Search tips
Search criteria

Results 1-8 (8)

Clipboard (0)

Select a Filter Below

Year of Publication
Document Types
1.  Pharmacists’ opinions and self-reporting performance regarding the professional tasks and responsibilities in Isfahan, Iran 
The pharmacists’ roles and responsibilities toward the pharmaceutical care practice have developed considerably during the recent years.
The aim of this program is to explore the opinions and performances of community pharmacists with regard to their professional tasks and responsibilities in Isfahan city.
Materials and Methods:
A descriptive cross-sectional questionnaire survey of community pharmacists was conducted on a sample of 150 pharmacists using the Delphi process. Data were collected on the opinions and performances of the pharmacists’ task, professional responsibility and expertise, organizational and managing skills, and sociodemographic information.
The response rate was 93.3%. High expressions of agreement were found with most of the task and professional responsibilities and managerial skills and the mean rates of the self-reporting performance of most key tasks were ‘always’. The important differences were found in two opinions about the pharmacists’ responsibilities, (a) declining to dispense the prescribed drug that was not appropriate for the patient's illness and (b) keeping the patient's medical records for future needs. The pharmacists’ opinions on various forms of professional expertise were diverse, especially on recognizing that the required medications were not prescribed for the patient, being informed on the pharmacotherapy subsequence and predicting the therapeutic outcomes, interpreting the laboratory tests results, and assisting persons in need of emergency first aid.
Pharmacists largely agreed with most of the professional tasks and responsibilities, however, new educational programs should be developed to promote the pharmacists’ knowledge and skills concerning pharmacotherapy. Also an extended role for pharmacists needs to be addressed in the pharmacy regulations and laws.
PMCID: PMC3977400  PMID: 24741642
Opinion; pharmacists; pharmaceutical care
2.  A school-based education concerning poisoning prevention in Isfahan, Iran 
A school-based poisoning prevention program for young school children was implemented and evaluated in Isfahan city by Poison Control Center (PCC) of Food and Drug Deputy in 2010.
The aim of the program was to evaluate the effectiveness of education on children's knowledge on poisoning and its consequence and also on their attitude in case of exposure to poisonous or hazardous substances and poisoned patient.
Materials and Methods:
In a pretest-posttest design, samples of 520 students from the fifth grade (10-11 years old), from twenty randomly selected girls’ and boys’ primary schools were involved in the study. These children were from two different geographical locations with different socio-economical levels (high-income and middle-income). After collection of pretest questionnaires, 6 poisoning education sessions were implemented in selected schools by trained teachers in a week.
Following the education program, knowledge on various issues of poisoning significantly improved as did attitude to the poisonous agents and poisoned patients. In girl students, strong increase was found in knowledge on poisoning with carbon monoxide and heating devices from pretest to posttest. While in boy students, the strongest increase was in item of knowledge on poisoning prevention. Children living in the regions with middle-income conditions had more base-line knowledge and attitudinal aspect when compared with children with high-income condition. Comparison of all students showed significant differences (P < 0.001) on knowledge scores on various issues of poisoning before and after education.
The school-based educational programs provide a good opportunity to poison information centers in preventing poisoning.
PMCID: PMC3977412  PMID: 24741645
Health education; poisoning; poison control center; students
3.  Antioxidant Effects of Bovine Lactoferrin on Dexamethasone-Induced Hypertension in Rat 
ISRN Pharmacology  2014;2014:943523.
Dexamethasone- (Dex-) induced hypertension is associated with enhanced oxidative stress. Lactoferrin (LF) is an iron-binding glycoprotein with antihypertensive properties. In this study, we investigated the effect of chronic administration of LF on oxidative stress and hypertension upon Dex administration. Male Wistar rats were treated by Dex (30 μg/kg/day subcutaneously) or saline for 14 days. Oral bovine LF (30, 100, 300 mg/kg) was given from day 8 to 14 in a reversal study. In a prevention study, rats received 4 days of LF treatment followed by Dex and continued during the test period. Systolic blood pressure (SBP) was measured using tail-cuff method. Thymus weight was used as a marker of glucocorticoid activity. Plasma hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) concentration and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) value were determined. Dexamethasone significantly increased SBP and plasma H2O2 level and decreased thymus and body weights. LF lowered (P < 0.01) and dose dependently prevented (P < 0.001) Dex-induced hypertension. LF prevented body weight loss and significantly reduced the elevated plasma H2O2 and increased FRAP values. Chronic administration of LF strongly reduced the blood pressure and production of ROS and improved antioxidant capacity in Dex-induced hypertension, suggesting the role of inhibition of oxidative stress as another mechanism of antihypertensive action of LF.
PMCID: PMC3920649  PMID: 24587916
4.  Prescribing Quality in Medical Specialists in Isfahan, Iran 
Rational prescribing increases the quality of health care and patient outcomes. In this study, the quality of drug prescription in specialist physicians in Isfahan province of Iran was assessed for evaluating the rational use of drugs and improving the therapeutic outcomes.
This retrospective survey was conducted on a total of 7999530 prescriptions from all general and specialist physicians. The most frequently prescribed drugs and World Health Organization (WHO) prescribing indicators were evaluated in prescriptions of all medical specialties.
