Metal-on-metal (MoM) hip replacements have proven to be a modern day orthopaedic failure. The early enthusiasm and promise of a hard, durable bearing was quickly quashed following the unanticipated wear rates. The release of metal ions into the blood stream has been shown to lead to surrounding soft tissue complications and early failure. The devastating destruction caused has led to a large number of revision procedures and implant extractions. The resulting research into this field has led to a new area of interest; that of the wear at the trunnion of the prosthesis. It had been previously thought that the metal debris was generated solely from the weight bearing articulation, however with the evolution of modularity to aid surgical options, wear at the trunnion is becoming more apparent. The phenomenon of “trunnionosis” is a rapidly developing area of interest that may contribute to the overall effect of metallosis in MoM replacements but may also lead to the release of metal ions in non MoM hip designs. The aim of this paper is to introduce, explain and summarise the evidence so far in the field of trunnionosis. The evidence for this phenomenon, the type of debris particles generated and a contrast between MoM, non MoM and resurfacing procedures are also presented.
Wear; Trunnion; Ions; Arthroplasty; Hip
Development of the spine and thoracic cage consists of a complex series of events involving multiple metabolic processes, genes and signaling pathways. During growth, complex phenomena occur in rapid succession. This succession of events, this establishment of elements, is programmed according to a hierarchy. These events are well synchronized to maintain harmonious limb, spine and thoracic cage relationships, as growth in the various body segments does not occur simultaneously at the same magnitude or rate. In most severe cases of untreated progressive early-onset spinal deformities, respiratory insufficiency and pulmonary and cardiac hypertension (cor pulmonale), which characterize thoracic insufficiency syndrome (TIS), can develop, sometimes leading to death. TIS is the inability of the thorax to ensure normal breathing. This clinical condition can be linked to costo-vertebral malformations (e.g., fused ribs, hemivertebrae, congenital bars), neuromuscular diseases (e.g., expiratory congenital hypotonia), Jeune or Jarcho-Levin syndromes or to 50% to 75% fusion of the thoracic spine before seven years of age. Complex spinal deformities alter normal growth plate development, and vertebral bodies become progressively distorted, perpetuating the disorder. Therefore, many scoliotic deformities can become growth plate disorders over time. This review aims to provide a comprehensive review of how spinal deformities can affect normal spine and thoracic cage growth. Previous conceptualizations are integrated with more recent scientific data to provide a better understanding of both normal and abnormal spine and thoracic cage growth.
Spine; Thorax; Thoracic cage; Growth; Early-onset spinal deformity; Children
Knee function preservation following a diagnosis of osteoarthritis may benefit from healthy patient lifestyles, exercise or activity habits, and daily living routines. Underlying societal issues and social roles may contribute further to both ecological and knee function preservation concerns. Based on sustainability theory and social ecology concepts we propose that factors such as health history, genetic predisposition, socio-environmental factors and local-regional-global physiological system viability contribute to knee function preservation. Addressing only some of these factors or any one factor in isolation can lead the treating physician, surgeon and rehabilitation clinician to less than optimal treatment effectiveness. An example is presented of a 57-year-old man with medial tibiofemoral osteoarthritis. In the intervention decision-making process several factors are important. Patients who would benefit from early knee arthroplasty tend to place osteoarthritic knee pain elimination at the top of their list of treatment expectations. They also have minimal or no desire to continue impact sport, recreational or vocational activities. In contrast, patients who are good candidates for a knee function preservation treatment approach tend to have greater expectations to be able to continue impact sport, recreational or vocational activities, are willing and better able to implement significant behavioral changes and develop the support systems needed for their maintenance, are willing to tolerate and live with minor-to-moderate intermittent knee pain, and learn to become more pain tolerant.
