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Posterior internal impingement (PII) of the glenohumeral joint is a common cause of shoulder complex pain in the overhead athlete. This impingement is very different from standard outlet impingement seen in shoulder patients. Internal impingement is characterized by posterior shoulder pain when the athlete places the humerus in extreme external rotation and abduction as in the cocking phase of pitching or throwing. Impingement in this position occurs between the supraspinatus and or infraspinatus and the glenoid rim. Understanding regarding this pathology continues to evolve. Definitive understanding of precipitating factors, causes, presentation and methods of treatment have yet to be determined. A high index of suspicion should be used when attempting to make this diagnosis. This current concepts review presents the current thinking regarding pathophysiology, evaluation, and treatment of this condition.
Level of Evidence:
PMCID: PMC3625798  PMID: 23593557
Glenoid impingement; internal impingement; posterior impingement; throwing shoulder
A push for the use of evidence‐based medicine and evidence‐based practice patterns has permeated most health care disciplines. The use of evidence‐based practice in sports physical therapy may improve health care quality, reduce medical errors, help balance known benefits and risks, challenge views based on beliefs rather than evidence, and help to integrate patient preferences into decision‐making. In this era of health care utilization sports physical therapists are expected to integrate clinical experience with conscientious, explicit, and judicious use of research evidence in order to make clearly informed decisions in order to help maximize and optimize patient well‐being. One of the more common reasons for not using evidence in clinical practice is the perceived lack of skills and knowledge when searching for or appraising research. This clinical commentary was developed to educate the readership on what constitutes evidence‐based practice, and strategies used to seek evidence in the daily clinical practice of sports physical therapy.
PMCID: PMC3474298  PMID: 23091778
Evidence‐Based Medicine; Sports Physical Therapy; Rehabilitation
Division III (D III) collegiate coaches are challenged to assess athletic readiness and condition their athletes during the preseason. However, there are few reports on off‐season training habits and normative data of functional assessment tests among D III athletes. The purpose of this study was to examine off‐season training habits of D III athletes and their relationships to the standing long jump (SLJ) and single‐leg hop (SLH) tests.
One‐hundred and ninety‐three athletes (110 females, age 19.1 ± 1.1 y; 83 males, age 19.5 ± 1.3 y) were tested prior to the start of their sports seasons. Athletes reported their off‐season training habits (weightlifting, cardiovascular exercise, plyometric exercise, and scrimmage) during the six weeks prior to the preseason. Athletes also performed three maximal effort SLJs and three SLHs.
Male athletes reported training more hours per exercise category than their female counterparts. Mean SLJ distances (normalized to height) were 0.79 ± 0.10 for females and 0.94 ± 0.12 for males. Mean SLH distances for female athletes' right and left limbs were 0.66 (± 0.10) and 0.65 (± 0.10), respectively. Mean SLH distances for male athletes' right and left limbs were 0.75 (± 0.13) and 0.75 (± 0.12), respectively. Several significant differences between off‐season training habits and functional test measures were found for both sexes: males [SLJ and weightlifting (p = 0.04); SLH and weightlifting (p = 0.04), plyometrics (p = 0.05)]; females [SLJ and plyometrics (p = 0.04); SLH and scrimmage (p = 0.02)].
This study provides normative data for off‐season training habits and preseason functional test measures in a D III athlete population. Greater SLJ and SLH measures were associated with increased time during off‐season training.
Clinical Relevance:
The findings between functional tests and off‐season training activities may be useful for sports medicine professionals and strength coaches when designing their preseason training programs.
Level of Evidence:
PMCID: PMC4127507  PMID: 25133073
college; field test; functional test; single‐leg hop; standing long jump
4.  A Randomized Controlled Single-Blinded Comparison of Stretching Versus Stretching and Joint Mobilization for Posterior Shoulder Tightness Measured by Internal Rotation Motion Loss 
Sports Health  2010;2(2):94-100.
Posterior shoulder tightness, as demonstrated by limited internal rotation range of motion, is a suggested factor in many shoulder pathologies. Methods to increase posterior shoulder mobility may be beneficial.
Shoulder internal rotation range of motion will not change with either of 2 interventions: cross-body stretch alone and cross-body stretch plus posterior capsule joint mobilization.
Study Design:
Randomized controlled single-blinded clinical trial.
