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Anterior knee pain (AKP), also known as patellofemoral pain syndrome (PFPS), is believed to be common in young, active females. A prevalence rate of 25% has been commonly cited in the literature. However, this rate may be more anecdotal than empirical. The purpose of this study was to estimate the prevalence of AKP in females 18 to 35 years of age.
Three cohorts of females, totaling 724 participants between 18 and 35 years of age participated in this study. The mean age of participants was 24.17 years (SD: 2.34), mean height was 165.10 cm (SD: 7.26), mean weight was 65.46 kg (SD: 14.10), and mean BMI was 23.95 kg/m2 (SD: 4.86). Participants completed the Anterior Knee Pain Questionnaire (AKPQ), a functional outcome tool developed to document symptoms of AKP and progress in patients during rehabilitation.
The mean score on the AKPQ for the left lower extremity was 93.38 (SD: 10.00) and 93.16 (SD: 11.37) for the right lower extremity. Using a cutoff score of 83 on the AKPQ, 85 of 724 subjects were classified as having AKP in the left lower extremity for a prevalence of 12% (95% CI = 9%-14%) while 94 subjects were classified with AKP in the right lower extremity for a prevalence of 13% (95% CI = 11%-15%).
The estimated prevalence of AKP in this sample of 18–35 year old females of 12–13% is much less than the commonly cited value of 25%. The results may provide a better representation of subjects with AKP.
Level of Evidence:
PMCID: PMC3414071  PMID: 22893859
Anterior knee pain; Anterior Knee Pain Questionnaire (AKPQ); functional limitations; prevalence
2.  Reference Values for the Closed Kinetic Chain Upper Extremity Stability Test (CKCUEST) for Collegiate Baseball Players 
The Closed Kinetic Chain Upper Extremity Stability Test (CKCUEST) is a tool developed and used in the clinic to evaluate progress during upper extremity rehabilitation. A need exists for reference values of CKCUEST for use in a clinical setting.
To calculate reference values for the CKCUEST that may assist clinicians in developing goals and objectives for male collegiate baseball players who are recovering from injuries to the upper extremity. To determine if differences exist in scores according to playing position.
The sample consisted of 77 collegiate, male baseball players between the ages of 18 and 22 who reported no recent history of injuries to the shoulder, elbow, or the hand-wrist complex. The CKCUEST was administered three times to the athletes and the number of touches when performing the CKCUEST during the 15-second test was measured and recorded. An average of the three tests was used for data analysis.
No significant differences existed according to playing position. The data did not differ from the normal distribution; therefore, reference values were calculated and reported for use by clinicians in development of goals and objectives for this population.
Discussion and Conclusion
The CKCUEST appears to be a clinically useful test for upper extremity function.
PMCID: PMC2953295  PMID: 21522211
upper extremity; functional testing; closed-kinetic chain
3.  The Lateral Scapular Slide Test: A Reliability Study of Males with and without Shoulder Pathology 
Abnormal scapular movement or malposition is related to shoulder pathology. The lateral scapular slide test (LSST) is used to determine scapular position with the arm abducted in three positions.
The purpose of this study was to test the reliability of the LSST using a scoliometer.
Thirty-three male subjects (18 to 34 years) participated in this study. Group one (n=15) had shoulder pathology; Group two (n=18) did not have pathology. A test-retest, repeated measures design, with three experienced raters and the three positions of the LSST, was used to test the reliability of the LSST. All measurements in each position were taken bilaterally.
Pearson Correlations for Position 1 and 2 ranged from .78 to .92 whereas position 3 ranged from .62 to .81. The ICC (2,2) ranged from .87 to .95 for positions 1 and 2. ICC (2,2) ranged from .70 to.82 for positions 3. Overall ICC (2,3) ranged from .83 to .96. The coefficients of determination ranged from .38 to .89. The SEM ranged from 3.00 to 8.26 mm, with the largest error found in position 3.
Discussion and Conclusion
The LSST can be reliable in screening scapular position. Although a large range of error exists in measurements as indicated by the standard error of the measurement, the LSST provides more objective measures than pure observation.
PMCID: PMC2953361  PMID: 21522226
scapula; shoulder; measurement
4.  Alternative Methods for Measuring Scapular Muscles Protraction and Retraction Maximal Isometric Forces 
The importance of the scapular stabilizing muscles has led to an increased interest in quantitative measurements of their strength. Few studies have measured isometric or concentric isokinetic forces. Additionally, limited reports exist on the reliability of objective measures for testing scapular protraction and retraction muscle strength or scapular testing that does not involve the glenohumeral joint.
To determine the reliability of four new methods of measuring the maximal isometric strength of key scapular stabilizing muscles for the actions of protraction and retraction, both with and without the involvement of the glenohumeral (GH) joint.
The Isobex® stationary tension dynamometer was used to measure the maximal isometric force (kg) on thirty healthy females (ages 22–26 years). Three measures were taken for each method that was sequentially randomized for three separate testing sessions on three nonconsecutive days.
Intraclass correlations (ICC2,3) for intrasession reliability and (ICC3,3) for intersession reliability ranged from 0.95 to 0.98, and 0.94 to 0.96 respectively. The standard errors of measurement (95% confidence interval [CI]) were narrow. Scatter grams for both protraction and retraction testing methods demonstrated a significant relationship, 0.92 for protraction (95% CI 0.83 to 0.96) and 0.93 for retraction (95% CI 0.87 to 0.97). Bland-Altman plots indicated good agreement between the two methods for measuring protraction strength but a weaker agreement for the two methods measuring retraction strength.
The four new methods assessed in this study indicate reliable options for measuring scapular protraction or retraction isometric strength with or without involving the GH joint for young healthy females.
PMCID: PMC2953350  PMID: 21509104
scapular stabilizing muscles; isometric strength; static tension dynamometer
5.  Evaluating the professional libraries of practicing physical therapists 
Background and Purpose: The primary objective of this study was to explore the use of information resources by a sample of physical therapists.
Methods: A qualitatively designed study using structured individual interviews, examination of professional libraries, and identification of information resources was initiated in three sites (Southern California, Arizona, and Georgia). Participants included forty physical therapists with between five and twenty years of experience.
Results: The Internet and continuing education activities appeared to be the primary information sources for the physical therapists surveyed. The personal professional libraries of participants were limited in scope and contained titles copyrighted more than ten years ago. Access to peer-reviewed journals in the sample was limited primarily to those received as a benefit of professional association membership.
Discussion and Conclusions: Participants did not maintain current print professional information resources. The majority of books in the personal and workplace professional libraries held copyrights dating from the time of the participants' enrollment in an entry-level physical therapy program. Medical librarians may play an important role in shifting physical therapy towards evidence-based practice by collaborating in professional development for this group. Physical therapy educators and professional leaders should support current public collections of physical therapy-related information resources to encourage the movement towards an evidence-based practice model in physical therapy.
PMCID: PMC1773046  PMID: 17252068

Results 1-5 (5)