PMCC PMCC

Search tips
Search criteria

Advanced
Results 1-25 (478)
 

Clipboard (0)
None

Select a Filter Below

Journals
Authors
more »
Year of Publication
more »
issn:2229-340
1.  The effect of lifestyle modification on severity of constipation and quality of life of elders in nursing homes at Ismailia city, Egypt 
Background:
Constipation has a significant impact on the quality of life (QOL). Lifestyle modification is widely accepted and recommended by experts as first-line therapy.
Aim:
This study aimed at using education on lifestyle modification to improve the QOL of the elderly in nursing homes suffering from functional constipation (FC).
Materials and Methods:
This study was conducted in nursing homes in Ismailia city, Egypt. It involved 23 elderly patients suffering from FC, who were randomly selected according to the sample equation. They fulfilled the inclusion criteria of being ≥60 years age and according to Rome II criteria. Participants completed personal characteristics and lifestyle questionnaire, the Patient Assessment of Constipation Symptom questionnaire (PAC-SYM) to assess the severity of symptoms, and the Patient Assessment of Constipation Quality of Life Questionnaire (PAC-QOL) to assess pre- and post-intervention. The intervention was conducted in three sessions, of 30 min each, 2 weeks apart using group discussions to educate the sample about dietary pattern, fluid intake, regular physical activity, and the use of laxatives. Statistical analysis: Data were analyzed using a statistical package for social sciences (SPSS version 20).
Results:
The lifestyle modification education on constipation significantly reduced the severity of symptoms as measured by PAC-SYM, including its total score and subscores (P < 0.001). It also improved the QOL of elderly suffering from constipation as measured by PAC-QOL and reduced total scores of dissatisfaction (P = 0.001) with the exception of the psychosocial subscale. It also significantly increased the satisfaction subscale of PAC-SYM (P < 0.001).
Conclusion:
Education on lifestyle modification leads to an improvement in the severity of the symptoms of constipation and the QOL of the elderly in nursing homes.
doi:10.4103/2230-8229.134766
PMCID: PMC4073557  PMID: 24987278
Elderly; functional constipation; quality of life; severity
2.  Trends in ultrasound examination in family practice 
Background:
Ultrasound examination is very frequently used for the evaluation of abnormalities in various organs of the body. Our aim was to determine whether the requests by family physicians (FPs) for ultrasound examinations were appropriate. Our secondary objective was to enumerate positive and negative ultrasound reports for various diagnostic indications.
Materials and Methods:
This cross-sectional study was conducted during the period of month between June and August 2010, at the Family Medicine Department of North West Armed Forces Prince Salman Hospital, Tabuk. We reviewed the ultrasound requests of all patients included in this study and the findings of the procedure. Data were analyzed using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL), version 16.0.
Results:
The requests and reports of 815 patients for ultrasound were reviewed. Females comprised 58.7% of the referred cases. The mean age of the sample at referral was 30 ± 18.5 for females and 34 ± 20.7 for males. Only 46% of the request forms contained conclusive information and instructions. Abdominal/pelvic ultrasounds were the most frequently requested; Nearly 71.2% of the ultrasound scans were normal. Abdominal/pelvis ultrasound was more likely to be reported as normal than ultrasound scans of other regions (P = 0.007). Patients aged 41-60 years were more likely to have an abnormal ultrasound (P = 0.02).
Conclusion:
Our findings suggest that FPs have to be educated about imaging referral protocols in order to achieve better outcomes.
doi:10.4103/2230-8229.134767
PMCID: PMC4073558  PMID: 24987279
Diagnosis; family practice; indications; requests; ultrasound
3.  A comparative study of job satisfaction among regular and staff on contract in the primary health care system in Delhi, India 
Background:
Job satisfaction is a pleasant emotional state associated with the appreciation of one's work and contributes immensely to performance in an organization. The purpose of this study was to assess the comparative job satisfaction among regular and staff on contract in Government Primary Urban Health Centers in Delhi, India.
Materials and Methods:
The study was conducted in 2013, on a sample of 333 health care providers who were selected using a multistage random sampling technique. The sample included medical officers (MOs), auxiliary nurses and midwives (ANMs), pharmacists and laboratory technicians (LTs)/laboratory assistants (LAs) among regular and staff on contract. Analysis was done using SPSS version 18, and appropriate statistical tests were applied.
Results:
The job satisfaction for all the regular staff that is, MOs, ANMs, pharmacists, LAs, and LTs were relatively higher (3.3 ± 0.44) than the contract staff (2.7 ± 0.45) with ‘t’value 10.54 (P < 0.01). The mean score for regular and contract MOs was 3.2 ± 0.46 and 2.7 ± 0.56, respectively, and the same trends were found between regular and ANMs on the contract which was 3.4 ± 0.30 and 2.7 ± 0.38, regular and pharmacists on the contract was 3.3 ± 0.50 and 2.8 ± 0.41, respectively. The differences between groups were significant with a P < 0.01.
