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1.  THE ROLE OF THE SCAPULA 
Previously, the scapular musculature was often neglected in designing a rehabilitation protocol for the shoulder. In the past two decades a significant amount of research has been performed in order to help identify the role of the scapula in upper extremity function. Weakness of the scapular stabilizers and resultant altered biomechanics could result in: 1) abnormal stresses to the anterior capsular structures of the shoulder, 2) increased possibility of rotator cuff compression, and 3) decreased shoulder complex neuromuscular performance. This clinical commentary presents facts about the anatomy and biomechanics of the scapula and surrounding musculature, and describes the pathomechanics of scapular dysfunction. The focus is upon the assessment of dysfunction and retraining of the scapular musculature.
Level of Evidence:
5
PMCID: PMC3811730  PMID: 24175141
scapular musculature; scapular biomechanics; shoulder rehabilitation; scapular strengthening
2.  PUBLISHING YOUR WORK IN A JOURNAL: UNDERSTANDING THE PEER REVIEW PROCESS 
Manuscripts have been subjected to the peer review process prior to publication for over 300 years. Currently, the peer review process is used by almost all scientific journals, and The International Journal of Sports Physical Therapy is no exception. Scholarly publication is the means by which new work is communicated and peer review is an important part of this process. Peer review is a vital part of the quality control mechanism that is used to determine what is published, and what is not. The purpose of this commentary is to provide a description of the peer review process, both generally, and as utilized by The International Journal of Sports Physical Therapy. It is the hope of the authors that this will assist those who submit scholarly works to understand the purpose of the peer review process, as well as to appreciate the length of time required for a manuscript to complete the process and move toward publication.
PMCID: PMC3474310  PMID: 23091777
Peer review; quality control; research publication
3.  Postoperative Rehabilitation Guidelines for Hip Arthroscopy in an Active Population 
Sports Health  2010;2(3):222-230.
Context:
With the evolution of hip arthroscopy has come an increased recognition of intra-articular hip pathologies and improved techniques for their management. Whereas mechanical problems can often be corrected through surgery, functional deficits must be corrected through the rehabilitation process. Therefore, the evolution of hip arthroscopy has necessitated a progression in hip rehabilitation to ensure optimal postsurgical results.
Evidence Acquisition:
Literature review was conducted with PubMed, EMBASE, and PEDro (1992 to 2009) with the terms hip, rehabilitation, and physical therapy.
Results:
Although it is generally accepted that rehabilitation after hip arthroscopy is important, there is limited evidence-based research to support the rehabilitative guidelines.
Conclusion:
The common goal of hip rehabilitation should remain focused on the return to pain-free function of the hip joint. Outcome data indicate that this goal is being met; however, further data are required to completely validate the long-term success of hip rehabilitation after arthroscopy.
doi:10.1177/1941738110366383
PMCID: PMC3445109  PMID: 23015942
hip arthroscopy; hip pathology; hip rehabilitation; clinical rehabilitation guidelines
4.  The Chop and Lift Reconsidered: Integrating Neuromuscular Principles into Orthopedic and Sports Rehabilitation. 
The upper extremity bilateral PNF patterns, better known as the “chop and lift” are well known to physical therapists. These patterns which utilize spiral and diagonal motions of the upper extremity can be used for both assessment and treatment of sports and orthopedic injuries. Half kneeling and tall kneeling postures fall between low-level postures such as rolling and 4-point, and high-level postures of standing and walking. Half kneeling and tall kneeling can be considered transitional postures. When the chop and lift patterns are used in conjunction with the half and tall kneeling developmental postures, the techniques are an excellent assessment of core stability/instability. Combinations of the upper extremity patterns and the developmental postures can be powerful corrective training techniques. The combined experience of the three authors is used to describe techniques for equipment setup, testing, assessment, and treatment of athletic imbalances. These techniques require and promote instantaneous local muscular activity as developmental postures and balance reactions are incorporated. The therapeutic use of both PNF and developmental patterns has been a hallmark of rehabilitation of patients with neurologic dysfunction, but can be equally and effectively applied in the sports and orthopedic rehabilitation setting.
