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1.  PREVALENCE OF ANTERIOR KNEE PAIN IN 18–35 YEAR-OLD FEMALES 
Purpose/Background:
Anterior knee pain (AKP), also known as patellofemoral pain syndrome (PFPS), is believed to be common in young, active females. A prevalence rate of 25% has been commonly cited in the literature. However, this rate may be more anecdotal than empirical. The purpose of this study was to estimate the prevalence of AKP in females 18 to 35 years of age.
Methods:
Three cohorts of females, totaling 724 participants between 18 and 35 years of age participated in this study. The mean age of participants was 24.17 years (SD: 2.34), mean height was 165.10 cm (SD: 7.26), mean weight was 65.46 kg (SD: 14.10), and mean BMI was 23.95 kg/m2 (SD: 4.86). Participants completed the Anterior Knee Pain Questionnaire (AKPQ), a functional outcome tool developed to document symptoms of AKP and progress in patients during rehabilitation.
Results:
The mean score on the AKPQ for the left lower extremity was 93.38 (SD: 10.00) and 93.16 (SD: 11.37) for the right lower extremity. Using a cutoff score of 83 on the AKPQ, 85 of 724 subjects were classified as having AKP in the left lower extremity for a prevalence of 12% (95% CI = 9%-14%) while 94 subjects were classified with AKP in the right lower extremity for a prevalence of 13% (95% CI = 11%-15%).
Conclusion:
The estimated prevalence of AKP in this sample of 18–35 year old females of 12–13% is much less than the commonly cited value of 25%. The results may provide a better representation of subjects with AKP.
Level of Evidence:
3
PMCID: PMC3414071  PMID: 22893859
Anterior knee pain; Anterior Knee Pain Questionnaire (AKPQ); functional limitations; prevalence
2.  Using Disablement Models and Clinical Outcomes Assessment to Enable Evidence-Based Athletic Training Practice, Part II: Clinical Outcomes Assessment 
Journal of Athletic Training  2008;43(4):437-445.
Objective:
To provide an overview of clinical outcomes assessment, discuss the classification of outcomes measures, present considerations for choosing outcomes scales, identify the importance of assessing clinical outcomes, and describe the critical link between the utilization of disablement models and clinical outcomes assessment.
Background:
Clinical outcomes are the end result of health care services. Clinical outcomes assessment is based on the conceptual framework of disablement models and serves as the measurement method for the collection of patient-oriented evidence, a concept central to evidence-based practice.
Description:
Clinical outcomes management refers to the use of outcomes measures in the course of routine clinical care and provides athletic trainers with a mechanism to assess treatment progress and to measure the end results of the services they provide. Outcomes measures can be classified as either clinician based or patient based. Clinician-based measures, such as range of motion and strength, are taken directly by clinicians. Patient-based measures solicit a patient's perception as to health status in the form of questionnaires and survey scales. Clinician-based measures may assist with patient evaluation, but patient-based measures should always be included in clinical assessment to identify what is important to the patient.
Clinical and Research Advantages:
Evidence-based athletic training practice depends on clinical outcomes research to provide the foundation of patient-oriented evidence. The widespread use of clinical outcomes assessment, based on the disablement model framework, will be necessary for athletic trainers to demonstrate the effectiveness of therapies and interventions, the provision of patient-centered care, and the development of evidence-based practice guidelines.
PMCID: PMC2474824  PMID: 18668177
quality of life; scales; patient self-report; evidence-based practice
3.  Using Disablement Models and Clinical Outcomes Assessment to Enable Evidence-Based Athletic Training Practice, Part I: Disablement Models 
Journal of Athletic Training  2008;43(4):428-436.
Objective:
To present and discuss disablement models and the benefits of using these models as a framework to assess clinical outcomes in athletic training.
Background:
Conceptual schemes that form the basic architecture for clinical practice, scholarly activities, and health care policy, disablement models have been in use by health care professions since the 1960s. Disablement models are also the foundation for clinical outcomes assessment. Clinical outcomes assessment serves as the measurement tool for patient-oriented evidence and is a necessary component for evidence-based practice.
Description:
Disablement models provide benefits to health professions through organization of clinical practice and research activities; creation of a common language among health care professionals; facilitation of the delivery of patient-centered, whole-person health care; and justification of interventions based on a comprehensive assessment of the effect of illness or injury on a person's overall health-related quality of life. Currently, the predominant conceptual frameworks of disability in health care are those of the National Center for Medical Rehabilitation Research and the World Health Organization. Disablement models need to be understood, used, and studied by certified athletic trainers to promote patient-centered care and clinical outcomes assessment for the development of evidence-based practice in athletic training.
Clinical and Research Advantages:
For clinicians and researchers to determine effective athletic training treatments, prevention programs, and practices, they must understand what is important to patients by collecting patient-oriented evidence. Patient-oriented evidence is the most essential form of outcomes evidence and necessitates an appreciation of all dimensions of health, as outlined by disablement models. The use of disablement models will allow the athletic training profession to communicate, measure, and prioritize the health care needs of patients, which will facilitate organized efforts aimed at assessing the quality of athletic training services and practices and ultimately promote successful evidence-based athletic training practice.
PMCID: PMC2474823  PMID: 18668176
patient-centered care; International Classification of Functioning; health-related quality of life; evidence-based practice; National Center for Medical Rehabilitation Research; Nagi model

Results 1-3 (3)