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1.  Perioperative visual loss after spine surgery 
World Journal of Orthopedics  2014;5(2):100-106.
Perioperative visual loss (POVL) is an uncommon, but devastating complication that remains primarily associated with spine and cardiac surgery. The incidence and mechanisms of visual loss after surgery remain difficult to determine. According to the American Society of Anesthesiologists Postoperative Visual Loss Registry, the most common causes of POVL in spine procedures are the two different forms of ischemic optic neuropathy: anterior ischemic optic neuropathy and posterior ischemic optic neuropathy, accounting for 89% of the cases. Retinal ischemia, cortical blindness, and posterior reversible encephalopathy are also observed, but in a small minority of cases. A recent multicenter case control study has identified risk factors associated with ischemic optic neuropathy for patients undergoing prone spinal fusion surgery. These include obesity, male sex, Wilson frame use, longer anesthetic duration, greater estimated blood loss, and decreased percent colloid administration. These risk factors are thought to contribute to the elevation of venous pressure and interstitial edema, resulting in damage to the optic nerve by compression of the vessels that feed the optic nerve, venous infarction or direct mechanical compression. This review will expand on these findings as well as the recently updated American Society of Anesthesiologists practice advisory on POVL. There are no effective treatment options for POVL and the diagnosis is often irreversible, so efforts must focus on prevention and risk factor modification. The role of crystalloids versus colloids and the use of α-2 agonists to decrease intraocular pressure during prone spine surgery will also be discussed as a potential preventative strategy.
PMCID: PMC4017302  PMID: 24829872
Perioperative visual loss; Ischemic optic neuropathy; Central retinal artery occlusion; Cortical blindness; Posterior reversible encephalopathy; Spine surgery; Prone positioning
2.  Impact of rheumatoid arthritis on sexual function 
World Journal of Orthopedics  2014;5(2):107-111.
Sexuality is a complex aspect of the human being’s life and is more than just the sexual act. Normal sexual functioning consists of sexual activity with transition through the phases from arousal to relaxation with no problems, and with a feeling of pleasure, fulfillment and satisfaction. Rheumatic diseases may affect all aspects of life including sexual functioning. The reasons for disturbing sexual functioning are multifactorial and comprise disease-related factors as well as therapy. Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic inflammatory autoimmune disease characterized by progressive joint destruction resulting from chronic synovial inflammation. It leads to various degrees of disability, and ultimately has a profound impact on the social, economic, psychological, and sexual aspects of the patient’s life. This is a systemic review about the impact of RA on sexual functioning.
PMCID: PMC4017303  PMID: 24829873
Sexuality; Sexual functioning; Sexual dysfunction; Rheumatoid arthritis
3.  Techniques and accuracy of thoracolumbar pedicle screw placement 
World Journal of Orthopedics  2014;5(2):112-123.
Pedicle screw instrumentation has been used to stabilize the thoracolumbar spine for several decades. Although pedicle screws were originally placed via a free-hand technique, there has been a movement in favor of pedicle screw placement with the aid of imaging. Such assistive techniques include fluoroscopy guidance and stereotactic navigation. Imaging has the benefit of increased visualization of a pedicle’s trajectory, but can result in increased morbidity associated with radiation exposure, increased time expenditure, and possible workflow interruption. Many institutions have reported high accuracies with each of these three core techniques. However, due to differing definitions of accuracy and varying radiographic analyses, it is extremely difficult to compare studies side-by-side to determine which techniques are superior. From the literature, it can be concluded that pedicles of vertebrae within the mid-thoracic spine and vertebrae that have altered morphology due to scoliosis or other deformities are the most difficult to cannulate. Thus, spine surgeons would benefit the most from using assistive technologies in these circumstances. All other pedicles in the thoracolumbar spine should theoretically be cannulated with ease via a free-hand technique, given appropriate training and experience. Despite these global recommendations, appropriate techniques must be chosen at the surgeon’s discretion. Such determinations should be based on the surgeon’s experience and the specific pathology that will be treated.
PMCID: PMC4017304  PMID: 24829874
Thoracic vertebrae; Lumbar vertebrae; Pedicle screw; Fluoroscopy; Computed tomography
4.  Surgical advances in the treatment of neuromuscular scoliosis 
World Journal of Orthopedics  2014;5(2):124-133.