Knee surgery; Treatment planning; Comprehensive care
Bone is one of the most preferential metastatic target sites of breast cancer. Bone possesses unique biological microenvironments in which various growth factors are stored and continuously released through osteoclastic bone resorption, providing fertile soil for circulating breast cancer cells. Bone-disseminated breast cancer cells in turn produce osteotropic cytokines which modulate bone environments. Under the influences of breast cancer-produced cytokines, osteoblasts express elevated levels of Ligand for receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB (RANKL) and stimulate osteoclastogenesis via binding to the receptor receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB (RANK) and activating its downstream signaling pathways in hematopoietic osteoclast precursors, which causes further osteoclastic bone destruction. Establishment of crosstalk with bone microenvironments (so called vicious cycle) is an essential event for metastatic breast cancer cells to develop bone metastasis. RANKL and RANK play a central role in this crosstalk. Moreover, recent studies have demonstrated that RANKL and RANK are involved in tumorigenesis and distant metastasis independent of bone microenvironments. Pharmacological disruption of the RANKL/RANK interplay should be an effective therapeutic intervention for primary breast tumors and bone and non-bone metastasis. In this context, denosumab, which is neutralizing monoclonal antibody against RANKL, is a mechanism-based drug for the treatment of bone metastases and would be beneficial for breast cancer patients with bone metastases and potentially visceral organ metastases.
Bone metastasis; Osteoclasts; Bone resorption; Osteoblasts; Stromal cells; Epithelial-mesenchymal transition; Bone pain
After it was suggested 30 years ago that the osteoblast lineage controlled the formation of osteoclasts, methods were developed that established this to be the case, but the molecular controls were elusive. Over more than a decade much evidence was obtained for signaling mechanisms that regulated the production of a membrane - bound regulator of osteoclastogenesis, in the course of which intercellular communication in bone was revealed in its complexity. The discovery of regulation by tumor necrosis factor ligand and receptor families was made in the last few years of the twentieth century, leading since then to a new physiology of bone, and to exciting drug development.
Receptor activator of nuclear factor κB ligand; Osteoprotegerin; Receptor activator of nuclear factor κB; Osteoclasts; Bone biology
Bone marrow (BM) cavities are utilized for hematopoiesis and to maintain hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs). HSCs have the ability to self-renew as well as to differentiate into multiple different hematopoietic lineage cells. HSCs produce their daughter cells throughout the lifespan of individuals and thus, maintaining HSCs is crucial for individual life. BM cavities provide a specialized microenvironment termed “niche” to support HSCs. Niches are composed of various types of cells such as osteoblasts, endothelial cells and reticular cells. Osteoclasts are unique cells which resorb bones and are required for BM cavity formation. Loss of osteoclast function or differentiation results in inhibition of BM cavity formation, an osteopetrotic phenotype. Osteoclasts are also reportedly required for hematopoietic stem and progenitor cell (HSPC) mobilization to the periphery from BM cavities. Thus, lack of osteoclasts likely results in inhibition of HSC maintenance and HSPC mobilization. However, we found that osteoclasts are dispensable for hematopoietic stem cell maintenance and mobilization by using three independent osteoclast-less animal models. In this review, I will discuss the roles of osteoclasts in hematopoietic stem cell maintenance and mobilization.
Osteoclasts; Hematopoietic stem and progenitor cell; Mobilization; Receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa B ligand; Osteomac; Osteopetrosis; op/op; C-Fos; Osteoprotegerin
Osteoporosis is a common bone disease characterized by reduced bone and increased risk of fracture. In postmenopausal women, osteoporosis results from bone loss attributable to estrogen deficiency. Osteoclast differentiation and activation is mediated by receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand (RANKL), its receptor receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB (RANK), and a decoy receptor for RANKL, osteoprotegerin (OPG). The OPG/RANKL/RANK system plays a pivotal role in osteoclast biology. Currently, a fully human anti-RANKL monoclonal antibody named denosumab is being clinically used for the treatment of osteoporosis and cancer-related bone disorders. This review describes recent advances in RANKL-related research, a story from bench to bedside. First, the discovery of the key factors, OPG/RANKL/RANK, revealed the molecular mechanism of osteoclastogenesis. Second, we established three animal models: (1) a novel and rapid bone loss model by administration of glutathione-S transferase-RANKL fusion protein to mice; (2) a novel mouse model of hypercalcemia with anorexia by overexpression of soluble RANKL using an adenovirus vector; and (3) a novel mouse model of osteopetrosis by administration of a denosumab-like anti-mouse RANKL neutralizing monoclonal antibody. Lastly, anti-human RANKL monoclonal antibody has been successfully applied to the treatment of osteoporosis and cancer-related bone disorders in many countries. This is a real example of applying basic science to clinical practice.