Conclusion:
Overall job satisfaction level was relatively low in both regular and contract staff. The factors contributing to satisfaction level were privileges, interpersonal relations, working-environment, patient relationship, the organization's facilities, career development, and the scarcity of human resources (HRs). Therefore, specific recommendations are suggested to policy makers to take cognizance of the scarcity of HRs and the on-going experimentation with different models under primary health care system.
doi:10.4103/2230-8229.134768
PMCID: PMC4073559  PMID: 24987280
Career development; contract staff; human resource policy
4.  Barriers to breast cancer screening among a sample of Egyptian females 
Background:
Breast cancer (BC) is usually diagnosed in late stages in countries with limited resources. Early detection of BC is likely to improve the outcome of the disease for women in these areas.
Objective:
The aim of this study was to understand the possible personal, economic, and systems barriers to BC screening in a sample of Egyptian women.
Materials and Methods:
A cross-sectional study was conducted in family health centers representing the seven districts of Alexandria governorate, Egypt. A total of 612 women were randomly selected from the chosen centers.
Results:
In this sample of Egyptian women, the most frequently identified potential barriers to BC screening were the following: 81.8% would not seek care until they were ill, 77% were unwilling to have a mammogram until it was recommended by the doctor, 71.4% blamed the, lack of privacy, 69.2% thought that medical checkups were not worthwhile, and 64.6% blamed the cost of services. The study further revealed that women of lower education, women in the lower income category, women who did not do paid work, those who had poor knowledge of the risks of BC, and women with no family history of BC were more likely to perceive different screening barriers compared with their counterparts.
Conclusion:
Many potential personal, economic, and health system barriers were identified. Addressing these barriers by increasing the awareness of BC and dealing with the misconceptions that the women have can help the policy makers to design more culturally relevant strategies to motivate women to utilize screening services.
doi:10.4103/2230-8229.134771
PMCID: PMC4073560  PMID: 24987281
Breast cancer; barriers; Egypt; screening
5.  Awareness and knowledge of pediatric cardio- pulmonary resuscitation in the community of Al-Khobar city 
Background:
The history of resuscitation going back thousands of years has been reported in literature throughout history. This concept has undergone several decisive revolutionary changes particularly in pediatrics. Although the cardio-pulmonary resuscitation (CPR) is relatively new in pediatrics, progress has been remarkable in the last a few decades. As it becomes more popular, especially under the influence of globalizing media, CPR also becomes a life requirement that is not restricted to health professionals.
Materials and Methods:
This was a cross-sectional community-based survey of 753 individuals of both sexes, visiting the first Pediatric Health Awareness Week held at Dammam University Hospital in April 2013. Data were collected by a personal face-to-face interview during which a short history was taken and a check list of sociodemographic data and questions related to infants' CPR was completed. Statistical analysis was performed by using SPSS.
Results:
The study was carried out on 753 subjects (602 Saudis, 151 non-Saudis, 483 females, and 270 males). The mean age of participants was 33.3 ± 10.9 years. The postsecondary school level of education was 37.5% among females versus 21.9% among males. Of the participants, 80.8% of the females and 86.5% of males were totally unaware of CPR. The mean number of children among participants was 3.5 ± 2.5 children. There were 150 participants (19.9%) with disabled children; 32% of them (6.4% of all participants) were completely unaware of CPR despite having disabled children. Overall, 15.5% of all female participants had attended some CPR course (s) compared with 6.1% of the males; 18.7% of the females had watched CPR program (s)/video (s) on TV or online compared to 11.1% of the males, and 59.4% of the females were willing and eager to participate in any CPR course compared with 29.3% of the males. The reasons for not wanting to attend CPR courses were as follows: 48.6% indicated that it was because of the unavailability of such courses, 41.4% said because of time constraints, and 10% gave financial reasons. Finally, the study showed that 365 females (84.3%) and 247 males (91.2%) did not know when to perform mouth-to-mouth resuscitation and/or chest compression, and would do it for the wrong reasons.
Conclusion:
Public awareness and knowledge on CPR was inadequate even among the younger population, and among parents with disabled children. The general public were willing to improve their knowledge and skills of CPR. We recommend that CPR courses/campaigns should be provided to the public and be included in high school curricula.
doi:10.4103/2230-8229.134772
PMCID: PMC4073561  PMID: 24987282
Awareness; cardio-pulmonary resuscitation; handicap; infant
6.  An epidemiological study of metabolic syndrome in a rural area of Ambala district, Haryana 
Introduction:
Metabolic syndrome (MS) is a state of deranged metabolic and anthropometric status. It is considered a precursor to various cardiovascular and metabolic diseases.
Objectives:
(1) To determine the prevalence of MS in adults aged 20 years and above in the rural area of Ambala district, Haryana. (2) To determine the sociodemographic factors associated with MS.
Materials and Methods:
In a community-based cross-sectional study, a total of 1200 subjects aged 20 years and above were studied, using multi-stage random sampling.