Neuromuscular disorders are a group of diseases affecting the neuro-musculo-skeletal system. Children with neuromuscular disorders frequently develop progressive spinal deformities with cardio-respiratory compromise in the most severe cases. The incidence of neuromuscular scoliosis is variable, inversely correlated with ambulatory abilities and with a reported risk ranging from 80% to 100% in non-ambulatory patients. As surgical and peri-operative techniques have improved, more severely affected children with complex neuromuscular deformities and considerable co-morbidities are now believed to be candidates for extensive surgery for spinal deformity. This article aimed to provide a comprehensive review of how neuromuscular spinal deformities can affect normal spine balance and how these deformities can be treated with segmental instrumentation and sub-laminar devices. Older concepts have been integrated with newer scientific data to provide the reader with a basis for better understanding of how treatment of neuromuscular scoliosis has evolved over the past few decades. Recent advances, as well as challenges that remain to be overcome, in the surgical treatment of neuromuscular curves with sub-laminar devices and in the management of post-operative infections are outlined.
PMCID: PMC4017305  PMID: 24829875
Neuromuscular scoliosis; Surgery; Sub-laminar bands; Luque rod; Unit rod
5.  Pathophysiology, diagnosis and treatment of intermittent claudication in patients with lumbar canal stenosis 
World Journal of Orthopedics  2014;5(2):134-145.
Spinal nerve roots have a peculiar structure, different from the arrangements in the peripheral nerve. The nerve roots are devoid of lymphatic vessels but are immersed in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) within the subarachnoid space. The blood supply of nerve roots depends on the blood flow from both peripheral direction (ascending) and the spinal cord direction (descending). There is no hypovascular region in the nerve root, although there exists a so-called water-shed of the bloodstream in the radicular artery itself. Increased mechanical compression promotes the disturbance of CSF flow, circulatory disturbance starting from the venous congestion and intraradicular edema formation resulting from the breakdown of the blood-nerve barrier. Although this edema may diffuse into CSF when the subarachnoid space is preserved, the endoneurial fluid pressure may increase when the area is closed by increased compression. On the other hand, the nerve root tissue has already degenerated under the compression and the numerous macrophages releasing various chemical mediators, aggravating radicular symptoms that appear in the area of Wallerian degeneration. Prostaglandin E1 (PGE1) is a potent vasodilator as well as an inhibitor of platelet aggregation and has therefore attracted interest as a therapeutic drug for lumbar canal stenosis. However, investigations in the clinical setting have shown that PGE1 is effective in some patients but not in others, although the reason for this is unclear.
PMCID: PMC4017306  PMID: 24829876
Lumbar canal stenosis; Cauda equine; Nerve root; Prostaglandin E1; Blood flow
6.  Painful sesamoid of the great toe 
World Journal of Orthopedics  2014;5(2):146-150.
The painful sesamoid can be a chronic and disabling problem and isolating the cause can be far from straightforward. There are a number of forefoot pathologies that can present similarly to sesmoid pathologies and likewise identifying the particular cause of sesamoid pain can be challenging. Modern imaging techniques can be helpful. This article reviews the anatomy, development and morphological variability present in the sesamoids of the great toe. We review evidence on approach to history, diagnosis and investigation of sesamoid pain. Differential diagnoses and management strategies, including conservative and operative are outlined. Our recommendations are that early consideration of magnetic resonance imaging and discussion with a specialist musculoskeletal radiologist may help to identify a cause of pain accurately and quickly. Conservative measures should be first line in most cases. Where fracture and avascular necrosis can be ruled out, injection under fluoroscopic guidance may help to avoid operative intervention.
PMCID: PMC4017307  PMID: 24829877
Sesamoid; Pain; Great toe; Management; Forefoot
7.  Clinical results of linezolid in arthroplasty and trauma MRSA related infections 
World Journal of Orthopedics  2014;5(2):151-157.
AIM: To analyse the management of patients treated with linezolid for orthopaedic infections.
METHODS: Twenty-two patients with orthopaedic related infections receiving a course of linezolid were reviewed retrospectively. Patients were classified into either post trauma, post arthroplasty and non trauma related infections. A diagnosis of infection was based on clinical findings, positive microbiological specimens, and positive signs of infection on radiological imaging and raised inflammatory markers. Pathogens isolated, inflammatory markers both at presentation and at final follow up, length of linezolid treatment, adverse drug reactions, concomitant anti-microbial therapy, length of hospital stay and any surgical interventions were recorded.