Osteoclast; Osteoblast; Receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand; Denosumab; Receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB; Osteoprotegerin
While injuries of the upper extremity are widely discussed in rock climbers, reports about the lower extremity are rare. Nevertheless almost 50 percent of acute injuries involve the leg and feet. Acute injuries are either caused by ground falls or rock hit trauma during a fall. Most frequently strains, contusions and fractures of the calcaneus and talus. More rare injuries, as e.g., osteochondral lesions of the talus demand a highly specialized care and case presentations with combined iliac crest graft and matrix associated autologous chondrocyte transplantation are given in this review. The chronic use of tight climbing shoes leads to overstrain injuries also. As the tight fit of the shoes changes the biomechanics of the foot an increased stress load is applied to the fore-foot. Thus chronic conditions as subungual hematoma, callosity and pain resolve. Also a high incidence of hallux valgus and hallux rigidus is described.
Rock climbing; Sport climbing; Feet injuries; Hallux valgus; Overstrain injuries
Tendon ruptures remain a significant musculoskeletal injury. Despite advances in surgical techniques and procedures, traditional repair techniques maintain a high incidence of rerupture or tendon elongation. Mechanical loading and biochemical signaling both control tissue healing. This has led some researchers to consider using a technique based on tension regulation at the suture line for obtaining good healing. However, it is unknown how they interact and to what extent mechanics control biochemistry. This review will open the way for understanding the interplay between mechanical loading and the process of tendon healing.
Tendon; Healing; Mechanical loading; Mechanotransduction; Rupture; Repair
Lumbar vertebral body (VB) fractures are increasingly common in an ageing population that is at greater risk of osteoporosis and metastasis. This review aims to identify different models, as alternatives to bone mineral density (BMD), which may be applied in order to predict VB failure load and fracture risk. The most representative models are those that take account of normal spinal kinetics and assess the contribution of the cortical shell to vertebral strength. Overall, predictive models for VB fracture risk should encompass a range of important parameters including BMD, geometric measures and patient-specific factors. As interventions like vertebroplasty increase in popularity for VB fracture treatment and prevention, such models are likely to play a significant role in the clinical decision-making process. More biomechanical research is required, however, to reduce the risks of post-operative adjacent VB fractures.
Lumbar spine; Vertebral body; Fracture; Prediction; Model; Bone mineral density; Osteoporosis
AIM: To investigate the feasibility of a 6-wk progressive strength-training programme commenced shortly after hip fracture surgery in community-dwelling patients.
METHODS: This prospective, single-blinded cohort study evaluated 31 community-dwelling patients from four outpatient geriatric health centres aged 60 years or older, who started a 6-wk programme at a mean of 17.5 ± 5.7 d after hip fracture surgery. The intervention consisted primarily of progressive fractured knee-extension and bilateral leg press strength training (twice weekly), with relative loads commencing at 15 and increasing to 10 repetitions maximum (RM), with three sets in each session. The main measurements included progression in weight loads, hip fracture-related pain during training, maximal isometric knee-extension strength, new mobility score, the timed up and go test, the 6-min walk test and the 10-meter fast speed walk test, assessed before and after the programme.
RESULTS: Weight loads in kilograms in the fractured limb knee-extension strength training increased from 3.3 ± 1.5 to 5.7 ± 1.7 and from 6.8 ± 2.4 to 7.7 ± 2.6, respectively, in the first and last 2 wk (P < 0.001). Correspondingly, the weight loads increased from 50.3 ± 1.9 to 90.8 ± 40 kg and from 108.9 ± 47.7 to 121.9 ± 54 kg in the bilateral leg press exercise (P < 0.001). Hip fracture-related pain was reduced, and large improvements were observed in the functional outcome measurements, e.g., the 6-min walk test improved from 200.6 ± 79.5 to 322.8 ± 68.5 m (P < 0.001). The fractured limb knee-extension strength deficit was reduced from 40% to 17%, compared with the non-fractured limb. Ten patients reported knee pain as a minor restricting factor during the last 10 RM knee-extension strength-training sessions, but with no significant influences on performance.