Results:
The prevalence of MS was estimated by using criterion given by the International Diabetes Federation. MS was found in 110 (9.2%) subjects, being more prevalent in females: 73 (66.36%) when compared to 37 males (33.63%). Sedentary occupation and age were significantly associated with MS.
Conclusions:
MS is a major health problem in the region and it should be given proper attention in order to prevent and control it.
doi:10.4103/2230-8229.134774
PMCID: PMC4073562  PMID: 24987283
Haryana; metabolic syndrome; prevalence
7.  Health science students’ attitude towards research training programs in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia: Reliability and validity of the questionnaire instrument 
Objective:
The aim of this paper was to determine the validity and reliability of a questionnaire tool for measuring students' attitudes toward components relevant to research training programs in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.
Materials and Methods:
The paper reports the responses of 564 Saudi Arabian students from seven government universities to the questionnaire comprising 16 items on 3 conceptual subscales, which measured students' attitude to research activities in the college; students' opinion of faculty involvement in research; and infrastructural facilities in the college. The results of this study provide the final scale, with all the 16 items of the initial Likert scale, for which strong evidence was obtained.
Results:
Results indicated that the students' attitude toward the research (SAR) scale had three latent factors, which explained 62% of the variance: The three subscales measured includes: (i) Research activities offered in the college, (ii) students' opinion of faculty involvement in research, and (iii) infrastructural facilities offered in the college for research. The full scale including three subscales had good internal consistency (rs = 0.72 and α = 0.77 for full scale; and α between 0.71 and 0.79 for three subscales).
Conclusion:
This study provides evidence of reliability and validity of the SAR scale for the measurement of students' attitudes toward research training programs in Saudi Arabian Universities. The research findings will provide the basis for further research on health science students.
doi:10.4103/2230-8229.134775
PMCID: PMC4073563  PMID: 24987284
Attitude; reliability; research; validity
8.  Predictors of work-related stress among nurses working in primary and secondary health care levels in Dammam, Eastern Saudi Arabia 
Introduction:
Work-related stress (WRS) is an insidious and persistent part of everyday life related to the response of people to work environment. Nursing is a strenuous job and WRS is prevalent among nurses. The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of WRS among nurses working in primary and secondary health care levels in Dammam, Eastern Saudi Arabia.
Materials and Methods:
A cross-sectional epidemiological study was conducted in 17 primary health care centers (PHCCs) representing the primary level of health care and  Medical Tower Complex (MTC) representing the secondary health care level in Dammam city. The total number of nurses included in the study was 637 nurses (144 in PHCCs) and (493 MTC). Data were collected using a self-administered questionnaire, which was developed based on the pertinent literature. It included two main parts: Sociodemographic and job characteristics of nurses and 31 WRS questions.
Results:
The overall prevalence of WRS among all studied nurses was 45.5%; 43.1% and 46.2% in primary and secondary levels, respectively. In the primary level, there was a statistical significant association between WRS and being married (85.5%), and having living three children and more (53.2%). Moreover, younger age group 20-<30 years (79.4%), Saudi nationality (86.8%), being married (74.6%), having nonbachelor degree (83.3%), work shifts (89.5%), and working in surgical department (46.5%) were the significant associating factors with the occurrence of WRS among nurses in secondary levels. Young age was the only predicting factor for WRS in primary care level. While being female, Saudi, married, with work shifts, and working in surgical department were found to predict WRS in the secondary level.
Recommendations:
Appropriate strategy in health care organization to investigate stress in health care settings is recommended. Moreover, interventional programs to identify, and relieve sources and effects of stress should be developed.
doi:10.4103/2230-8229.134762
PMCID: PMC4073564  PMID: 24987275
Nurses; predictors; prevalence; Saudi Arabia; work-related stress
9.  Preferences and attitudes of the Saudi population toward receiving medical bad news: A primary study from Riyadh city 
Background:
Breaking bad news is one of the most stressful and difficult things a physician has to do. Good communication skills are required in order to ensure that bad news is delivered in a humane but effective way.
Objectives:
This study was designed to explore the preferences and attitude of the Saudi population toward receiving bad news. Second, it was to identify the associations between preferences, attitudes, and sociodemographic characteristics.
Materials and Methods:
This was a cross-sectional study conducted during the month of April 2009 in Riyadh. Data were collected from 1013 adult Saudis. Stratified random sampling technique was used through a self-administered questionnaire.
Results:
In this study, 474 (46.8%) were males and 539 (53.2%) were females. Almost two-third of the participants preferred to be the first to receive the bad news. A majority of the participants 695 (68.6%) preferred to be told the bad news at a private place, whereas, 441 (43.5%) preferred to be told by the head of the medical team. Moreover, almost half of the participants would like the one who breaks the bad news to remain with them to give them some more information about the disease. Significant associations were observed between participants' perception and attitude with age, marital status, gender, and education (P < 0.001), respectively.