RESULTS: Infections were classified as post arthroplasty (n = 10), post trauma surgery (n = 8) or non-trauma related infections (n = 4). Twenty patients (91%) underwent surgical intervention as part of their treatment. The number of required surgical procedures ranged from 1 to 6 (mean = 2.56). Mean total length of stay per admission was 28.5 d (range 1-160 d). Furthermore, the mean duration of treatment with linezolid of patients who had resolution of symptoms was 31 d (range 10-84 d). All patients within this group were discharged on oral linezolid. Pathogens isolated included methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus, coagulase negative staphylococci, coliforms, enterococcus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, streptococcus viridans, Escherichia coli, group B streptococcus and pseudomonas. An overall 77% of patients demonstrated resolution of infections at follow-up, with mean C-reactive protein reducing from 123 mg/L to 13.2 mg/L.
CONCLUSION: This study demonstrates that the use of linezolid offers excellent efficacy in orthopaedic related infections when used alongside appropriate surgical management.
PMCID: PMC4017308  PMID: 24829878
Antibiotic resistance; Linezolid; Orthopaedic infections; Osteomyelitis; Periprosthetic joint infection
8.  Muscle force and movement variability before and after total knee arthroplasty: A review 
World Journal of Orthopedics  2014;5(2):69-79.
Variability in muscle force output and movement variability are important aspects of identifying individuals with mobility deficits, central nervous system impairments, and future risk of falling. This has been investigated in elderly healthy and impaired adults, as well as in adults with osteoarthritis (OA), but the question of whether the same correlations also apply to those who have undergone a surgical intervention such as total knee arthroplasty (TKA) is still being investigated. While there is a growing body of literature identifying potential rehabilitation targets for individuals who have undergone TKA, it is important to first understand the underlying post-operative impairments to more efficiently target functional deficits that may lead to improved long-term outcomes. The purpose of this article is to review the potential role of muscle force output and movement variability in TKA recipients. The narrative review relies on existing literature in elderly healthy and impaired individuals, as well as in those with OA before and following TKA. The variables that may predict long-term functional abilities and deficits are discussed in the context of existing literature in healthy older adults and older adults with OA and following TKA, as well as the role future research in this field may play in providing evidence-based data for improved rehabilitation targets.
PMCID: PMC4017309  PMID: 24829868
Osteoarthritis; Elderly; Total knee arthroplasty; Movement variability
9.  New perspectives for articular cartilage repair treatment through tissue engineering: A contemporary review 
World Journal of Orthopedics  2014;5(2):80-88.
In this paper review we describe benefits and disadvantages of the established methods of cartilage regeneration that seem to have a better long-term effectiveness. We illustrated the anatomical aspect of the knee joint cartilage, the current state of cartilage tissue engineering, through mesenchymal stem cells and biomaterials, and in conclusion we provide a short overview on the rehabilitation after articular cartilage repair procedures. Adult articular cartilage has low capacity to repair itself, and thus even minor injuries may lead to progressive damage and osteoarthritic joint degeneration, resulting in significant pain and disability. Numerous efforts have been made to develop tissue-engineered grafts or patches to repair focal chondral and osteochondral defects, and to date several researchers aim to implement clinical application of cell-based therapies for cartilage repair. A literature review was conducted on PubMed, Scopus and Google Scholar using appropriate keywords, examining the current literature on the well-known tissue engineering methods for the treatment of knee osteoarthritis.
PMCID: PMC4017310  PMID: 24829869
Cartilage; Repair; Mesenchymal stem cells; Scaffolds; Tissue engineering; Osteoarthritis
10.  Research in spinal surgery: Evaluation and practice of evidence-based medicine 
World Journal of Orthopedics  2014;5(2):89-93.
