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1.  RELIABILITY AND VALIDITY OF FUNCTIONAL PERFORMANCE TESTS IN DANCERS WITH HIP DYSFUNCTION 
Study Design:
Quasi-experimental, repeated measures.
Purpose/Background:
Functional performance tests that identify hip joint impairments and assess the effect of intervention have not been adequately described for dancers. The purpose of this study was to examine the reliability and validity of hop and balance tests among a group of dancers with musculoskeletal pain in the hip region.
Methods:
Nineteen female dancers (age: 18.90±1.11 years; height: 164.85±6.95 cm; weight: 60.37±8.29 kg) with unilateral hip pain were assessed utilizing the cross-over reach, medial triple hop, lateral triple hop, and cross-over hop tests on two occasions, 2 days apart. Test-retest reliability and comparisons between the involved and uninvolved side for each respective test were determined.
Results:
Intra-class correlation coefficients for the functional performance tests ranged from 0.89-0.96. The cross-over reach test had a SEM of 2.79 cm and a MDC of 7.73 cm. The medial and lateral triple hop tests had SEM values of 7.51 cm and 8.17 cm, and MDC values of 20.81 cm and 22.62 cm, respectively. The SEM was 0.15 seconds and the MDC was 0.42 seconds for the cross-over hop test. Performance on the medial triple hop test was significantly less on the involved side (370.21±38.26 cm) compared to the uninvolved side (388.05±41.49 cm); t(18) = −4.33, p<0.01. The side-to-side comparisons of the cross-over reach test (involved mean=61.68±10.9 cm; uninvolved mean=61.69±8.63 cm); t(18) = −0.004, p=0.99, lateral triple hop test (involved mean=306.92±35.79 cm; uninvolved mean=310.68±24.49 cm); t(18) = −0.55, p=0.59, and cross-over hop test (involved mean=2.49±0.34 seconds; uninvolved mean= 2.61±0.42 seconds; t(18) = −1.84, p=0.08) were not statistically different between sides.
Conclusion:
The functional performance tests used in this study can be reliably performed on dancers with unilateral hip pain. The medial triple hop test was the only functional performance test with evidence of validity in side-to-side comparisons. These results suggest that the medial triple hop test may be a reliable and valid functional performance test to assess impairments related to hip pain among dancers.
Level of Evidence:
3b. Non-consecutive cohort study
PMCID: PMC3812843  PMID: 24175123
Hop test; reach test; reliability; validity
2.  FUNCTIONAL PERFORMANCE TESTING OF THE HIP IN ATHLETES: A SYSTEMATIC REVIEW FOR RELIABILITY AND VALIDITY 
Purpose/Background:
The purpose of this study was to systematically review the literature for functional performance tests with evidence of reliability and validity that could be used for a young, athletic population with hip dysfunction.
Methods:
A search of PubMed and SPORTDiscus databases were performed to identify movement, balance, hop/jump, or agility functional performance tests from the current peer-reviewed literature used to assess function of the hip in young, athletic subjects.
Results:
The single-leg stance, deep squat, single-leg squat, and star excursion balance tests (SEBT) demonstrated evidence of validity and normative data for score interpretation. The single-leg stance test and SEBT have evidence of validity with association to hip abductor function. The deep squat test demonstrated evidence as a functional performance test for evaluating femoroacetabular impingement. Hop/Jump tests and agility tests have no reported evidence of reliability or validity in a population of subjects with hip pathology.
Conclusions:
Use of functional performance tests in the assessment of hip dysfunction has not been well established in the current literature. Diminished squat depth and provocation of pain during the single-leg balance test have been associated with patients diagnosed with FAI and gluteal tendinopathy, respectively. The SEBT and single-leg squat tests provided evidence of convergent validity through an analysis of kinematics and muscle function in normal subjects. Reliability of functional performance tests have not been established on patients with hip dysfunction. Further study is needed to establish reliability and validity of functional performance tests that can be used in a young, athletic population with hip dysfunction.
Level of Evidence:
2b (Systematic Review of Literature)
PMCID: PMC3414072  PMID: 22893860
Functional Testing; hip; reliability; validity
3.  THE INFLUENCE OF HEEL HEIGHT ON SAGITTAL PLANE KNEE KINEMATICS DURING LANDING TASKS IN RECREATIONALLY ACTIVE AND ATHLETIC COLLEGIATE FEMALES 
Purpose:
To determine if heel height alters sagittal plane knee kinematics when landing from a forward hop or drop landing.
Background:
Knee angles close to extension during landing are theorized to increase ACL injury risk in female athletes.
Methods:
Fifty collegiate females performed two single-limb landing tasks while wearing heel lifts of three different sizes (0, 12 & 24 mm) attached to the bottom of a sneaker. Using an electrogoniometer, sagittal plane kinematics (initial contact [KAIC], peak flexion [KAPeak], and rate of excursion [RE]) were examined. Repeated measures ANOVAs were used to determine the influence of heel height on the dependent measures.
