GP), 3 (8%) from paediatrics/paediatric surgery, 2 (5.5%) from ophthalmology, 1 (2.7%) from ear, nose and throat (ENT), 1 (2.7%) from plastic surgery, 1 (2.7%) from urology and only 1 (2.7%) article was published from dental/maxillofacial surgery. Waiting times mean different things to different health practitioners in Nigeria. There were only 5/37 articles (13.5%) specifically related to elective surgery waiting times in Nigerian hospitals, which show that the concept of the SWAT is still evolving in Nigeria. Of the 37, 11 (24.5%) publications were from obstetrics and gynaecology (O & G) alone, but these were mostly related to emergency antenatal care rather than surgery. Therefore, more research and initiative needs to be undertaken from all the surgical sub-specialties in order to disseminate this concept of SWAT towards early diagnosis and treatment of elective life-threatening conditions, as well as effective patient care. Adopting this concept will help healthcare managers and policy makers to stream line and ring face resources to cater for non-urgent or semi-urgent cases presenting to our hospitals in Nigeria.
doi:10.4103/0300-1652.144692
PMCID: PMC4262837  PMID: 25538359
Cancellations; day surgery; elective surgery; ring-fencing; SWAT; waiting list; waiting time
20.  Motorcycle-related injuries at a university teaching hospital in north central Nigeria 
Background:
Motorcycle-related injuries lead to considerable morbidity and mortality. The aim of this study is to determine the pattern and outcome of motorcycle-related injuries at Benue State University Teaching Hospital, Makurdi, Nigeria.
Patients and Methods:
Case records of all patients who presented to the accident and emergency department with motorcycle-related injuries between July 2012 and June 2013 were analysed for age, gender, injury host status (i.e. rider, pillion or pedestrian), nature of collision (motorcycle versus other vehicles, motorcycle versus motorcycle, motorcycle versus pedestrian or lone riders), body region injured, injury severity score (ISS) at arrival, length of hospital stay (LOS) and mortality.
Results:
Seventy - nine patients with motorcycle-related injuries were included in the study. They consisted of 63 males (61.8%) and 16 females (15.7%). The age range was 5-65 years with a mean of 32.4 ± 14.0. Motorcycle versus vehicle collisions were the most common mechanism of injury (n = 46, 58.2%). Musculoskeletal injuries constituted the most common injuries sustained (n = 50, 47.6%) and the tibia was the most frequently fractured bone (n = 14, 35.9%). The majority of patients (57.0%) sustained mild/moderate injuries (ISS ≤ 15). There was no statistically significant difference between the sexes for sustaining mild/moderate injuries or severe/profound injuries (P > 0.05). Mortality rate was 6.3% with head injuries being involved in all cases.
Conclusion:
Young males were mostly injured in motorcycle-related trauma. Musculoskeletal injuries were the most common injuries sustained and head injuries were involved in all the deaths. Enforcement of motorcycle crash bars and helmet usage is recommended.
doi:10.4103/0300-1652.144693
PMCID: PMC4262838  PMID: 25538360
Motorcycle injury; nigeria; north central; pattern
21.  Aqueous seed extract of Cola nitida rubra reduces serum reproductive hormone concentrations and sperm count in adult male albino Wistar rats 
Background:
Following the high rate of consumption of Cola nitida (cola nut) among the male population in Nigeria, this study seeks to determine the effects of consumption of Cola nitida on serum reproductive hormones and sperm count, which are major determinants of male fertility.
Materials and Methods:
Thirty-two male albino wistar rats weighing 180-220 g were used for this study and were divided into 4 groups of eight animals each. Group 1 served as control, group 2 received 2 mg/kg Cola nitida extract (Test 1), group 3 received 6 mg/kg Cola nitida extract (Test 2) and group 4 received 10 mg/kg Cola nitida extract (Test 3). After 6 weeks of treatment, reproductive hormonal assay was carried out using the rat serum. Epididymal spermatozoa were collected and sperm count determined.
Results:
Serum concentrations of luteinizing hormone (LH) and testosterone were significantly (P < 0.05) reduced in test 2 and 3, compared with control. Sperm count was significantly lower in test group 1 (P < 0.05), 2 (P < 0.001) and 3 (P < 0.001) compared with control, with test 3 significantly (P < 0.05) lower compared with test 1. There was no significant difference in testicular and epididymis weight in the different experimental groups studied.
Conclusion:
Aqueous seed extract of Cola nitida rubra resulted in reduced serum reproductive hormone concentrations and sperm count in male wistar rats, and may therefore be detrimental to reproductive health, hence the need for regulation of its consumption.
doi:10.4103/0300-1652.144694
PMCID: PMC4262839  PMID: 25538361
Cola nitida;  luteinizing hormone; sperm count; testosterone
22.  Prevalence and socio-demographic risk factors associated with psychoactive substance use in psychiatric out-patients of a tertiary hospital in Nigeria 
Background:
The co-morbidity of psychoactive substance use and other mental disorders is a major challenge to the management of both conditions in several parts of the world. There is relative dearth of information on co-morbidity and its predictors in Nigeria. This study determined the prevalence and socio-demographic risk factors associated with psychoactive substance use in the psychiatric out-patients of a tertiary hospital in Nigeria.
Study Design:
A cross-sectional study.
Materials and Methods:
From routine clinic visits over a 4-month period, each consecutive 4th adult patients (>18 years) who had previously attended the clinic at least for 1 year, completed a socio-demographic and semi-structured drug use questionnaires and interview with the Schedule for Clinical Assessment in Neuropsychiatry (SCAN) to generate substance use diagnosis. Data was analysed using the statistical package for social sciences (SPSS), version 16. Level of significance was set at P < 0.05.
