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1.  Being Ready to Treat Ebola Virus Disease Patients 
As the outbreak of Ebola virus disease (EVD) in West Africa continues, clinical preparedness is needed in countries at risk for EVD (e.g., United States) and more fully equipped and supported clinical teams in those countries with epidemic spread of EVD in Africa. Clinical staff must approach the patient with a very deliberate focus on providing effective care while assuring personal safety. To do this, both individual health care providers and health systems must improve EVD care. Although formal guidance toward these goals exists from the World Health Organization, Medecin Sans Frontières, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, and other groups, some of the most critical lessons come from personal experience. In this narrative, clinicians deployed by the World Health Organization into a wide range of clinical settings in West Africa distill key, practical considerations for working safely and effectively with patients with EVD.
PMCID: PMC4347319  PMID: 25510724
2.  Botryoid Odontogenic Cyst: A Diagnostic Chaos 
Botryoid Odontogenic cyst (BOC) originally described by Weathers and Waldron (1973) is a variant of a lateral periodontal cyst characterized by macroscopic and microscopic multilocular growth pattern. We report a case of BOC in a 21-year-old male patient. Orthopantamogram revealed a multilocular radiolucency extending from 43 to 47. The histological examination of incisional biopsy revealed a thin 2-4 layered non keratinised epithelium without rete ridges resembling a reduced enamel epithelium with few localised plaque like thickenings and occasional mural bulges. These features were suggestive of BOC. The excisional biopsy revealed histological features similar to those of incisional biopsy except for the presence of 5-6 epithelial follicles with outer columnar cells and inner stellate reticulum like cells. CD56 and calretinin immunohistochemical staining (IHC) was done. This paper highlights the unusual appearance of follicles in BOC with differential diagnosis and IHC staining characteristics.
PMCID: PMC4316351  PMID: 25654045
Ameloblastoma; Botryoid odontogenic cyst (BOC); CD56; Calretinin lateral periodontal Cyst (LPC); Odontogenic keratocyst (OKC)
3.  Large Cystic Renal Cell Carcinoma Leading to Diagnostic Dilemma: A Case Report 
The Indian Journal of Surgery  2012;75(Suppl 1):103-105.
Large cystic renal tumours can be confused with hepatic lesions even on crosssectional imaging. Careful clinical, sonographic and imaging analysis is needed for establishing correct diagnosis. We report a case of papillary cystic renal carcinoma in a 60 year old man, which was confused with amoebic liver abcess and was initially drained. Subsequent recurrence of symptoms prompted us to re-evaluate the case and repeat sonography confirmed the extrahepatic origin of mass based on simple observation that the liver and mass were moving separately on inspiration. Later guided aspiration from solid component of the mass confirmed the diagnosis as renal cell carcinoma. He was successfully treated with radical nephrectomy with uneventful post-operative recovery.
PMCID: PMC3693283  PMID: 24426529
Papillary cystic renal cell carcinoma; Amoebic liver abcess; Sonography; Radical nephrectomy
5.  Correlation Among Lip Print Pattern, Finger Print Pattern and Abo Blood Group 
Aim: To study correlation between lip print pattern, finger print pattern and ABO blood group.
Materials and Methods: The study group consisted of 27 males and 27 females who were aged between 20–40 years. Lip prints, finger prints and ABO and Rh blood groups of each individual were recorded. Lip prints were classified, based on Suzuki’s and Tsuchihashi’s classification and finger prints were classified, based on Michael’s and Kucken’s classification. The results were statistically analyzed by using Chi–square test.
Results: Complete vertical lip print, loop finger print pattern, O+ blood group were predominant among individual groups. O+ blood group-type I lip print combination, loop finger print pattern-type IV lip print pattern combination, O+ blood group-loop finger print pattern combination and both B+ blood group-loop finger print pattern- type IV lip print pattern combination and O+ blood group-loop finger print pattern-type I lip print pattern were predominant.
Conclusion: Though lip prints, finger prints and blood groups had their own specificities, correlation of the three parameters did not show any significance.