CONCLUSION: Progressive strength training, initiated shortly after hip fracture surgery, seems feasible and does not increase hip fracture-related pain. Progressive strength training resulted in improvement, although a strength deficit of 17% persisted in the fractured limb compared with the non-fractured limb.
Hip fracture; Resistance training; Feasibility; Repetition maximum; Pain
AIM: To determine the feasibility and potential role of combining radiostereometric analysis (RSA), gait analysis and activity monitoring in the follow-up of fracture patients.
METHODS: Two patients with similar 41B3 tibial plateau fractures were treated by open reduction internal fixation augmented with impaction bone grafting and were instructed to partial weight bear to 10 kg for the first six postoperative weeks. Fracture reduction and fixation were assessed by postoperative computer tomographic (CT) scanning. Both patients had tantalum markers inserted intra-operatively to monitor their fracture stability during healing using RSA and differentially loaded RSA (DLRSA) at 6 and 12 wk postoperatively. Gait analyses were performed at 1, 2, 6, and 12 wk postoperatively. Activity monitors were worn for 4 wk between the 2 and 6 wk appointments. In addition to gait analysis, knee function was assessed using the patient reported Lysholm scores, and doctor reported knee range of motion and stability, at 6 and 12 wk postoperatively.
RESULTS: There were no complications. CT demonstrated that both fractures were reduced anatomically. Gait analysis indicated that Patient 1 bore weight to 60% of body weight at 2 wk postoperative and 100% at 6 wk. Patient 2 bore weight at 10% of body weight to 6 wk and had very low joint contact forces to that time. At 12 wk however, there was no difference between the gait patterns in the two patients. Patient 1 increased activities of moderate-vigorous intensity from 20 to 60 min/d between 2 and 6 postoperative weeks, whereas Patient 2 remained more stable at 20-30 min/d. The Lysholm scores were similar for both patients and did not improve between 6 and 12 wk postoperatively. DLRSA examination at 12 wk showed that both patients were comfortable to weight bear to 80 kg and under this weight the fractures displaced less than 0.4 mm. RSA measurements demonstrated over time fracture migrations of less than 2 mm in both cases. However, Patient 2, who followed the postoperative weight bearing instructions most closely, displaced less (0.3 mm vs 1.6 mm).
CONCLUSION: This study demonstrates the potential of using a combination of RSA, gait analysis and activity monitoring to obtain a comprehensive evidence base for postoperative weight bearing schedules during fracture healing.
Radiostereometric analysis; Gait analysis; Activity monitoring; Rehabilitation protocols; Lower limb trauma
AIM: To determine if rabbit models can be used to quantify the mechanical behaviour involved in tibial stress fracture (TSF) development.
METHODS: Fresh rabbit tibiae were loaded under compression using a specifically-designed test apparatus. Weights were incrementally added up to a load of 30 kg and the mechanical behaviour of the tibia was analysed using tests for buckling, bone strain and hysteresis. Structural mechanics equations were subsequently employed to verify that the results were within the range of values predicted by theory. A finite element (FE) model was developed using cross-sectional computer tomography (CT) images scanned from one of the rabbit bones, and a static load of 6 kg (1.5 times the rabbit's body weight) was applied to represent running. The model was validated using the experimental strain gauge data, then geometric and elemental convergence tests were performed in order to find the minimum number of cross-sectional scans and elements respectively required for convergence. The analysis was then performed using both the model and the experimental results to investigate the mechanical behaviour of the rabbit tibia under compressive load and to examine crack initiation.