Evidence-based medicine (EBM) is a common concept among medical practitioners, yet unique challenges arise when EBM is applied to spinal surgery. Due to the relative rarity of certain spinal disorders, and a lack of management equipoise, randomized controlled trials may be difficult to execute. Despite this, responsibility rests with spinal surgeons to design high quality studies in order to justify certain treatment modalities. The authors therefore review the tenets of implementing evidence-based research, through the lens of spinal disorders. The process of EBM begins with asking the correct question. An appropriate study is then designed based on the research question. Understanding study designs allows the spinal surgeon to assess the level of evidence provided. Validated outcome measurements allow clinicians to communicate the success of treatment strategies, and will increase the quality of a given study design. Importantly, one must recognize that the randomized controlled trial is not always the optimal study design for a given research question. Rather, prospective observational cohort studies may be more appropriate in certain circumstances, and would provide superior generalizability. Despite the challenges involved with EBM, it is the future of medicine. These issues surrounding EBM are important for spinal surgeons, as well as health policy makers and editorial boards, to have familiarity.
PMCID: PMC4017311  PMID: 24829870
Evidence-based medicine; Spinal surgery; Trial design; Research; Methodology
11.  Modern posterior screw techniques in the pediatric cervical spine 
World Journal of Orthopedics  2014;5(2):94-99.
Treatment of children with cervical spine disorders requiring fusion is a challenging endeavor for a variety of reasons. The size of the patients, the corresponding abnormal bony anatomy, the inherent ligamentous laxity of children, and the relative rarity of the disorders all play a part in difficulty of treatment. The benefits of modern posterior cervical instrumentation in children, defined as rigid screw-rod systems, have been shown to be many including: improved arthrodesis rates, diminished times in halo-vest immobilization, and improved reduction of deformities. The anatomy of children and the corresponding pathology seen frequently is at the upper cervical spine and craniocervical junction given the relatively large head size of children and the horizontal facets at these regions predisposing them to instability or deformity. Posterior screw fixation, while challenging, allows for a rigid base to allow for fusion in these upper cervical areas which are predisposed to pseudarthrosis with non-rigid fixation. A thorough understanding of the anatomy of the cervical spine, the morphology of the cervical spine, and the available screw options is paramount for placing posterior cervical screws in children. The purpose of this review is to discuss both the anatomical and clinical descriptions related to posterior screw placement in the cervical spine in children.
PMCID: PMC4017312  PMID: 24829871
Pediatric cervical spine; Cervical screw fixation; Posterior cervical techniques
12.  Anterior ankle arthrodesis 
Ankle arthrodesis is a common procedure that resolves many conditions of the foot and ankle; however, complications following this procedure are often reported and vary depending on the fixation technique. Various techniques have been described in the attempt to achieve ankle arthrodesis and there is much debate as to the efficiency of each one. This study aims to evaluate the efficiency of anterior plating in ankle arthrodesis using customised and Synthes TomoFix plates. We present the outcomes of 28 ankle arthrodeses between 2005 and 2012, specifically examining rate of union, patient-reported outcomes scores, and complications. All 28 patients achieved radiographic union at an average of 36 wk; the majority of patients (92.86%) at or before 16 wk, the exceptions being two patients with Charcot joints who were noted to have bony union at a three year review. Patient-reported outcomes scores significantly increased (P < 0.05). Complications included two delayed unions as previously mentioned, infection, and extended postoperative pain. With multiple points for fixation and coaxial screw entry points, the contoured customised plate offers added compression and provides a rigid fixation for arthrodesis stabilization.
PMCID: PMC3952689  PMID: 24649408
Ankle arthrodesis; Customised plate; Anterior plate; Fusion; Synthes plate
13.  Triple pelvic osteotomy: Report of our mid-term results and review of literature 
World Journal of Orthopedics  2014;5(1):14-22.
A wide variety of pelvic osteotomies have been developed for the treatment of developmental dysplasia of the hip (DDH). In the present paper, we present a detailed review of previous studies of triple osteotomy as an alternative treatment for DDH. We also report our experience treating 6 adult cases of DDH by triple osteotomy in order to highlight the various aspects of this procedure.The mean age of our patients was 31.2 years with a mean follow-up period of 6 years. We assessed range of motion, center-edge angle, acetabular index angle, Sharp angle, acetabulum head index, head lateralization index, Japanese Orthopedic Association score, Harris hip score, patient satisfaction, and the difference between lower limb lengths before and after the procedure. At final follow-up, clinical scores were significantly improved and radiographic parameters also showed good correction of acetabulum.
PMCID: PMC3952690  PMID: 24649410
Pelvic osteotomy; Triple osteotomy; Developmental dysplasia of the hip
14.  Anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction best practice: A review of graft choice 
World Journal of Orthopedics  2014;5(1):23-29.