Conclusion:
Factors such as marital status, age, and gender, and education play significant roles in how bad news is received. Understanding what is important in the process of breaking bad news may help in determining how best to perform this challenging task.
doi:10.4103/2230-8229.134763
PMCID: PMC4073565  PMID: 24987276
Attitude; perception; receiving bad news
10.  Determinants of misconceptions about diabetes among Saudi diabetic patients attending diabetes clinic at a tertiary care hospital in Eastern Saudi Arabia 
Objective:
To identify the determinants of misconceptions about diabetes in patients registered with a diabetes clinic at a tertiary care hospital in Eastern Saudi Arabia.
Materials and Methods:
This cross-sectional survey was carried out at a diabetes clinic of a tertiary care hospital in Eastern Saudi Arabia, from January to December 2012. A total of 200 diabetic patients were interviewed using a questionnaire comprising 36 popular misconceptions. The total misconception score was calculated and categorized into low (0-12), moderate (13-24) and high (25-36) scores. The association of misconception score with various potential determinants was calculated using Chi-square test. Step-wise logistic regression was applied to the variables showing significant association with the misconception score in order to identify the determinants of misconceptions.
Results:
The mean age was 39.62 ± 16.7 and 112 (56%) subjects were females. Type 1 diabetics were 78 (39%), while 122 (61%) had Type 2 diabetes. Insulin was being used by 105 (52.5%), 124 (62%) were self-monitoring blood glucose and 112 (56%) were using diet control. Formal education on diabetes awareness had been received by 167 (83.5%) before the interview. The mean misconception score was 10.29 ± 4.92 with 115 (57.5%) subjects had low misconception scores (<12/36). On the Chi-square test, female gender, rural area of residence, little or no education, <5 or >15 years since diagnosis, no self-monitoring, no dietary control and no diabetes education were all significantly (P < 0.05) associated with higher misconception scores. Step-wise logistic regression suggested that diabetes education, gender, education and time since diagnosis were significant (P < 0.05) predictors of misconception scores.
Conclusions:
The strongest determinants of misconceptions about diabetes in our study population were female gender, rural area of residence, illiteracy or little education, <5 or >15 years since diagnosis, no self-monitoring, no diet control and no education about diabetes.
doi:10.4103/2230-8229.134764
PMCID: PMC4073566  PMID: 24987277
Diabetes; determinants; misconceptions; myths; Saudi Arabia
11.  Effectiveness of presence of physician and midwife in quantity and quality of family planning services in health care centers 
Background and Aim:
Iran's health sector has been engaging the services of physicians and midwives in healthcare centers since 2005, with the hope of improving the quantity and quality of family planning services. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of serving physicians and midwives on the quantity and quality of family planning services in the healthcare centers of Iran.
Materials and Methods:
The present cross-sectional study (Jan 2010 until Sep 2011) was carried out on 600 eligible families who were clients of healthcare centers of Tabriz, Azarshahr and Osku, cities of Northwest Iran from 2006 until 2011, in two groups (before and after). Some of the characteristics of the participants and the data on the quality and quantity of family planning services provided were grouped in a checklist of 16 variables by comparing the patients’ past medical histories.
Results:
In comparison with 3 years prior to engaging physician and midwife services in health care centers, the Couple Year Protection (CYP) and the quantity of family planning service indexes significantly increased among eligible families. The family size of participants declined significantly after family physicians and midwives became available in the healthcare centers (P < 0.005).
Conclusion:
Our findings showed some improvement in the quantity of services without any noticeable changes in the quality of services provided as a consequence of this huge intervention. Therefore, it is suggested that there should be proper oversight of the duties of the health team in order to keep a close watch on primary healthcare, design of proper mechanisms for collecting and maintaining performance reports and statistics, and continuously monitor and control the quality of services.
doi:10.4103/2230-8229.128761
PMCID: PMC3966090  PMID: 24695960
Family planning; fertility; health services; healthcare services; reproductive ages; women of reproductive age
12.  Consanguinity pattern and heritability of Vitiligo in Arar, Saudi Arabia 
Context:
Epidemiological studies have shown that vitiligo is a complex trait, involving combinations of pathogenic effects of multiple susceptibility genes as well as environmental risk factors.
Aim:
To observe whether consanguinity increased the incidence of vitiligo in Saudi patients from Arar.
Patients and Methods:
This study included 69 Saudi patients with vitiligo and their families. These patients, selected from the experience specialist dermatology center in Arar, from April 2011 to 2012, were interviewed by a dermatologist to confirm the diagnosis and complete a questionnaire.
Results:
A total of 69 patients, 40 males and 29 females were selected. Their mean age was 34.5 ± 11.8 years with the median age of 23 years. The mean age at onset of disease was 27.9 ± 12.9 years. The mean duration of the disease was 9.7 ± 5.3 years. The frequency of focal, vulgaris, universal, and acrofacial subtypes was 22 (31.9%), 21 (30.4%), 8 (11.6%), and 18 (26.1%), respectively. A positive family history of vitiligo was obtained in 45 (65.2%) cases. A comparison of the frequency of vitiligo among siblings in relation to the general population was more in accord with the multifactorial model.