Results:
Forward hop task- KAIC with 0 mm, 12 mm, and 24 mm lifts were 8.88±6.5, 9.38±5.8 and 11.28±7.0, respectively. Significant differences were noted between 0 and 24 mm lift (p<.001) and 12 and 24 mm lifts (p=.003), but not between the 0 and 12 mm conditions (p=.423). KAPeak with 0 mm, 12 mm, and 24 mm lifts were 47.08±10.9, 48.18±10.3 and 48.88±9.7, respectively. A significant difference was noted between 0 and 24 mm lift (p=.004), but not between the 0 and 12 mm or 12 and 24 mm conditions (p=.071 and p=.282, respectively). The RE decreased significantly from 2128/sec±52 with the 12 mm lift to 1958/sec±55 with the 24 mm lift (p=.004). RE did not differ from 0 to 12 or 0 to 24 mm lift conditions (p=.351 and p=.086, respectively). Jump-landing task- No significant differences were found in KAIC (p=.531), KAPeak (p=.741), or the RE (p=.190) between any of the heel lift conditions.
Conclusions:
The addition of a 24 mm heel lift to the bottom of a sneaker significantly alters sagittal plane knee kinematics upon landing from a unilateral forward hop but not from a drop jump.
PMCID: PMC3163998  PMID: 21904697
ACL; heel lift; kinematics; landing
4.  Evidence for validity and reliability of a french version of the FAAM 
Background
The Foot and Ankle Ability Measure (FAAM) is a self reported questionnaire for patients with foot and ankle disorders available in English, German, and Persian. This study plans to translate the FAAM from English to French (FAAM-F) and assess the validity and reliability of this new version.
Methods
The FAAM-F Activities of Daily Living (ADL) and sports subscales were completed by 105 French-speaking patients (average age 50.5 years) presenting various chronic foot and ankle disorders. Convergent and divergent validity was assessed by Pearson's correlation coefficients between the FAAM-F subscales and the SF-36 scales: Physical Functioning (PF), Physical Component Summary (PCS), Mental Health (MH) and Mental Component Summary (MCS). Internal consistency was calculated by Cronbach's Alpha (CA). To assess test re-test reliability, 22 patients filled out the questionnaire a second time to estimate minimal detectable changes (MDC) and intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC).
Results
Correlations for FAAM-F ADL subscale were 0.85 with PF, 0.81 with PCS, 0.26 with MH, 0.37 with MCS. Correlations for FAAM-F Sports subscale were 0.72 with PF, 0.72 with PCS, 0.21 with MH, 0.29 with MCS. CA estimates were 0.97 for both subscales. Respectively for the ADL and Sports subscales, ICC were 0.97 and 0.94, errors for a single measure were 8 and 10 points at 95% confidence and the MDC values at 95% confidence were 7 and 18 points.
Conclusion
The FAAM-F is valid and reliable for the self-assessment of physical function in French-speaking patients with a wide range of chronic foot and ankle disorders.
doi:10.1186/1471-2474-12-40
PMCID: PMC3045395  PMID: 21303520
5.  Validity of the Foot and Ankle Ability Measure in Athletes With Chronic Ankle Instability 
Journal of Athletic Training  2008;43(2):179-183.
Context:
The Foot and Ankle Ability Measure (FAAM) is a region-specific, non–disease-specific outcome instrument that possesses many of the clinimetric qualities recommended for an outcome instrument. Evidence of validity to support the use of the FAAM is available in individuals with a wide array of ankle and foot disorders. However, additional evidence to support the use of the FAAM for those with chronic ankle instability (CAI) is needed.
Objective:
To provide evidence of construct validity for the FAAM based on hypothesis testing in athletes with CAI.
Design:
Between-groups comparison.
Setting:
Athletic training room.
Patients or Other Participants:
Thirty National Collegiate Athletic Association Division II athletes (16 men, 14 women) from one university.
Main Outcome Measure(s):
The FAAM including activities of daily living (ADL) and sports subscales and the global and categorical ratings of function.
Results:
For both the ADL and sports subscales, FAAM scores were greater in healthy participants (100 ± 0.0 and 99 ± 3.5, respectively) than in subjects with CAI (88 ± 7.7 and 76 ± 12.7, respectively; P < .001). Similarly, for both ADL and sports subscales, FAAM scores were greater in athletes who indicated that their ankles were normal (98 ± 6.3 and 96 ± 6.9, respectively) than in those who classified their ankles as either nearly normal or abnormal (87 ± 6.6 and 71 ± 11.1, respectively; P < .001). We found relationships between FAAM scores and self-reported global ratings of function for both ADL and sports subscales. Relationships were stronger when all athletes, rather than just those with CAI, were included in the analyses.
Conclusions:
The FAAM may be used to detect self-reported functional deficits related to CAI.
PMCID: PMC2267323  PMID: 18345343
outcomes; evaluative instrument; self-report; ankle sprains
6.  RADIOLOGICAL EXAMINATION OF THE HIP ‐ CLINICAL INDICATIONS, METHODS, AND INTERPRETATION: A CLINICAL COMMENTARY 
There is a growing interest in musculoskeletal rehabilitation for young active individuals with non‐arthritic hip pathology. History and physical examination can be useful to classify those with non‐arthritic intra‐articular hip pathology as having impingement or instability. However, the specific type of deformity leading to symptoms may not be apparent from this evaluation, which may compromise the clinical decision‐making. Several radiological indexes have been described in the literature for individuals with non‐arthritic hip pathology. These indexes identify and quantify acetabular and femoral deformities that may contribute to instability and impingement. The aim of this paper is to discuss clinical indications, methods, and the use of hip radiological images or radiology reports as they relate to physical examination findings for those with non‐arthritic hip pathology.
Level of evidence:
5
PMCID: PMC4004130  PMID: 24790786
Examination; Femoroacetabular impingement (FAI); imaging; labrum

Results 1-6 (6)