There is much literature about differing grafts used in anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction. Much of this is of poor quality and of a low evidence base. We review and summarise the literature looking at the four main classes of grafts used in ACL reconstruction; bone-patella tendon-bone, hamstrings, allograft and synthetic grafts. Each graft has the evidence for its use reviewed and then compared, where possible, to the others. We conclude that although there is no clear “best” graft, there are clear differences between the differing graft choices. Surgeon’s need to be aware of the evidence behind these differences, in order to have appropriate discussions with their patients, so as to come to an informed choice of graft type to best suit each individual patient and their requirements.
PMCID: PMC3952691  PMID: 24649411
Anterior cruciate ligament; Reconstruction; Hamstring; Patella tendon; Allograft; Autograft; Synthetic; Bone-patella tendon-bone
15.  Use of demineralized bone matrix in spinal fusion 
World Journal of Orthopedics  2014;5(1):30-37.
Spinal fusion remains the gold-standard treatment for several pathological spine conditions. Although, autologous Iliac Crest Bone Grafting is considered the gold-standard graft choice to promote spinal fusion; however, it is associated with significant donor site morbidity and a limited graft quantity. Therefore, several bone graft alternatives have been developed, to augment arthrodesis. The purpose of this review is to present the results of clinical studies concerning the use of demineralized bone matrix (DBM), alone or as a composite graft, in the spinal fusion. A critical review of the English-language literature was conducted on Pubmed, using key word “demineralized bone matrix”, “DBM”, “spinal fusion”, and “scoliosis”. Results had been restricted to clinical studies. The majority of clinical trials demonstrate satisfactory fusion rates when DBM is employed as a graft extender or a graft enhancer. Limited number of prospective randomized controlled trials (4 studies), have been performed comparing DBM to autologous iliac crest bone graft in spine fusion. The majority of the clinical trials demonstrate comparable efficacy of DBM when it used as a graft extender in combination with autograft, but there is no clinical evidence to support its use as a standalone graft material. Additionally, high level of evidence studies are required, in order to optimize and clarify the indications of its use and the appropriate patient population that will benefit from DBM in spine arthrodesis.
PMCID: PMC3952692  PMID: 24649412
Bone grafts; Demineralized bone matrix; Spinal fusion; Scoliosis
16.  Communication after cancellations in orthopaedics: The patient perspective 
World Journal of Orthopedics  2014;5(1):45-50.
AIM: To examine patients’ perceptions on communication surrounding the cancellation of orthopaedic operations and to identify areas for improvement in communication.
METHODS: A prospective survey was undertaken at a university teaching hospital within the department of Trauma and Orthopaedics. Patients admitted to an acute orthopaedic unit, whose operations were cancelled, were surveyed to assess patient satisfaction and preferences for notification of cancellation of their operations. Patients with an abbreviated mental test score of < 9, patients unable to complete the survey independently, those under 16 years of age, and any patient notified of the cancellation by any of the authors were excluded from this study. Patients were surveyed the morning after their operation had been cancelled thus ensuring that every opportunity was given for the medical staff to discuss the cancellation with the patient. The survey included questions on whether or not patients were notified of the cancellation of their surgery, the qualifications of the person discussing the cancellation, and patient preferences on the process. Satisfaction was assessed via 5-point Likert scale questions.
RESULTS: Sixty-five consecutive patients had their operations cancelled on 75 occasions. Fifty-four point seven percent of the patients who had cancellations were notified by a nurse and 32% by a doctor. No formal communication occurred for 13.3% cancellations and no explanation was provided for a further 16%. Patients reported that they were dissatisfied with the explanation provided for 36 of the 75 (48%) cancellations. Of those patients who were dissatisfied, 25 (69.4%) were notified by a nurse. Twenty-three of the 24 (96%) patients notified by a doctor were satisfied with the explanation and that communication. Of those patients who were notified by a nurse 83% patients reported that they would have preferred it if a doctor had discussed the cancellation with them. There was a significant difference in satisfaction between those counselled by a nurse and those notified by a doctor (P < 0.0001).
CONCLUSION: Communication surrounding cancellations does not meet patient expectations. Patients prefer to be notified by a doctor, illustrating the importance of communication in the doctor-patient relationship.