The study comprised 39 college-age asymptomatic participants (7 men, 32 women) who were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 groups: stretching only (n, 20) and stretching plus posterior joint mobilizations (n, 19). All had a between-shoulder difference of internal rotation of 10° or more. Shoulder internal and external rotation was measured before and after a 4-week intervention period and 4 weeks postintervention. Participants in the stretching-only group performed the cross-body stretch on the limited side. Those in the other group (cross-body stretch plus joint mobilization) were treated with posterior joint mobilization techniques on the limited side.
Overall means for internal rotation of the treated shoulders significantly increased over baseline at the end of the intervention period and at 4 weeks postintervention. External rotation in all shoulders remained unchanged. By the end of intervention, total motion increased significantly from baseline but decreased significantly from the end of intervention to 4 weeks postintervention. Although not statistically significant, the second group (cross-body stretch plus joint mobilization) had greater increases in internal rotation. At 4 weeks postintervention, the second group had maintained its internal rotation gains to a greater degree than those of the stretching-only group.
Internal rotation increased in both groups. Inclusion of joint mobilization in a rehabilitation program created trends toward increased shoulder internal rotation mobility.
Clinical Relevance:
Both methods—cross-body stretch and cross-body stretch plus joint mobilization—may be beneficial for those with limited internal rotation range of motion.
PMCID: PMC3445079  PMID: 23015927
randomized controlled trial; shoulder; stretching; joint mobilization
5.  Physical Examination and Imaging of the Acute Multiple Ligament Knee Injury 
Examination and evaluation of the patient a with multiple ligament injured knee is a complicated process and best done in a methodical, comprehensive fashion with a particular emphasis placed on assessment of supporting soft tissues. Tissues that can be damaged during this devastating injury include bones, ligaments, meniscus, articular cartilage, and neurovascular structures. Uses of diagnostic imaging and the physical examination process will be described in this article.
PMCID: PMC2953340  PMID: 21509120
knee dislocation; physical examination; diagnostic imaging
6.  Multiple Ligament Knee Injury: Complications 
Non-operative and operative complications are common following multiple ligament knee injuries. This article will describe common complications seen by the surgeon and physical therapist following this complex injury. Complications include fractures, infections, vascular and neurologic complications following injury and surgery, compartment syndrome, complex regional pain syndrome, deep venous thrombosis, loss of motion and persistent laxity issues. A brief description of these complications and methods for evaluation and treatment will be described.
PMCID: PMC2953344  PMID: 21509124
complications; knee dislocation; vascular; neurologic
Functional tests have been used primarily to assess an athlete's fitness or readiness to return to sport. The purpose of this prospective cohort study was to determine the ability of the standing long jump (SLJ) test, the single‐leg hop (SLH) for distance test, and the lower extremity functional test (LEFT) as preseason screening tools to identify collegiate athletes who may be at increased risk for a time‐loss sports‐related low back or lower extremity injury.
A total of 193 Division III athletes from 15 university teams (110 females, age 19.1 ± 1.1 y; 83 males, age 19.5 ± 1.3 y) were tested prior to their sports seasons. Athletes performed the functional tests in the following sequence: SLJ, SLH, LEFT. The athletes were then prospectively followed during their sports season for occurrence of low back or LE injury.
Female athletes who completed the LEFT in $118 s were 6 times more likely (OR=6.4, 95% CI: 1.3, 31.7) to sustain a thigh or knee injury. Male athletes who completed the LEFT in #100 s were more likely to experience a time‐loss injury to the low back or LE (OR=3.2, 95% CI: 1.1, 9.5) or a foot or ankle injury (OR=6.7, 95% CI: 1.5, 29.7) than male athletes who completed the LEFT in 101 s or more. Female athletes with a greater than 10% side‐to‐side asymmetry between SLH distances had a 4‐fold increase in foot or ankle injury (cut point: >10%; OR=4.4, 95% CI: 1.2, 15.4). Male athletes with SLH distances (either leg) at least 75% of their height had at least a 3‐fold increase (OR=3.6, 95% CI: 1.2, 11.2 for the right LE; OR=3.6, 95% CI: 1.2, 11.2 for left LE) in low back or LE injury.
The LEFT and the SLH tests appear useful in identifying Division III athletes at risk for a low back or lower extremity sports injury. Thus, these tests warrant further consideration as preparticipatory screening examination tools for sport injury in this population.
Clinical Relevance:
The single‐leg hop for distance and the lower extremity functional test, when administered to Division III athletes during the preseason, may help identify those at risk for a time‐loss low back or lower extremity injury.