Conclusion:
Consanguinity in marriage increases the incidence of the disease. Therefore, genetic counseling and premarital examination would be important contributions to lower the prevalence of vitiligo.
doi:10.4103/2230-8229.128767
PMCID: PMC3966091  PMID: 24696629
Arar; consanguinity pattern; genetic; vitiligo
13.  Awareness of an obstetric population about environmental tobacco smoking 
Background and Objectives:
The reported rate of women's smoking is typically low. However, many pregnant women are exposed to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS), which could affect their own health and the health of their growing fetus. The aim of this study was to estimate the magnitude of the problem of exposure to ETS and assess the awareness of postpartum women to ETS and its possible effects.
Designs and Settings:
This was a cross-sectional study conducted on 1182 postpartum women at a university hospital in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, between 1st January and 30th June, 2012.
Materials and Methods:
A structured questionnaire was used for data collection. Factors associated with the level of understanding of the possible effects of ETS exposure were analyzed.
Results:
The majority of the participating women knew that exposure to ETS had adverse effects on maternal and fetal health (>80%), but their knowledge of the specific effects on fetal health was limited. The level of mothers’ education was found to be associated with better knowledge of effects on mother and fetal health (P < 0.01).
Conclusion:
This study revealed that pregnant women in our sample had limited knowledge of the specific effects of ETS on fetal health. This shortcoming in knowledge needs to be addressed by improving health.
doi:10.4103/2230-8229.128768
PMCID: PMC3966092  PMID: 24696630
Environmental tobacco smoking; knowledge; pregnant woman; smoking
14.  A cross-sectional online survey of compulsive internet use and mental health of young adults in Malaysia 
Background:
The last decade has seen the emergence of the internet as the prime communication medium changing the way people live and interact. Studies from various countries have reported on internet addiction and its association with mental health, but none have come from Malaysia.
Objectives:
We aimed at assessing the frequency of the use of various internet applications and exploring the association of compulsive internet use with mental health and socio-demographic factors.
Materials and Methods:
A cross-sectional online survey was carried out among participants registered for the monthly opinion poll survey of University Tunku Abdul Rahman, Malaysia. The questionnaire contained socio-demographic information, the use of various internet applications on a five-point Likert scale, compulsive internet use scale (CIUS) and 12 item general health questionnaire (GHQ-12). Correlations and linear regression analyzes were carried out.
Results:
Of the 330 respondents, 182 were females and 148 were males. The mean age was 23.17 (SD = 3.84). Mean CIUS score was 19.85 (SD = 10.57) and mean GHQ score was 15.47 (SD = 6.29). Correlation coefficients of CIUS score with age, years of use and daily hours of internet use were −0.118 (P = 0.03), −0.014 (P = 0.81) and 0.242 (P < 0.001) respectively. Multiple linear regression analysis showed that age (β = −0.111, P = 0.033) and marital status (β = −0.124, P = 0.018) were negatively associated with CIUS scores whereas daily hours of internet use (β = 0.269, P = 0.001) and GHQ score (β = 0.259, P = 0.001) were positively associated with the CIUS score.
Conclusions:
Compulsive internet use was correlated with GHQ score. More research is needed to confirm our results. Psychologists may consider assessing internet addiction when evaluating young psychiatric patients.
doi:10.4103/2230-8229.128770
PMCID: PMC3966093  PMID: 24696631
Internet addiction; mental health; well-being
15.  Prevalence of hypertension and associated cardiovascular risk factors in Central India 
Objectives:
To study the difference in the prevalence of hypertension and associated risk factors in urban and rural populations and the association of hypertension with various determinants.
Materials and Methods:
A community-based cross-sectional study was conducted in 48 villages and 15 urban wards of Jabalpur District of Central India. Nine hundred and thirty-nine individuals aged 20 years and above (624 from rural areas and 315 from urban areas) were included in the study. The prevalence of hypertension and associated cardiovascular risk factors was assessed in the urban and rural populations. A pretested questionnaire was used to collect data on socio-demographic, behavioral, and dietary factors. Anthropometric measurements of weight, height, waist and hip circumference, and blood pressure measurements were taken using the standard methodology. The glucose oxidase–peroxidase and cholesterol oxidase–cholesterol peroxidase methods were used to measure plasma glucose and serum cholesterol, respectively. Bivariate analysis was followed by multivariate analysis to detect the odds of getting hypertension with various risk factors for the urban and rural populations separately. Hypertension was defined as per Joint National Committee (JNC) - VII criteria.
Results:
The response rate was 97%. Overall prevalence of hypertension was 17%, with 21.4% in the urban population and 14.8% in the rural population. Significantly higher mean values of weight, height, body mass index (BMI), hip circumference (HC), waist circumference (WC), waist hip ratio (WHR), systolic blood pressure (SBP), fasting blood sugar (FBS), and serum cholesterol levels were mapped in the urban population in comparison with the rural population. Multivariate logistic regression analysis identified increasing age, parental history of hypertension, tobacco smoking, tobacco chewing, physical inactivity, high estimated per capita salt consumption, and BMI ≥27.5 kg/m2 as independent predictors for hypertension in the urban population, while in the rural population, increasing age, physical inactivity, central obesity, tobacco chewing and tobacco smoking were independent predictors for hypertension.