PMCID: PMC4003684  PMID: 24783079
Blood groups; Finger print; Lip print; Pattern; Predominant
6.  Evaluation and Correlation of Serum Lipid Profile in Oral and Gastrointestinal Cancer Patients 
Background: High or low cholesterol levels can be perturbing. High cholesterol levels in the blood are associated with increased risk of coronary heart disease whereas insinuation of decreased cholesterol levels remains imprecise. Present study is to evaluate any relationship between the serum lipid levels and the cancer. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the alteration of serum lipid profiles in untreated mucosal cancer patients. Materials & Methods: The study sample consisted of thirty subjects (Group I – 10 gastrointestinal cancer patients, Group II - 10 oral cancer patients and Group III - 10 controls). Fasting lipid profile of blood was evaluated using spectrophotometric kits, with CHOD PAP technique. The values obtained were then statistically analyzed using ANOVA and student ‘t’ test. Results: Between Group I and II, Group I comparatively showed more decrease in TC, TG, VLDL and increase in HDL & LDL. P value was significant in only TG. Between Group II and III, TC, HDL and LDL were decreased whereas TG and VLDL were increased in Group II when compared to Group III. TG, LDL, VLDL showed significant p values. Between Group I and III, the variables showed similar results as seen between Group II and III but only LDL showed significant p value. Among the three groups, only LDL showed significant p value (0.048). TC, TG, HDL and VLDL showed non – significant p values. Conclusion: Lower levels of lipid should arouse suspicion for cancer and necessary screening should be done. How to cite this article: Srinivas GV, Namala S, Ananthaneni A, Puneeth HK, Devi BS. Evaluation and Correlation of Serum Lipid Profile in Oral and Gastrointestinal Cancer Patients. J Int Oral Health 2013; 5(6):72-7 .
PMCID: PMC3895721  PMID: 24453448
High density; total cholesterol; triglycerides; lipoprotein; low density lipoprotein; very low density lipoprotein.
7.  Dentulous Appliance for Upper Anterior Edentulous Span 
This article discusses about a fixed dentulous appliance that was constructed to replace the primary upper anterior edentulous span in a four year old girl. It constituted a design, whereby the maxillary primary second molars were used to support the appliance through bands and a wire that contained an acrylic flange bearing trimmed acrylic teeth, anteriorly. The appliance was functionally and aesthetically compliant.
PMCID: PMC3919307  PMID: 24551736
Edentulous; Aesthetic; Fixed dentulous appliance; Space maintainer
8.  Incidence of Mast Cells in Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma: A Short Study 
Journal of Oncology  2014;2014:614291.
Mast cells are regarded as complex and multifunctional cells, playing a significant role in immunopathology and a substantial role in tumor angiogenesis. Angiogenesis is a complex process that is tightly regulated by various growth factors in which mast cells act directly by releasing angiogenic factors and henceforth promoting tumor growth and metastasis. The aim of this study is to evaluate the number of mast cells in tissue sections of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) in comparison with normal mucosa. A total of 40 cases (20 OSCC and 20 normal mucosa) were stained with 1% toluidine blue and the quantitative analysis was done by using light microscope under 400x magnification. A significant increase in the mast cell count was observed in the sections of OSCC when compared to normal mucosa suggesting their contributing role in tumor growth and progression.
PMCID: PMC3920617  PMID: 24587802
9.  Unusual Length of Pedicle: Pedunculated Squamous Papilloma of Uvula Causing Unusual Dysphagia of Long Duration in a Child of 10 Years 
Case Reports in Dentistry  2014;2014:313506.
Benign oropharyngeal tumors are far less common compared to malignant tumors. Oropharyngeal papilloma is present in adults. Squamous papillomas are exophytic masses of oral cavity. When they occur on the palate they are most often asymptomatic and benign. Pedunculated squamous papillomas usually arise from the soft palate, tonsil, or the epiglottis. These lesions can sometimes prove to be fatal. A case of pedunculated squamous papilloma, arising from the laryngopharynx, the clinical presentation, the site of origin, and the size of the lesion were quite unusual. The narrow base of the pedicle made the intraoral excision possible. But here, we present a case of a 10-year-old boy who had history of dysphagia of 3-year duration for solid food and he was comfortable only in squatting position the reason being squamous papilloma of uvula (unusual site) atypically because of astonishing length of pedicle (2.3 inches).
PMCID: PMC3918715  PMID: 24587924
10.  A clinician's dilemma: Sturge-Weber syndrome ‘without facial nevus’!! 
Sturge–Weber syndrome (SWS) is a rare, sporadic neurocutaneous syndrome characterized by a classical triad of facial port wine nevus, ipsilateral leptomeningeal angiomatosis (LAM) and glaucoma. The incidence of SWS is 1/50,000 live births, although it is more often underreported. The incidence of SWS without facial nevus is not known, although very few patients without facial nevus have been reported. In these patients, the diagnosis of SWS is made by the findings of computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, and histopathology. Here, we report three patients with SWS from our cohort of 28 patients with SWS without facial nevus and discuss their clinical profile and outcome.