Results:
The lifetime prevalence for the use of substance was 29.3%, while that for multiple substances was 17.7%. The most commonly used substances were alcohol, cannabis and tobacco and they were also the ones mostly used in combination with one or the other. A total of 10.1% of the patients had a psychoactive substance use disorder. Being male, married with at least primary education and unemployed were significant risk factors for substance use.
Conclusion:
Psychoactive substance is common among the psychiatric outpatients of the hospital with males, those with formal education, the married and unemployed being at high risk of substance use.
doi:10.4103/0300-1652.144695
PMCID: PMC4262840  PMID: 25538362
Nigeria; outpatients; prevalence; psychoactive; socio-demographic
23.  Correlation between maternal weight and insulin resistance in second half of pregnancy 
Background:
In pregnancy, routine measurement of maternal weight gives a crude assessment of maternal and foetal well-being. Excess weight gain in pregnancy is related to increased risk for gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), hypertension in pregnancy and foetal macrosomia. In the Nigerian context, lack of knowledge of pre-pregnancy weight coupled with late booking of women in pregnancy hinders accurate assessment of weight gain in pregnancy. The absolute maternal weight is often used as surrogate. This study evaluates the relationship between absolute weight in the second half of pregnancy and insulin resistance.
Patients and Methods:
The weight of hundred pregnant women was measured between 24 to 32 weeks of pregnancy and their insulin resistance was measured using Homeostatic Model Assessment (HOMA-IR) from fasting serum glucose and fasting serum insulin.
Results:
Twenty-six women had weight ≥95 kg and 74 women had weight of <95 kg. There was a significant positive correlation between weight and HOMA-IR (r = 0.248), fasting glucose (r = 0.198), and fasting insulin (r = 0.228), (P < 0.05). The mean weight, HOMA-IR, fasting glucose and fasting insulin were higher in women with weight ≥95 kg compared to those with less weight. Also maternal weight ≥ 95 kg was associated with severe insulin resistance, (Odds Ratio = 3.1).
Conclusion:
Absolute weight in pregnancy correlates well with insulin resistance. Women having weight ≥95 kg between 24-32 weeks of gestation were more likely to have severe insulin resistance with implications for increased risk of GDM and other complications.
doi:10.4103/0300-1652.144697
PMCID: PMC4262841  PMID: 25538363
Fasting glucose; fasting insulin; insulin resistance; obesity; overweight
24.  Assessment of Snoring and obstructive sleep apnoea in a Nigerian university: Association with cardiovascular risk factors 
Background:
Snoring remains under diagnosed in general population. It however has significant morbidity and mortality risk factors with multiple effects on the cardiovascular system. The Berlin questionnaire is a worldwide validated instrument to identify those at increased risk for obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA).
Materials and Methods:
In all, 206 workers of LAUTECH were invited to participate in the study. The Berlin questionnaire was used for this study. It was a cross-sectional study. Socio-demographic and clinical data were taken with a data form. Statistical Package for the Social Sciences software (SPSS 17.0) was used for statistical analysis. P < 0.05 was taken as statistically significant value.
Results:
The study participants consisted of 96 males (46.6%) and 110 (53.4%) females. The mean age was 45.3 ± 7.9 years. The mean body mass index was 28.5 ± 6.0 kg/m². The frequency of occurrence of snoring was 91 (44.2%) including 50 males (54.9% and 41 females (37.3 %, P <0.05). Using the Berlin score, 63 (30.6%) including 34 females (30.9%) were assessed to be at high risk for OSA. Snorers were more likely to be at higher risk of OSA compared to non snorers: odd risk was 113.8, relative risk was 3.3. Snoring was most likely to be associated with obesity, elevated blood pressure and male gender in this study.
Conclusion:
We concluded that snoring and high risk for sleep apnoea is common among this unselected University population and they are closely related to many conventional cardiovascular risk factors. Appropriate interventional strategies are indicated to reduce the burden of the increased morbidity and mortality associated with sleep apnoea in our population.
doi:10.4103/0300-1652.144698
PMCID: PMC4262842  PMID: 25538364
High risk; Nigeria; obstructive sleep apnoea; sleep disordered breathing; snoring; University workers
25.  Medical treatment of allergy in children with recurrent or chronic sinusitis 
Background:
Diagnosis and treatment of chronic and recurrent sinusitis in children is of potential importance and many factors can havean influence on it. This study assessed the chronic and recurrent sinusitis and affecting factors, as well as the role of allergy in its course and treatment in children.
Materials and Methods:
A total of 106 children with the diagnosis of chronic or recurrent sinusitis, referred to specialty clinics of otolaryngology and allergy of Tabriz Children Educational-Medical centres since 2010 to 2012, were enrolled. The history and physicalexamination findings were recorded for all patients and allergy Prick test was done for all. Response to treatment was evaluated during the follow-up visits.
Results:
The mean age of studied patients was 6.5 ± 2.9 years. Of all the patients, 54 (50.9%) were male and 52 (49.1%) were female. Skin Prick test was positive in 69.8%. Response to treatment was seen in 86.8% of the patients while 7.5% did not have any favourable outcome. Anti-allergic treatment caused better outcomes in patients with positive Skin Prick test than those with negative results.
Conclusion:
The prevalence of allergic disease in children with chronic or recurrent sinusitis is considerable and anti-allergic treatments can result infavourable therapeutic outcomes in children with sinusitis, especially with positive skin prick test results.
doi:10.4103/0300-1652.144700
PMCID: PMC4262843  PMID: 25538365
Allergy; chronic sinusitis; recurrent sinusitis; upper respiratory tract infections

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