Conclusion:
The prevalence of hypertension and other cardiovascular risk factors was high in both urban and rural communities. Therefore, there is a need for comprehensive health promotion programs to encourage lifestyle modification.
doi:10.4103/2230-8229.128775
PMCID: PMC3966094  PMID: 24695988
Blood pressure; cardiovascular risk factors; epidemiology; hypertension; lifestyle; screening
16.  Indoor air quality levels in a University Hospital in the Eastern Province of Saudi Arabia 
Aim of the Study:
The complex hospital environment requires special attention to ensure a healthy indoor air quality (IAQ) to protect patients and healthcare workers against hospital-acquired infections and occupational diseases. Poor hospital IAQ may cause outbreaks of building-related illness such as headaches, fatigue, eye, and skin irritations, and other symptoms. The general objective for this study was to assess IAQ inside a large University hospital at Al-Khobar City in the Eastern Province of Saudi Arabia.
Materials and Methods:
Different locations representing areas where most activities and tasks are performed were selected as sampling points for air pollutants in the selected hospital. In addition, several factors were studied to determine those that were most likely to affect the IAQ levels. The temperature and relative percent humidity of different air pollutants were measured simultaneously at each location.
Results:
The outdoor levels of all air pollutant levels, except volatile organic compounds (VOCs), were higher than the indoor levels which meant that the IAQ inside healthcare facilities (HCFs) were greatly affected by outdoor sources, particularly traffic. The highest levels of total suspended particulates (TSPs) and those less than 10 microns (PM10) inside the selected hospital were found at locations that are characterized with m4ore human activity.
Conclusions:
Levels of particulate matter (both PM10 and TSP) were higher than the Air Quality Guidelines (AQGs). The highest concentrations of the fungal species recorded were Cladosporium and Penicillium. Education of occupants of HCF on IAQ is critical. They must be informed about the sources and effects of contaminants and the proper operation of the ventilation system.
doi:10.4103/2230-8229.128778
PMCID: PMC3966095  PMID: 24696632
Air pollutants; air quality guidelines; biological pollutants; hospital environment; indoor air quality; outdoor air pollution; traffic activity; university campuses
17.  Iodine deficiency in children: A comparative study in two districts of south-interior Karnataka, India 
Introduction:
Iodine is an essential component of the hormones produced by the thyroid gland that are essential for mammalian life. Although goiter is the most visible sequelae of iodine deficiency, the major impact of hypothyroidism as a result of iodine deficiency is impaired neurodevelopment, particularly early in life. According to the World Health Organization, it is the single most preventable cause of mental retardation and brain damage. The simplest, most effective and inexpensive preventive method is the consumption of iodized salt.
Objectives:
The objective of the following study is to estimate the prevalence of goiter in children in the rural areas of Mysore and Coorg districts in India and estimate iodine levels in salt samples.
Materials and Methods:
A cross-sectional study in the age group of 6-12 years, using population proportionate to size systematic sampling method. The total sample size was 10,082: out of which 5337 was from Mysore and the rest from Coorg district. Clinical examination of the thyroid gland was done and salt samples collected for the estimation of Iodine.
Results:
The total prevalence of goiter was 19.01% in children of 6-12 years in Coorg district and 8.77% in Mysore district and it was more in females than in males.
Conclusions:
It was observed that iodine deficiency disorders is endemic in both districts, with a prevalence of 19.01% in children aged 6-12 years in Coorg district and 8.77% in Mysore district. Analysis of salt samples suggested that most of the samples were inadequately iodised (73.92% in Coorg and 45.92% in Mysore).
doi:10.4103/2230-8229.128783
PMCID: PMC3966096  PMID: 24696633
Cross sectional study; dox plot; iodine deficiency; prevalence
18.  Unmet need for family planning among married women of reproductive age group in urban Tamil Nadu 
Context:
Unmet need for family planning (FP), which refers to the condition in which there is the desire to avoid or post-pone child bearing, without the use of any means of contraception, has been a core concept in the field of international population for more than three decades.
Objectives:
The very objective of this study is to determine the prevalence of “unmet need for FP” and its socio-demographic determinants among married reproductive age group women in Chidambaram.
Materials and Methods:
The study was a community-based cross-sectional study of married women of the reproductive age group, between 15 and 49 years. The sample size required was 700. The cluster sampling method was adopted. Unmarried, separated, divorced and widows were excluded.
Results:
The prevalence of unmet need for FP was 39%, with spacing as 12% and limiting as 27%. The major reason for unmet need for FP among the married group was 18%, for low perceived risk of pregnancy, 9%, feared the side effects of contraception 5% lacked information on contraceptives, 4% had husbands who opposed it and 3% gave medical reasons. Higher education, late marriage, more than the desired family size, poor knowledge of FP, poor informed choice in FP and poor male participation were found to be associated with high unmet need for FP.