PMCID: PMC3644771  PMID: 23661980
Leptomeningeal angiomatosis; seizure; Sturge-Weber syndrome
11.  Agonistic approach of omega-3, omega-6 and its metabolites with BDNF: An in-silico study 
Bioinformation  2013;9(18):908-911.
Brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is a member of neurotrophic family of growth factors, mainly found in the hippocampus and cerebral cortex of brain. Studies have shown that there is a link between BDNF and cognitive dysfunction, as well as there is a relationship between the PUFAs intake and their effect on BDNF production. Intake of PUFAs, mainly omega-3 and omega-6 has show increase in production of BDNF in brain. In our study we performed docking studies on PUFAs and their metabolites with BDNF using MVD (Molegro Virtual Docker), this has shown that the metabolites of the PUFAs mainly LXA_4, NPD1, HDHA have shown more binding affinity towards BDNF. These metabolites of PUFAs are responsible for modulation of BDNF activity.
PMCID: PMC3842576  PMID: 24307768
BDNF; PUFA; Cognitive dysfunction; LXA_4; NPD1; HDHA; MVD; Evolutionary algorithm; cavity detection algorithm; Escore
12.  A study on rapid confirmation of pulmonary tuberculosis in smear-negative acid fast bacilli cases by using fiberoptic bronchoscopy, done through a trans oro pharyngeal spacer 
The tuberculosis control program is based on a felt need–oriented basis. The diagnosis is mainly microbiological. However, sputum smear-negative Acid Fast Bacilli (AFB) cases with suspected radiological findings can be problematic in diagnosis.
To confirm the diagnosis of tuberculosis early, in smear-negative AFB cases by using a Fiberoptic Bronchoscope.
Materials and Methods:
We embarked on Fiberoptic Bronchoscopy (FOB) and Spot Scopy smear Microscopy (SSM) for 533 suspected Pulmonary Tuberculosis (PT) cases (sputum smear negative and radiologically suggestive) from February 2007 to May 2010. FOB was performed using a special device, a Trans Oro Pharyngeal Spacer (TOPS), as a conduit.
The yield for positivity for AFB was 341 (64%) out of 533 cases.
Conclusion and Recommendation:
The specimens collected by using the fiberoptic bronchoscope confirmed the disease in the smear-negative cases. Hence, FOB was recommended in smear-negative cases, to avoid delay in the treatment of tuberculosis.
PMCID: PMC3326770  PMID: 22518358
Fiberoptic bronchoscopy; pulmonary tuberculosis; spot scopy smear microscopy; trans oro pharyngeal spacer
13.  Alzheimer's Disease: A Healthcare Burden of Epidemic Proportion 
Alzheimer's disease is the most common cause of dementia and increases in prevalence exponentially with age, with trends in the United States likely to worsen in ensuing decades. The pathology in Alzheimer's disease is characterized by an increase in extracellular amyloid plaques and intraneural neurofibrillary tangles, with neuronal destruction in several areas of the brain, and biochemically by a deficiency in acetylcholine; clinical manifestations include progressive loss of memory, change in personality, and behavioral disturbances. Pharmacotherapy includes the T.S. Dharmarajan Srinivas G. Gunturu use of cholinesterase inhibitors and memantine; addressing the many behavioral manifestations of the disease, especially in advanced stages, imposes tremendous burden to caregivers and healthcare resources.
PMCID: PMC4106591  PMID: 25126271
14.  A mouse model for Luminal epithelial like ER positive subtype of human breast cancer 
BMC Cancer  2007;7:180.
Generation of novel spontaneous ER positive mammary tumor animal model from heterozygous NIH nude mice.
Using brother-sister mating with pedigree expansion system, we derived a colony of heterozygous breeding females showing ER-Positive tumors around the age of 6 months. Complete blood picture, differential leukocyte count, and serum levels of Estrogen, Alanine amino transferase (SGPT), Aspartate amino transferase (SGOT), total protein and albumin were estimated. Aspiration biopsies and microbiology were carried out. Gross pathology of the tumors and their metastatic potential were assessed. The tumors were excised and further characterized using histopathology, cytology, electron microscopy (EM), molecular markers and Mouse mammary Tumor Virus – Long Terminal Repeats (MMTV LTR) specific RT-PCR.