PMCID: PMC3952693  PMID: 24649413
Communication; Patient satisfaction; Orthopaedic surgery; Cancellation
17.  Comparative induction of controlled circulation by magnesium and remifentanil in spine surgery 
World Journal of Orthopedics  2014;5(1):51-56.
AIM: To evaluate the efficacy of magnesium sulfate (MGS) in comparison with remifentanil for induction of relative hypotension in posterior fusion of spine (PSF).
METHODS: In this randomized clinical trial, 40 patients with the American Society of Anesthesiologists I and II physical status undergoing lumbar PSF were randomized to receive remifentanil (REM) 0.15 μg/kg or MGS 50 mg/kg for controlled hypotension. The administering anesthesiologist was blinded to the medication. Continuous infusion was maintained at a fixed volume rate to deliver precalculated doses of either study drugs. All other aspects of anesthesia and surgery were similar in the two groups. The target mean arterial pressure (MAP) range used in this study was 60-70 mmHg. In the course of surgery, the hemodynamic variables, volume of blood loss, urine output, fluid intake and surgeon’s satisfaction were recorded. Data was analyzed with SPSS version 13.0 and P values less than 0.05 were considered significant.
RESULTS: Twenty patients in the MGS group and 19 patients in the REM group were studied. There was no difference between the two groups in the hemodynamic variables, blood loss, urine output, fluid requirement and surgeon’s satisfaction for exposure. The target MAP was achieved in 75% of Mg and 58% of remifentanil groups. Although a higher number of patients in the REM group required nitroglycerin (42.1%) to reach the target MAP than those in the MGS group (25%), this difference was not statistically significant (P = 0.32).
CONCLUSION: Our findings showed that in patients undergoing lumbar PSF surgery, remifentanil and MGS have a similar hypotensive effect and comparable amount of blood loss without any significant adverse effects.
PMCID: PMC3952694  PMID: 24649414
Controlled hypotension; Magnesium sulfate; Remifentanil; Spine surgery; Blood loss
18.  Neurovascular complications due to the Hippocrates method for reducing anterior shoulder dislocations 
World Journal of Orthopedics  2014;5(1):57-61.
In spite of the fact that the Hippocrates method hardly has been evaluated in a scientific manner and numerous associated iatrogenic complications have been reported, this method remains to be one of the most common techniques for reducing anterior shoulder dislocations. We report the case of a 69-year-old farmer under coumarin anticoagulant therapy who sustained acute first time anterior dislocation of his dominant right shoulder. By using the Hippocrates method with the patient under general anaesthesia, the brachial vein was injured and an increasing hematoma subsequently caused brachial plexus paresis by pressure. After surgery for decompression and vascular suturing, symptoms declined rapidly, but brachial plexus paresis still was not fully reversible after 3 mo of follow-up. The hazardousness of using the Hippocrates method can be explained by traction on the outstretched arm with force of the operator’s body weight, direct trauma to the axillary region by the physician’s heel, and the topographic relations of neurovascular structures and the dislocated humeral head. As there is a variety of alternative reduction techniques which have been evaluated scientifically and proofed to be safe, we strongly caution against the use of the Hippocrates method as a first line technique for reducing anterior shoulder dislocations, especially in elder patients with fragile vessels or under anticoagulant therapy, and recommend the scapular manipulation technique or the Milch technique, for example, as a first choice.
PMCID: PMC3952695  PMID: 24649415
Anterior shoulder dislocation; Reduction technique; Hippocrates method; Complications; Brachial plexus paresis; Brachial vein injury; Scapular manipulation technique
19.  Hallux rigidus: Joint preserving alternatives to arthrodesis - a review of the literature 
Hallux rigidus describes the osteoarthritis of the first metatarsophalangeal joint. It was first mentioned in 1887. Since then a multitude of terms have been introduced referring to the same disease. The main complaints are pain especially during movement and a limited range of motion. Radiographically the typical signs of osteoarthritis can be observed starting at the dorsal portion of the joint. Numerous classifications make the comparison of the different studies difficult. If non-operative treatment fails to resolve the symptoms operative treatment is indicated. The most studied procedure with reproducible results is the arthrodesis. Nevertheless, many patients refuse this treatment option, favouring a procedure preserving motion. Different motion preserving and joint sacrificing operations such as arthroplasty are available. In this review we focus on motion and joint preserving procedures. Numerous joint preserving osteotomies have been described. Most of them try to relocate the viable plantar cartilage more dorsally, to decompress the joint and to increase dorsiflexion of the first metatarsal bone. Multiple studies are available investigating these procedures. Most of them suffer from low quality, short follow up and small patient numbers. Consequently the grade of recommendation is low. Nonetheless, joint preserving procedures are appealing because if they fail to relief the symptoms an arthrodesis or arthroplasty can still be performed thereafter.