Level of Evidence:
PMCID: PMC3679628  PMID: 23772338
epidemiology; functional test; single‐leg hop; lower extremity functional test
8.  The assessment of function. Part II: clinical perspective of a javelin thrower with low back and groin pain 
Assessment of an individual’s functional ability can be complex. This assessment should also be individualized and adaptable to changes in functional status. In the first article of this series, we operationally defined function, discussed the construct of function, examined the evidence as it relates to assessment methods of various aspects of function, and explored the multi-dimensional nature of the concept of function. In this case report, we aim to demonstrate the utilization of a multi-dimensional assessment method (functional performance testing) as it relates to a high-level athlete presenting with pain in the low back and groin. It is our intent to demonstrate how the clinician should continually adapt their assessment dependent on the current functional abilities of the patients.
PMCID: PMC3360488  PMID: 23633887
Functional testing; Physical performance tests; Physical therapy
9.  Pectoralis Major Tendon Repair Post Surgical Rehabilitation 
Pectoralis major tendon rupture is a rare shoulder injury, most commonly seen in weight lifters. This injury is being seen more regularly due to the increased emphasis on healthy lifestyles. Surgical repair of the pectoralis major tendon rupture has been shown to provide superior outcomes regarding strength return. Thus it appears that surgical repair is the treatment of choice for those wishing to return to competitive or recreational athletic activity. This article describes the history and physical examination process for the athlete with pectoralis tendon major rupture. Surgical vs conservative treatment will be discussed. This manuscript provides post surgical treatment guidelines that can be followed after surgical repair of the pectoralis tendon rupture.
PMCID: PMC2953288  PMID: 21522200
weightlifting; pectoralis major; rupture
Successful production of a written product for submission to a peer‐reviewed scientific journal requires substantial effort. Such an effort can be maximized by following a few simple suggestions when composing/creating the product for submission. By following some suggested guidelines and avoiding common errors, the process can be streamlined and success realized for even beginning/novice authors as they negotiate the publication process. The purpose of this invited commentary is to offer practical suggestions for achieving success when writing and submitting manuscripts to The International Journal of Sports Physical Therapy and other professional journals.
PMCID: PMC3474301  PMID: 23091783
Journal submission; scientific writing; strategies and tips
11.  The assessment of function: How is it measured? A clinical perspective 
Testing for outcome or performance can take many forms; including multiple iterations of self-reported measures of function (an assessment of the individual’s perceived dysfunction) and/or clinical special tests (which are primarily assessments of impairments). Typically absent within these testing mechanisms is whether or not one can perform a specific task associated with function. The paper will operationally define function, discuss the construct of function within the disablement model, will overview the multi-dimensional nature of ‘function’ as a concept, will examine the current evidence for functional testing methods, and will propose a functional testing continuum. Limitations of functional performance testing will be discussed including recommendations for future research.
PMCID: PMC3172944  PMID: 22547919
Functional testing; International Classification of Functioning; Physical performance tests; Physical therapy
12.  Recent advances following anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction: rehabilitation perspectives 
Injuries to the anterior cruciate ligament are common. Surgical reconstruction is more prevalent than ever. This review article discusses treatment of the patient following surgical reconstruction of the anterior cruciate ligament. Various phases of rehabilitation are discussed with emphasis on early return of passive motion, early weight bearing, bracing, kinetic chain exercises, neuromuscular electrical stimulation and accelerated rehabilitation. Although evidence exists for the treatment of the surgically reconstructed cruciate ligament, more is needed to better define specific timeframes for advancement. Evidence exists that many of these young individuals are not fully returning to unlimited high level activities. This review article presents some of the latest evidence regarding anterior cruciate ligament rehabilitation in an attempt to help the busy clinician understand and relate basic and clinical research to rehabilitation of a patient following reconstruction.
PMCID: PMC3535126  PMID: 22249750
Anterior cruciate ligament; Rehabilitation; Physical therapy; Knee rehabilitation; Musculoskeletal medicine
13.  Diagnosis and management of adhesive capsulitis 
Adhesive capsulitis is a musculoskeletal condition that has a disabling capability. This review discusses the diagnosis and both operative and nonoperative management of this shoulder condition that causes significant morbidity. Issues related to medications, rehabilitation, and post surgical considerations are discussed.
PMCID: PMC2682415  PMID: 19468904
Adhesive capsulitis; Shoulder pain; Surgery

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