Assessment of prescribing indicators revealed poor-quality prescribing performance by general practitioners including high number of medicines prescribed per clients, wide range of prescribed medicines in each prescription, over-prescribing of antibiotics, corticosteroids and injectable drugs. There were also wide differences in the pattern of drug prescribing depending on the medical specialties. The average number of drugs prescribed per encounter by specialists was less than generalists except for the cardiologists. General practitioners, otorhinolaryngologists and general surgeons prescribed more antibiotics. Orthopedic surgeons and general practitioners were the top prescribers of injectable and corticosteroid drugs. The most frequently prescribed medicine groups varied according to the prescribers’ medical specialty. Analgesics and antipyretics were the most prescribed preparations in general medicine, pediatrics, orthopedics, general surgery and cardiology.
Because of the wide variability in the pattern of drug prescribing depending on the medical specialties, specific performance indicators should be developed for each specific medical specialty for better assessing of prescribing quality in specialist physicians.
PMCID: PMC3813195  PMID: 24250595
Drug prescription; Drug utilization; Health care; Quality indicators; Prescribing practice
5.  Pattern of self-medication with analgesics among Iranian University students in central Iran 
Self-medication is defined as the use of drugs for the treatment of self-diagnosed disorders. It is influenced by factors such as education, family, society, law, availability of drugs and exposure to advertisements. This study was performed to evaluate self-medication with analgesics and its pattern among different groups of Iranian University Students.
Materials and Methods:
A randomized, cross-sectional, multicenter study was conducted from December 2009 to February 2010. The target population of this study was 564 students out of 10,000 students attending four medical and non-medical science universities in Qom state. Data was analyzed using SPSS version 16, and analysis was conducted with descriptive analysis procedures.
76.6% of the students had used analgesics in self-medication in the previous 3 months. The frequency of analgesic use in the study period was once in 19.2% of the participants, twice in 22.2%, three times in 16.3% and more than three times in 35.5% of the participants, although 6.8% of them were not sure when they were used. Of all the respondents, 49.8% reported headache as the problem. This was the most common problem, after which came Dysmenorrhea,headache and stomach ache. Bone and joint pains were other problems that led to the use of analgesics. The most commonly used source of information for self-medication with analgesics was advice from friends and family (54.7%), previously prescribed medications (30.1%), their medical knowledge (13.3%) and recommendation of a pharmacist (1.9%).
Self-medication with analgesics is very high among Iranian students in Qom city. This could be an index for other parts of the Iranian community. Because the source of information about analgesics is inappropriate, we would recommend education courses about analgesics and self-medication on the radio and television for the entire population.
PMCID: PMC3410176  PMID: 22870417
Analgesics; Iran; students; self-medication
7.  Is there a relationship between admission blood glucose level following acute poisoning and clinical outcome? 
The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between the admission blood glucose level following acute poisoning, severity of acute poisoning and clinical outcome.
Material and methods
This prospective study was conducted on 345 deliberate self-poisoning patients. Standard demographic and clinical information; admission blood glucose level; poisoning severity score and outcome were recorded. Patients with a history of diabetes mellitus, receipt of pre-sampling intravenous dextrose solution or glucocorticoids, and poisoning with toxic agents which produce hyper- or hypoglycaemia were excluded.
Mean age of the patients was 27.5 ±8.6 years. Females outnumbered males (57.9%). Oral ingestion of more than one drug (46.7%) and opiates (14.2%) were the main causes of poisoning. Blood glucose values ranged from 50 mg/dl to 396 mg/dl. Hyper- and hypoglycaemia were observed in 23.8% and 13.91% respectively. A total of 24.41% and 22.92% of the patients in hyper- and hypoglycaemic groups had grade 3 and 4 severity score in comparison with 4.18% in the normoglycaemic group. Development of complications and death were 14.64% and 10.42% in patients with hyper- and hypoglycaemia versus 3.73% in patients with normoglycaemia. A significant difference between normoglycaemic and hyperglycaemic patients in the severity of poisoning and clinical outcome was observed (P < 0.001).
Admission blood glucose levels may have a relationship with the severity of poisoning and clinical outcome following acute poisoning.
PMCID: PMC3258686  PMID: 22291737
blood glucose; acute poisoning; outcome; poisoning severity score; hyperglycaemia
8.  The Effect of Aspartate-Lysine-Isoleucine and Aspartate-Arginine-Tyrosine Mutations on the Expression and Activity of Vasopressin V2 Receptor Gene 
Iranian Biomedical Journal  2010;14(1-2):17-22.
Background: Vasopressin type 2 receptor (V2R) plays an important role in the water reabsorption in the kidney collecting ducts. V2R is a G protein coupled receptor (GPCR) and the triplet of amino acids aspartate-arginine-histidine (DRH) in this receptor might significantly influence its activity similar to other GPCR. However, the role of this motif has not been fully confirmed. Therefore, the present study attempted to shed some more light on the role of DRH motif in G protein coupling and V2R function with the use of site-directed mutagenesis. Methods: Nested PCR using specific primers was used to produce DNA fragments containing aspartate-lysine-isoleucine and aspartate-arginine-tyrosine mutations with replacements of the arginine to lysine and histidine to tyrosine, respectively. After digestion, these inserts were ligated into the pcDNA3 vector and transformation into E. coli HB101 was performed using heat shock method. The obtained colonies were analyzed for the presence and orientation of the inserts using proper restriction enzymes. After transient transfection of COS-7 cells using diethylaminoethyl-dextran method, the adenylyl cyclase activity assay was performed for functional study. The cell surface expression was analyzed by indirect ELISA method. Results: The functional assay indicated that none of these mutations significantly altered cAMP production and cell surface expression of V2R in these cells. Conclusion: Since some substitutions in arginine residue have shown to lead to the inactive V2 receptor, further studies are required to define the role of this residue more precisely. However, it seems that the role of the histidine residue is not critical in the V2 receptor function.
PMCID: PMC3878142  PMID: 20683494
Mutation; Polymerase chain reaction; Vasopressin receptor

Results 1-8 (8)