PMCID: PMC3952696  PMID: 24649409
Hallux rigidus; Osteoarthritis; First metatarsophalangeal joint; Joint preserving; Operative treatment; Osteotomy
20.  Isolated dorsal approach for the treatment of neglected volar metacarpophalangeal joint dislocations 
World Journal of Orthopedics  2014;5(1):62-66.
Here, we present the clinical and radiological results of three neglected volar metacarpophalangeal dislocations in 2 patients, which were treated with open reductions 10 and 24 mo after the dislocations. There was a mean of a 20° (range 10°-30°) limitation of extension and a 53.3° (range 30°-70°) limitation of flexion preoperatively. Postoperatively, there was no limitation of extension (at 8 and 12 mo) in any of the fingers. In terms of flexion, one finger had full function, one had a 10° and the last one had a 30° limitation of flexion. Two of the fingers presented anesthesia preoperatively, which improved to hypesthesia postoperatively. One finger had hypesthesia, which improved postoperatively. During surgery, a ruptured dorsal capsule was found to have interposed into the joint, making closed reduction impossible. Our experience with these two patients demonstrated that, even in neglected cases, open reduction using an isolated dorsal approach may result in satisfactory clinical and radiological outcomes.
PMCID: PMC3952697  PMID: 24649416
Metacarpophalangeal dislocation; Neglected dislocation; Surgical treatment; Dorsal surgical approach; Metacarpophalangeal dislocation rehabilitation
21.  Insights into Avicenna’s knowledge of the science of orthopedics 
World Journal of Orthopedics  2014;5(1):67-68.
The art of orthopedics traces its history back to ancient civilizations like those of the Egyptians. The evolution of this branch of medicine is indebted to investigations of many scientists, including Greek, Roman and Persian scholars. The Persian physician Avicenna (980-1037 AD) is one such scientist who investigated different aspects of orthopedics. It is possible to analyze Avicenna’s knowledge of orthopedics and his contributions to this branch of medicine by an examination of his epic encyclopedia of medicine, Al-Qanun fi al-Tibb (The Canon of Medicine).
PMCID: PMC3952698  PMID: 24649417
Avicenna; Bone fractures; Canon; History of medicine; Persia
22.  Orthopedic surgery and its complication in systemic lupus erythematosus 
World Journal of Orthopedics  2014;5(1):38-44.
Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a multi-systemic immune-complex mediated autoimmune condition which chiefly affects women during their prime year. While the management of the condition falls into the specialty of internal medicine, patients with SLE often present with signs and symptoms pertaining to the territory of orthopedic surgery such as tendon rupture, carpal tunnel syndrome, osteonecrosis, osteoporotic fracture and infection including septic arthritis, osteomyelitis and spondylodiscitis. While these orthopedic-related conditions are often debilitating in patients with SLE which necessitate management by orthopedic specialists, a high index of suspicion is necessary in diagnosing these conditions early because lupus patients with potentially severe orthopedic conditions such as osteomyelitis frequently present with mild symptoms and subtle signs such as low grade fever, mild hip pain and back tenderness. Additionally, even if these orthopedic conditions can be recognized, complications as a result of surgical procedures are indeed not uncommon. SLE per se and its various associated pharmacological treatments may pose lupus patients to certain surgical risks if they are not properly attended to and managed prior to, during and after surgery. Concerted effort of management and effective communication among orthopedic specialists and rheumatologists play an integral part in enhancing favorable outcome and reduction in postoperative complications for patients with SLE through thorough pre-operative evaluation, careful peri-operative monitoring and treatment, as well as judicious postoperative care.
PMCID: PMC3955778  PMID: 24653977
Orthopedics; Complications; Surgery; Systemic lupus erythematosus; Operation
23.  Trunnionosis: A pain in the neck 
World Journal of Orthopedics  2013;4(4):161-166.