The tumors originated from 2ndor 5thor both the mammary glands and were multi-nodulated with variable central necrosis accompanied with an accumulation of inflammatory exudate. Significant increases in estrogen, SGPT, SGOT and neutrophils levels were noticed. Histopathologically, invasive nodular masses of pleomorphic tubular neoplastic epithelial cells invaded fibro-vascular stroma, adjacent dermis and subcutaneous tissue. Metastatic spread through hematogenous and regional lymph nodes, into liver, lungs, spleen, heart and dermal lymphatics was observed. EM picture revealed no viral particles and MMTV-negativity was confirmed through MMTV LTR-specific RT-PCR. High expression of ER α, moderate to high expression of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), moderate expression of vimentin and Cytokeratin 19 (K19) and low expression of p53 were observed in tumor sections, when compared with that of the normal mammary gland.
Since 75% of human breast cancer were classified ER-positive and as our model mimics (in most of the characteristics, such as histopathology, metastasis, high estrogen levels) the ER-positive luminal epithelial-like human breast cancer, this model will be an attractive tool to understand the biology of estrogen-dependant breast cancer in women. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a spontaneous mammary model displaying regional lymph node involvement with both hematogenous and lymphatic spread to liver, lung, heart, spleen and lymph nodes.
PMCID: PMC2094712  PMID: 17880731
15.  Management of renal cell carcinoma with solitary metastasis 
Distant metastasis are common in Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) nearly one forth of the patients have metastasis at presentation while another 50% develop metastasis during the follow-up. A small percentage of these are solitary metastasis. We describe survival after surgical excision or radiotherapy of solitary metastatic lesion from renal cell carcinoma
Patients and methods
Between 1988–2001, 43 patients with solitary metastasis to different sites from renal cell carcinoma underwent either surgical excision or radiotherapy were analyzed. The solitary nature of the lesions was confirmed by investigations. All patients have had radical nephrectomy for the primary lesion. Survival analysis was carried out by Kaplan Meier Method.
All solitary metastatic lesions were treated with intent of cure either by excision or radiotherapy. Of these, 13 patients had solitary metastasis at the time of presentation in whom 3-year overall median survival was 26 months. The survival of those who developed solitary metastases during follow-up after nephrectomy for primary was 45 months. The patients with long interval between diagnosis and development of metastasis, early stage and low grade of the primary tumor had better prognosis.
Complete resection of either synchronous or metachronous solitary metastases from renal cell carcinoma is justified and can contribute to a long-term survival in this select group of patients.
PMCID: PMC1185571  PMID: 16029517
16.  Unique regulation of crystal protein production in Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. yunnanensis is mediated by the cry protein-encoding 103-megadalton plasmid. 
In sporulating cultures of Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. yunnanensis HD977, two cell types are observed: cells forming only spores and cells forming only crystals. Curing analysis suggested that the crystal proteins are plasmid encoded. Through plasmid transfer experiments, it was established that a 103-MDa plasmid is involved in the crystal production. Conjugal transfer of this plasmid to Cry- recipient cells of Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. kurstaki HD73-26 conferred the ability to produce crystals exclusively on asporogenous cells of the recipient, indicating that the 103-MDa plasmid mediates the unique regulation of Cry protein production. When the dipteran-specific cryIVB gene was introduced into wild-type (Cry+) and Cry- backgrounds of B. thuringiensis subsp. yunnanensis by phage CP51ts45-mediated transduction, similar to all other B. thuringiensis strains, irregular crystals of CryIVB protein were produced by spore-forming cells in both backgrounds. However, the synthesis of the bipyramidal inclusions of B. thuringiensis subsp. yunnanensis was still limited only to asporogenous cells of the transductant. Thus, it appears that the unique property of exclusive crystal formation in asporogenous cells of B. thuringiensis subsp. yunnanensis is associated with the crystal protein gene(s) per se or its cis acting elements. As the crystals in B. thuringiensis subsp. yunnanensis were formed only in asporogenous cells, attempts were made to find out whether crystal formation had any inhibitory effect on sporulation. It was observed that both Cry+ and Cry- strains of B. thuringiensis subsp. yunnanensis (HD977 and HD977-1, respectively) exhibited comparable sporulation efficiencies. In addition, the Cry- B. thuringiensis subsp. kurstaki host (HD73-26) and its Cry+ transconjugant (HD73-26-16), expressing the B. thuringiensis subsp. yunnanensis crystal protein, were also comparable in their sporulation efficiencies, indicating that production of the crystal proteins of B. thuringiensis subsp. yunnanensis does not affect the process of sporulation.
PMCID: PMC168575  PMID: 9212426

Results 1-16 (16)