RESULTS: The experimental tests showed that under a compressive load of up to 12 kg, the rabbit tibia demonstrates linear behaviour with little hysteresis. Up to 30 kg, the bone does not fail by elastic buckling; however, there are low levels of tensile stress which predominately occur at and adjacent to the anterior border of the tibial midshaft: this suggests that fatigue failure occurs in these regions, since bone under cyclic loading initially fails in tension. The FE model predictions were consistent with both mechanics theory and the strain gauge results. The model was highly sensitive to small changes in the position of the applied load due to the high slenderness ratio of the rabbit’s tibia. The modelling technique used in the current study could have applications in the development of human FE models of bone, where, unlike rabbit tibia, the model would be relatively insensitive to very small changes in load position. However, the rabbit model itself is less beneficial as a tool to understand the mechanical behaviour of TSFs in humans due to the small size of the rabbit bone and the limitations of human-scale CT scanning equipment.
CONCLUSION: The current modelling technique could be used to develop human FE models. However, the rabbit model itself has significant limitations in understanding human TSF mechanics.
Rabbit; Stress fracture; Tibia; Finite element analysis; Finite element model; Mechanics
AIM: To describe the surgical technique of and indications for percutaneous pelvic osteotomy in patients with severe cerebral palsy.
METHODS: Twenty-one non-ambulatory children and adolescents (22 hips) were consecutively treated with percutaneous pelvic osteotomy, which was used in conjunction with varus, derotational, shortening femoral osteotomy and soft tissue release, to correct progressive hip subluxation and acetabular dysplasia. The age, gender, Gross Motor Function Classification System level, side(s) of operated hip, total time of follow-up, immediate post-operative immobilization, complications, and the need for revision surgery were recorded for all patients.
RESULTS: Seventeen patients (81%) were classified as GMFCS level IV, and 4 (19%) patients were classified as GMFCS level V. At the time of surgery, the mean age was 10.3 years (range: 4-15 years). The mean Reimers’ migration percentage improved from 63% (range: 3%-100%) pre-operatively to 6.5% (range: 0%-70%) at the final follow-up (P < 0.05). The mean acetabular angle (AA) improved from 34.1° (range: 19°-50°) pre-operatively to 14.1° (range: 5°-27°) (P < 0.05). Surgical correction of MP and AA was comparable in hips with open (n = 14) or closed (n = 8) triradiate cartilage (P < 0.05). All operated hips were pain-free at the time of the final follow-up visit, although one patient had pain for 6 mo after surgery. We did not observe any cases of bone graft dislodgement or avascular necrosis of the femoral head.
CONCLUSION: Pelvic osteotomy through a less invasive surgical approach appears to be a valid alternative with similar outcomes to those of standard techniques. This method allows for less muscle stripping and blood loss and a shorter operating time.
Percutaneous pelvic osteotomy; Cerebral palsy; Hip; Acetabular dysplasia; Children; Non-ambulatory
AIM: To investigate the correlation between preoperative measurement in total knee arthroplasty and the prosthetic size implanted.
METHODS: A prospective double-blind study of 50 arthroplasties was performed. Firstly, the reliability and correspondence between the size of said measurement and the actual implant utilized was determined. Secondly, the existing correlation between the intra- and interobserver determinations with the intraclass correlation coefficient was analyzed.
RESULTS: An overall correspondence of 54%, improving up to 92% when the measured size admitted a difference of one size, was found. Good intra- and interobserver reliability with an intraclass correlation coefficient greater than 0.90 (P < 0.001) was also discovered.
CONCLUSION: Agreement between the preoperative measurement with standardized acetate templates and the prosthetic size implanted can be considered satisfactory. We thus conclude it is a reproducible technique.
Total knee arthroplasty; Templating; Preoperative measurement; Prosthetic size; Correlation coefficient
AIM: To investigate the acute effects of stochastic resonance whole body vibration (SR-WBV) training to identify possible explanations for preventive effects against musculoskeletal disorders.
METHODS: Twenty-three healthy, female students participated in this quasi-experimental pilot study. Acute physiological and psychological effects of SR-WBV training were examined using electromyography of descending trapezius (TD) muscle, heart rate variability (HRV), different skin parameters (temperature, redness and blood flow) and self-report questionnaires. All subjects conducted a sham SR-WBV training at a low intensity (2 Hz with noise level 0) and a verum SR-WBV training at a higher intensity (6 Hz with noise level 4). They were tested before, during and after the training. Conclusions were drawn on the basis of analysis of variance.