Metal-on-metal (MoM) hip replacements have proven to be a modern day orthopaedic failure. The early enthusiasm and promise of a hard, durable bearing was quickly quashed following the unanticipated wear rates. The release of metal ions into the blood stream has been shown to lead to surrounding soft tissue complications and early failure. The devastating destruction caused has led to a large number of revision procedures and implant extractions. The resulting research into this field has led to a new area of interest; that of the wear at the trunnion of the prosthesis. It had been previously thought that the metal debris was generated solely from the weight bearing articulation, however with the evolution of modularity to aid surgical options, wear at the trunnion is becoming more apparent. The phenomenon of “trunnionosis” is a rapidly developing area of interest that may contribute to the overall effect of metallosis in MoM replacements but may also lead to the release of metal ions in non MoM hip designs. The aim of this paper is to introduce, explain and summarise the evidence so far in the field of trunnionosis. The evidence for this phenomenon, the type of debris particles generated and a contrast between MoM, non MoM and resurfacing procedures are also presented.
PMCID: PMC3801234  PMID: 24147250
Wear; Trunnion; Ions; Arthroplasty; Hip
24.  Normal and abnormal spine and thoracic cage development 
World Journal of Orthopedics  2013;4(4):167-174.
Development of the spine and thoracic cage consists of a complex series of events involving multiple metabolic processes, genes and signaling pathways. During growth, complex phenomena occur in rapid succession. This succession of events, this establishment of elements, is programmed according to a hierarchy. These events are well synchronized to maintain harmonious limb, spine and thoracic cage relationships, as growth in the various body segments does not occur simultaneously at the same magnitude or rate. In most severe cases of untreated progressive early-onset spinal deformities, respiratory insufficiency and pulmonary and cardiac hypertension (cor pulmonale), which characterize thoracic insufficiency syndrome (TIS), can develop, sometimes leading to death. TIS is the inability of the thorax to ensure normal breathing. This clinical condition can be linked to costo-vertebral malformations (e.g., fused ribs, hemivertebrae, congenital bars), neuromuscular diseases (e.g., expiratory congenital hypotonia), Jeune or Jarcho-Levin syndromes or to 50% to 75% fusion of the thoracic spine before seven years of age. Complex spinal deformities alter normal growth plate development, and vertebral bodies become progressively distorted, perpetuating the disorder. Therefore, many scoliotic deformities can become growth plate disorders over time. This review aims to provide a comprehensive review of how spinal deformities can affect normal spine and thoracic cage growth. Previous conceptualizations are integrated with more recent scientific data to provide a better understanding of both normal and abnormal spine and thoracic cage growth.
PMCID: PMC3801235  PMID: 24147251
Spine; Thorax; Thoracic cage; Growth; Early-onset spinal deformity; Children
25.  Multi-factorial sustainability approach is necessary to preserve knee function following osteoarthritis diagnosis 
World Journal of Orthopedics  2013;4(4):175-177.
Knee function preservation following a diagnosis of osteoarthritis may benefit from healthy patient lifestyles, exercise or activity habits, and daily living routines. Underlying societal issues and social roles may contribute further to both ecological and knee function preservation concerns. Based on sustainability theory and social ecology concepts we propose that factors such as health history, genetic predisposition, socio-environmental factors and local-regional-global physiological system viability contribute to knee function preservation. Addressing only some of these factors or any one factor in isolation can lead the treating physician, surgeon and rehabilitation clinician to less than optimal treatment effectiveness. An example is presented of a 57-year-old man with medial tibiofemoral osteoarthritis. In the intervention decision-making process several factors are important. Patients who would benefit from early knee arthroplasty tend to place osteoarthritic knee pain elimination at the top of their list of treatment expectations. They also have minimal or no desire to continue impact sport, recreational or vocational activities. In contrast, patients who are good candidates for a knee function preservation treatment approach tend to have greater expectations to be able to continue impact sport, recreational or vocational activities, are willing and better able to implement significant behavioral changes and develop the support systems needed for their maintenance, are willing to tolerate and live with minor-to-moderate intermittent knee pain, and learn to become more pain tolerant.
PMCID: PMC3801236  PMID: 24147252
Knee surgery; Treatment planning; Comprehensive care

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