Conclusion:
Unmet need for younger women was spacing of births, whereas for older women, it was a limitation of births. Efforts should be made to identify the issues in a case by case approach. Male participation in reproductive issues should be addressed.
doi:10.4103/2230-8229.128786
PMCID: PMC3966097  PMID: 24696634
Family planning; informed choice; male participation; unmet need
19.  Henoch–Schonlein purpura presenting sequentially as nodular rash, erythema nodosum, and palpable purpura 
We describe a 26-year-old woman who presented with a nodular rash on the elbows following an insect bite. Two days later, she developed erythema nodosum. Both these lesions were treated symptomatically. One week later, she had purpura, abdominal pain, hematuria, and arthralgias, following which steroids were administered. Her investigations revealed only microscopic hematuria that disappeared with therapy. This pattern of sequential appearance of rash and a nodular morphology are both unique features not previously reported.
doi:10.4103/2230-8229.128788
PMCID: PMC3966098  PMID: 24696039
Adult; erythema nodosum; Henoch–Schonlein purpura; nodular rash
20.  Age-appropriate feeding practices and nutritional status of infants attending child welfare clinic at a Teaching Hospital in Nigeria 
Background:
Appropriate infant feeding is the key to optimum infant and child development and survival. This study investigates age-appropriate infant feeding practices and nutritional status of infants attending the immunization and child welfare clinic at Aminu Kano Teaching Hospital.
Materials and Methods:
Using a cross-sectional descriptive design, a sample of 300 sets of infants (age ≤12 months) and caregivers was systematically selected and studied. The data were analyzed using the MINITAB® 12.21 (USA) statistical software.
Results:
All the infants studied were still on breast milk. Most of the mothers demonstrated correct body positioning (89.9) and attachment (78.7%) during breastfeeding, and effective suckling was demonstrated in 77.0%. Interestingly, none of the infants was either exclusively breastfed for 6 months or currently on exclusive breastfeeding. Furthermore, only 64 (58.2%) of the 110 infants that were more than 6 months of age had appropriately been started on complementary feeding from 6 months of age. Overall, most caregivers (88.7%) had “fair” to “good” infant feeding practices. The practices were significantly associated with their level of education, and their relationship with the infants. Up to 40.0% and 73.7% of the infants had varying degrees of wasting and stunting respectively. Infant feeding practices and the age of the infants emerged as the only factors significantly associated with stunting, while both the caregivers’ practices and age of the infants emerged as significant predictors of wasting in the infants.
Conclusion and Recommendations:
Barely 3 years to the 2015 target of the millennium development goals (MDGs), infant feeding and nutritional status still poses a serious threat to the dream of realizing the MDG-4. The Ministry of Health and relevant developing partners in this region should as a matter of urgency, formulate and implement a strong community-based public health intervention program to improve the knowledge and practices of mothers on infant feeding.
doi:10.4103/2230-8229.128766
PMCID: PMC3966099  PMID: 24696628
Age-appropriate feeding; infant feeding practices; Kano-Nigeria; nutritional status
21.  Symptomatic cycling Cushing disease managed by simultaneous bilateral laparoscopic adrenalectomy in a 11-year-old boy 
We report symptomatic cycling Cushing disease in a 11-year-old boy that was managed with simultaneous bilateral laparoscopic adrenalectomy. Positioning and the surgical technique have been fully described. Excellent results were achieved. Recent application of laparoscopic adrenalectomy for various adrenal pathology is highly effective and offers better results than open surgery. Post-operative recovery after laparoscopic technique is significantly shorter than the open technique.
doi:10.4103/2230-8229.128791
PMCID: PMC3966100  PMID: 24696635
Cycling Cushing disease; laparoscopic adrenalectomy; laparoscopic adrenalectomy in children; simultaneous bilateral adrenalectomy
22.  Primary care physicians’ knowledge and perceived barriers in the management of overweight and obesity 
Objectives:
To determine the level of knowledge of primary health care physicians and the barriers perceived in the management of overweight and obesity in the Eastern Province of Saudi Arabia.
Setting:
Primary health care centers in Dammam and Al-Khobar cities, Saudi Arabia.
Design:
A cross-sectional study.
Materials and Methods:
One hundred and forty-nine physicians were surveyed. Data were collected with a specially made anonymous, self-administrated, structured questionnaire with a Cronbach alpha reliability of 0.85, and content validity by five experts was used to measure the knowledge and barriers from several different aspects of care provided by primary health care centers to the overweight and obese.
Results:
One hundred and thirty (87%) physicians responded. More than two-thirds of the respondents considered themselves as key players in the management of obesity. However, only one-third believed that they were well prepared to treat obesity. Eighty-three per cent of the respondents had a negative attitude toward the concept of overweight and obesity. It was noted that 76.9% of physicians advised patients to control their weight with sport and exercise together with low calorie diet. Sixty percent of the respondents used body mass index to diagnose obesity. Seventy-two percent of respondents did not use weight reduction medications to treat obesity. Lack of training, poor administrative support, and time constraints were identified as barriers in managing overweight and obesity.