RESULTS: Twenty-three healthy, female students participated in this study (age = 22.4 ± 2.1 years; body mass index = 21.6 ± 2.2 kg/m2). Muscular activity of the TD and energy expenditure rose during verum SR-WBV compared to baseline and sham SR-WBV (all P < 0.05). Muscular relaxation after verum SR-WBV was higher than at baseline and after sham SR-WBV (all P < 0.05). During verum SR-WBV the levels of HRV were similar to those observed during sham SR-WBV. The same applies for most of the skin characteristics, while microcirculation of the skin of the middle back was higher during verum compared to sham SR-WBV (P < 0.001). Skin redness showed significant changes over the three measurement points only in the middle back area (P = 0.022). There was a significant rise from baseline to verum SR-WBV (0.86 ± 0.25 perfusion units; P = 0.008). The self-reported chronic pain grade indicators of pain, stiffness, well-being, and muscle relaxation showed a mixed pattern across conditions. Muscle and joint stiffness (P = 0.018) and muscular relaxation did significantly change from baseline to different conditions of SR-WBV (P < 0.001). Moreover, muscle relaxation after verum SR-WBV was higher than after sham SR-WBV (P < 0.05).
CONCLUSION: Verum SR-WBV stimulated musculoskeletal activity in young healthy individuals while cardiovascular activation was low. Training of musculoskeletal capacity and immediate increase in musculoskeletal relaxation are potential mediators of pain reduction in preventive trials.
Musculoskeletal system; Electromyography; Quasi-experimental study; Prevention; Relaxation
AIM: To determine whether patients taking aspirin during carpal tunnel release had an increase of complications.
METHODS: Between January 2008 and January 2010, 150 patients underwent standard open carpal tunnel release (CTR) under intravenous regional anaesthesia. They were divided into three groups: groups 1 and 2 were made of 50 patients each, on aspirin 100 mg/d for at least a year. In group 1 the aspirin was never stopped. In group 2 it was stopped at least 5 d before surgery and resumed 3 d after. Group 3 acted as a control, with 50 patients who did not take aspirin. The incidence of clinically significant per- or post-operative complications was recorded and divided into local and cardio-cerebro-vascular complications. Local complications were then divided into minor and major according to Page and Stern. Local haematomas were assessed at 2 d (before resuming aspirin in group 2) and 14 d (after resuming aspirin in group 2) postoperatively. Patients were reviewed at 2, 14 and 90 d after surgery.
RESULTS: There was no significant difference in the incidence of complications in the three groups. A total of 3 complications (2 major and 1 minor) and 27 visible haematomas were recorded. Two major complications were observed respectively in group 1 (non stop aspirin) and in group 3 (never antiaggregated). The minor complication, observed in one patient of group 2 (stop aspirin), consisted of a wound dehiscence, which only led to delayed healing. All haematomas were observed in the first 48 h, no haematoma lasted for more than 2 wk and all resolved spontaneously. A major haematoma (score > 20 cm2) was observed in 8 patients. A minor haematoma (score < 20 cm2) was recorded in 19 patients. All patients at 90 d after surgery were satisfied with the result in terms of relief of their preoperative symptoms. Major and minor haematomas did not impair hand function or require any specific therapy.
CONCLUSION: Our study demonstrates that continuation of aspirin did not increase the risk of complications. It is unnecessary to stop aspirin before CTR with good surgical techniques.
Carpal tunnel syndrome; Aspirin; Antiaggregation therapy; Hand surgery; Carpal tunnel release
AIM: To present the 18 year survival and the clinical and radiological outcomes of the Müller straight stem, cemented, total hip arthroplasty (THA).
METHODS: Between 1989 and 2007, 176 primary total hip arthroplasties in 164 consecutive patients were performed in our institution by the senior author. All patients received a Müller cemented straight stem and a cemented polyethylene liner. The mean age of the patients was 62 years (45-78). The diagnosis was primary osteoarthritis in 151 hips, dysplasia of the hip in 12 and subcapital fracture of the femur in 13. Following discharge, serial follow-up consisted of clinical evaluation based on the Harris Hip Score and radiological assessment. The survival of the prosthesis using revision for any reason as an end-point was calculated by Kaplan-Meier analysis.