PMCID: PMC2953333  PMID: 21509127
PNF; chop and lift patterns; reflex stabilization
5.  Using Rolling to Develop Neuromuscular Control and Coordination of the Core and Extremities of Athletes 
Rolling is a movement pattern seldom used by physical therapists for assessment and intervention with adult clientele with normal neurologic function. Rolling, as an adult motor skill, combines the use of the upper extremities, core, and lower extremities in a coordinated manner to move from one posture to another. Rolling is accomplished from prone to supine and supine to prone, although the method by which it is performed varies among adults. Assessment of rolling for both the ability to complete the task and bilateral symmetry may be beneficial for use with athletes who perform rotationally-biased sports such as golf, throwing, tennis, and twisting sports such as dance, gymnastics, and figure skating. Additionally, when used as intervention techniques, the rolling patterns have the ability to affect dysfunction of the upper quarter, core, and lower quarter. By applying proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation (PNF) principles, the therapist may assist patients and clients who are unable to complete a rolling pattern. Examples given in the article include distraction/elongation, compression, and manual contacts to facilitate proper rolling. The combined experience of the four authors is used to describe techniques for testing, assessment, and treatment of dysfunction, using case examples that incorporate rolling. The authors assert that therapeutic use of the developmental pattern of rolling with techniques derived from PNF is a hallmark in rehabilitation of patients with neurologic dysfunction, but can be creatively and effectively utilized in musculoskeletal rehabilitation.
PMCID: PMC2953329  PMID: 21509112
6.  Can Serious Injury in Professional Football be Predicted by a Preseason Functional Movement Screen? 
Background
Little data exists regarding injury risk factors for professional football players. Athletes with poor dynamic balance or asymmetrical strength and flexibility (i.e. poor fundamental movement patterns) are more likely to be injured. The patterns of the Functional Movement Screen™ (FMS) place the athlete in positions where range of motion, stabilization, and balance deficits may be exposed.
Objectives
To determine the relationship between professional football players' score on the FMS™ and the likelihood of serious injury.
Methods
FMS™ scores obtained prior to the start of the season and serious injury (membership on the injured reserve for at least 3 weeks) data were complied for one team (n = 46). Utilizing a receiver-operator characteristic curve the FMS™ score was used to predict injury.
Results
A score of 14 or less on the FMS™ was positive to predict serious injury with specificity of 0.91 and sensitivity of 0.54. The odds ratio was 11.67, positive likelihood ratio was 5.92, and negative likelihood ratio 0.51.
Discussion and Consclusion
The results of this study suggest fundamental movement (as measured by the FMS™) is an identifiable risk factor for injury in professional football players. The findings of this study suggest professional football players with dysfunctional fundamental movement patterns as measured by the FMS™ are more likely to suffer an injury than those scoring higher on the FMS™.
PMCID: PMC2953296  PMID: 21522210
Functional Movement Screen; injury prediction
7.  The Role of the Scapula in the Rehabilitation of Shoulder Injuries 
Journal of Athletic Training  2000;35(3):364-372.
Objective:
To present a clinical understanding of the role the scapula plays in the mechanics of shoulder function and specialized techniques for the rehabilitation of injuries around the shoulder girdle.
Background:
The scapular musculature is often neglected in the evaluation and treatment of shoulder injuries. This lack of attention often degenerates into the incomplete evaluation and rehabilitation of scapular dysfunction. Dysfunction or weakness of the scapular stabilizers often results in altered biomechanics of the shoulder girdle. The altered biomechanics can result in (1) abnormal stresses to the anterior capsular structures, (2) the increased possibility of rotator cuff compression, and (3) decreased performance.
Description:
We review the anatomy and role of the scapula, the pathomechanics of injury and dysfunction, and the evaluation and rehabilitation of the scapula.
Clinical Advantage:
Knowledge of how the scapular muscles influence function at the shoulder builds a strong foundation for the clinician to develop rehabilitation programs for the shoulder.
Images
PMCID: PMC1323398  PMID: 16558649
scapular rehabilitation; shoulder rehabilitation; impingement syndrome; rotator cuff

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