Conclusion:
Respondents were aware of the magnitude of overweight and obesity as a major public health problem in Saudi Arabia, and they were also aware of the correct definition of overweight and obesity, as well as its effect in increasing mortality. Better training is required to improve some areas of awareness and management of the conditions.
doi:10.4103/2230-8229.121972
PMCID: PMC3957166  PMID: 24672270
Barriers; knowledge; obesity; overweight; primary health care physicians; Saudi Arabia
23.  Attitude of primary care physicians toward patient safety in Aseer region, Saudi Arabia 
Objective:
The objective of this study was to assess the attitude of physicians at primary health-care centers (PHCC) in Aseer region toward patient safety.
Materials and Methods:
This study was conducted among working primary health-care physicians in Aseer region, Saudi Arabia, in August 2011. A self-administered questionnaire consisting of three parts was used; the first part was on the socio-demographic, academic and about the work profile of the participants. The attitude consisting of 26 questions was assessed on a Likert scale of 7 points using attitude to patients safety questionnaire-III items and the last part concerned training on “patient safety”, definition and factors that contribute to medical errors. Data of the questionnaire were entered and analyzed by Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) version 15.
Results:
The total number of participants was 228 doctors who represent about 65% of the physicians at PHCC, one-third of whom had attended a course on patient safety and only 52% of whom defined medical error correctly. The best score was given for the reduction of medical errors (6.2 points), followed by role of training and learning on patient safety (6 and 5.9 points), but undergraduate training on patient safety was given the least score. Confidence to report medical errors scored 4.6 points as did reporting the errors of other people and 5.6 points for being open with the supervisor about an error made. Participants agreed that “even the most experienced and competent doctors make errors” (5.9 points), on the other hand, they disagreed that most medical errors resulted from nurses’ carelessness (3.9 points) or doctors’ carelessness (4 points).
Conclusion:
This study showed that PHCC physicians in Aseer region had a positive attitude toward patient safety. Most of them need training on patient safety. Undergraduate education on patient safety which was considered a priority for making future doctors’ work effective was inadequate.
doi:10.4103/2230-8229.121976
PMCID: PMC3957167  PMID: 24672271
Aseer region; attitude; patient safety; primary health-care centers
24.  The prevalence of pterygium in Alkhobar: A hospital-based study 
Objective:
To analyze the epidemiology of pterygium in a hospital-based population in Alkhobar, which is located in the eastern province of Saudi Arabia.
Materials and Methods:
This was a retrospective, non-randomized, and consecutive case study. Out of 88,666 patients who were seen in the ophthalmology clinic between January 1995 through the end of December 2010, 116 patients were diagnosed with advanced pterygium. The medical records of these patients were evaluated.
Results:
The overall prevalence of pterygium was found to be 0.074%. There was no significant difference by either gender, side, or by laterality (P > 0.05). A significant increase was noticed in the prevalence of pterygium with increasing age and nasal location (P < 0.05).
Conclusion:
The overall prevalence rate of pterygium in Alkhobar is low when compared with results reported from other areas of the world.
doi:10.4103/2230-8229.121980
PMCID: PMC3957168  PMID: 24672272
Alkhobar; hospital-based; prevalence; pterygium; Saudi Arabia
25.  Prevalence and associated factors of polypharmacy among adult Saudi medical outpatients at a tertiary care center 
Objective:
The objective of this study was to assess the prevalence of polypharmacy (PP) and the associated factors in medical outpatients.
Materials and Methods:
A cross-sectional, observational, descriptive study was carried out in adult medical outpatients attending internal medicine clinics at King Abdulaziz Medical City, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia from 1 March 2009 to 31 December 2009. PP was defined as the concomitant use of ≥5 medications daily. The number of medications being currently taken by patient was recorded. Effect of patients’ age, gender, educational level, number of prescribers, disease load and disease type on PP was assessed by multivariate analysis using Statistical Package for Social Sciences Incorporated (SPSS Inc) Version 18.
Results:
Out of 766 patients included in the study, 683 (89%) had PP. The mean number of prescribed medications, oral pills and doses was 8.8, 9.6 and 12.1, respectively. Factors significantly associated with PP included age (≥61 years), disease load and the number of prescribers. Gender had no impact on PP while education beyond primary education significantly decreased PP. Hypertension, diabetes mellitus and dyslipidemia alone and as a cluster increased PP.
Conclusion:
We found an extremely high level of PP in medical outpatients at our tertiary care center. The impact of PP on medication compliance and control of underlying diseases in Saudi Arabia is unknown and needs to be studied at different levels of care.
doi:10.4103/2230-8229.121987
PMCID: PMC3957169  PMID: 24672273
Medical; medications; outpatients; polypharmacy

Results 1-25 (478)