RESULTS: Twenty-four (15%) patients died during the follow-up study, 6 (4%) patients were lost, while the remaining 134 patients (141 hips) were followed-up for a mean of 10 years (3-18 years). HSS score at the latest follow-up revealed that 84 hips (59.5%) had excellent results, 30 (22.2%) good, 11 (7.8%) fair and 9 (6.3%) poor. There were 3 acetabular revisions due to aseptic loosening. Six (4.2%) stems were diagnosed as having radiographic definitive loosening; however, only 1 was revised. 30% of the surviving stems showed no radiological changes of radiolucency, while 70% showed some changes. Survival of the prosthesis for any reason was 96% at 10 years and 81% at 18 years.
CONCLUSION: The 18 year survival of the Müller straight stem, cemented THA is comparable to those of other successful cemented systems.
Total hip; Replacement; Muller; Straight stem; Cemented; Survivorship
AIM: To investigate current preferences and opinions on the diagnosis, treatment and rehabilitation of patients with anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury in Croatia.
METHODS: The survey was conducted using a questionnaire which was sent by e-mail to all 189 members of the Croatian Orthopaedic and Traumatology Association. Only respondents who had performed at least one ACL reconstruction during 2011 were asked to fill out the questionnaire.
RESULTS: Thirty nine surgeons responded to the survey. Nearly all participants (95%) used semitendinosus/gracilis tendon autograft for reconstruction and only 5% used bone-patellar tendon-bone autograft. No other graft type had been used. The accessory anteromedial portal was preferred over the transtibial approach (67% vs 33%). Suspensory fixation was the most common graft fixation method (62%) for the femoral side, followed by the cross-pin (33%) and bioabsorbable interference screw (5%). Almost all respondents (97%) used a bioabsorbable interference screw for tibial side graft fixation.
CONCLUSION: The results show that ACL reconstruction surgery in Croatia is in step with the recommendations from latest world literature.
Anterior cruciate ligament; Survey; Knee; Surgery; Reconstruction
AIM: To examine the effects of treatment with risedronate for 1 year on speed of sound (SOS) of the calcaneus and bone turnover markers in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis.
METHODS: Thirty-eight postmenopausal women with osteoporosis who had been treated with risedronate for > 1 year were enrolled in the study. The SOS and bone turnover markers were monitored during treatment with risedronate for 1 year.
RESULTS: The urinary levels of cross-linked N-terminal telopeptides of type I collagen and serum levels of alkaline phosphatase were significantly decreased at 3 mo (-34.7%) and 12 mo (-21.2%), respectively, compared with the baseline values. The SOS increased modestly, but significantly by 0.65% at 12 mo compared with the baseline value. Treatment with risedronate elicited an increase in the SOS of the calcaneus exceeding the coefficient of variation in vivo (0.27%).
CONCLUSION: The present study confirmed that risedronate suppressed bone turnover and elicited a clinically significant increase in the SOS of the calcaneus in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis.
Risedronate; Postmenopausal women; Quantitative ultrasound; Speed of sound; Bone turnover
Cervical fractures can result in severe neurological compromise and even death. One of the most commonly injured segments is the C2 vertebrae, which most frequently involves the odontoid process. In this report, we present the unusual case of a 28-year-old female who sustained a C2 vertebral body fracture (comminuted transverse fracture through the body and both transverse processes) that had both a significant distractive and rotational component, causing the fracture to be highly unstable. Application of halo bracing was unsuccessful. The patient subsequently required a C1-C4 posterior spinal fusion. Follow-up computer tomography imaging confirmed fusion and the patient did well clinically thereafter.
C2; Distractive; Odontoid fracture; Rotational; Spine; Type III; Unstable
We report a case of a 32 year-old male, admitted for a lytic lesion of the distal femur. One month after the first X-ray, clinical and imaging deterioration was evident. Open biopsy revealed fibrous dysplasia. Three months later, the lytic lesion had spread to the whole distal third of the femur reaching the articular cartilage. The malignant clinical and imaging features necessitated excision of the lesion and reconstruction with a custom-made total knee arthroplasty. Intra-operatively, no obvious soft tissue infiltration was evident. Nevertheless, an excision of the distal 15.5 cm of the femur including 3.0 cm of the surrounding muscles was finally performed. The histological examination of the excised specimen revealed central low-grade osteosarcoma. Based on the morphological features of the excised tumor, allied to the clinical findings, the diagnosis of low-grade central osteosarcoma was finally made although characters of a fibrous dysplasia were apparent. Central low-grade osteosarcoma is a rare, well-differentiated sub-type of osteosarcoma, with clinical, imaging, and histological features similar to benign tumours. Thus, initial misdiagnosis is usual with the condition commonly mistaken for fibrous dysplasia. Central low-grade osteosarcoma is usually treated with surgery alone, with rare cases of distal metastases. However, regional recurrence is quite frequent after close margin excision.
Osteosarcoma; Fibrous dysplasia of bone; Distal femur; Custom-made total knee arthroplasty; Tumour
Bursitis is quite responsive to therapeutic intervention, once the afflicted area is accurately identified. This is especially notable for some hip complaints. Patients’ use of the term “hip” can relate to anything from the low back to groin to lateral thigh pain. Trochanteric area surface localization of “hip” pain may afford an opportunity for immediate cure. Effectiveness of therapeutic intervention is predicated upon injection of not one or two, but all four peri-trochanteric bursa with a depot (minimally water-soluble) corticosteroid. The term trochanteric bursitis suggests that the inflammation is more focal than what is clinically observed. While easier to express, perhaps it is time to refer to inflammation in this area, naming all four affected bursae.
Trochanter; Bursitis; Bursa; Hip; Injection; Corticosteroids; Dexamethasone; Triamcinolone
Lateral epicondylitis is a relatively common clinical problem, easily recognized on palpation of the lateral protuberance on the elbow. Despite the “itis” suffix, it is not an inflammatory process. Therapeutic approaches with topical non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, corticosteroids and anesthetics have limited benefit, as would be expected if inflammation is not involved. Other approaches have included provision of healing cytokines from blood products or stem cells, based on the recognition that this repetitive effort-derived disorder represents injury. Noting calcification/ossification of tendon attachments to the lateral epicondyle (enthesitis), dry needling, radiofrequency, shock wave treatments and surgical approaches have also been pursued. Physiologic approaches, including manipulation, therapeutic ultrasound, phonophoresis, iontophoresis, acupuncture and exposure of the area to low level laser light, has also had limited success. This contrasts with the benefit of a simple mechanical intervention, reducing the stress on the attachment area. This is based on displacement of the stress by use of a thin (3/4-1 inch) band applied just distal to the epicondyle. Thin bands are required, as thick bands (e.g., 2-3 inch wide) simply reduce muscle strength, without significantly reducing stress. This approach appears to be associated with a failure rate less than 1%, assuming the afflicted individual modifies the activity that repeatedly stresses the epicondylar attachments.
Epicondylitis; Tennis elbow; Adaptive equipment; Mechanical overload; Elbow; Inflammation
Intercostal nerve transfer is a valuable procedure in devastating plexopathies. Intercostal nerves are a very good choice for elbow flexion or extension and shoulder abduction when the intraplexus donor nerves are not available. The best results are obtained in obstetric brachial plexus palsy patients, when direct nerve transfer is performed within six months from the injury. Unlike the adult posttraumatic patients after median and ulnar nerve neurotization with intercostal nerves, almost all obstetric brachial plexus palsy patients achieve protective sensation in the hand and some of them achieve active wrist and finger flexion. Use in combination with proper muscles, intercostal nerve transfer can yield adequate power to the paretic upper limb. Reinnervation of native muscles (i.e., latissimus dorsi) should always be sought as they can successfully be transferred later on for further functional restoration.
Intercostal nerve; Brachial plexus reconstruction; Reinnervation; Root avulsion