Although the incidence of local recurrence after curative resection of rectal cancer has decreased due to the understanding of the anatomy of pelvic structures and the adoption of total mesorectal excision, local recurrence in the pelvis still remains a significant and troublesome complication. While surgery for recurrent rectal cancer may offer a chance for a cure, conservative management, including radiation and chemotherapy, remain widely accepted courses of treatment. Recent improvement in imaging modalities, perioperative care, and surgical techniques, including bone resection and wound coverage, have allowed for reductions in operative mortality, though postoperative morbidity still remains high. In this review, the techniques, including surgical approaches, employed for management of locally recurrent rectal cancer are highlighted.
Rectal neoplasms; Local recurrence; Surgical technique: Pelvic anatomy
An anal condyloma is a proliferative disease of the genital epithelium caused by the human papillomavirus. This condition is most commonly seen in male homosexuals and is frequently recurrent. Some reports have suggested that immunosuppression is a risk factor for recurrence of a condyloma. Thus, we investigated the risk factors for a recurrent anal condyloma in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive patients.
We retrospectively analyzed 85 consecutive patients who were diagnosed with and underwent surgery for an anal condyloma from January 2007 to December 2011. Outcomes were analyzed based clinical and immunologic data.
Recurrent anal condylomata were found in 25 patients (29.4%). Ten cases (40.0%) were within postoperative 3 months. At postoperative 6 months, the CD4 lymphocyte count in the recurrent group was lower than it was in the nonrecurrent group (P = 0.023).
CD4-mediated immunosuppression is a risk factor for recurrent anal condylomata in HIV-positive patients.
Condyloma accuminata; Human papillomavirus; HIV; Recurrence; Immunosuppression
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the overall rate and risk factors for the development of an incisional hernia and a parastomal hernia after colorectal surgery.
The study cohort consisted of 795 consecutive patients who underwent open colorectal surgery between 2005 and 2007 by a single surgeon. A retrospective analysis of prospectively collected data was performed.
The overall incidence of incisional hernias was 2% (14/690). This study revealed that the cumulative incidences of incisional hernia were 1% at 12 months and 3% after 36 months. Eighty-six percent of all incisional hernias developed within 3 years after a colectomy. The overall rate of parastomal hernias in patients with a stoma was 6.7% (7/105). The incidence of parastomal hernias was significantly higher in the colostomy group than in the ileostomy group (11.9% vs. 0%; P = 0.007). Obesity, abdominal aortic aneurysm, American Society of Anesthesiologists score, serum albumin level, emergency surgery and postoperative ileus did not influence the incidence of incisional or parastomal hernias. However, the multivariate analysis revealed that female gender and wound infection were significant risk factors for the development of incisional hernias female: P = 0.009, wound infection: P = 0.041). There were no significant factors related to the development of parastomal hernias.
Our results indicate that most incisional hernias develop within 3 years after a colectomy. Female gender and wound infection were risk factors for the development of an incisional hernia after colorectal surgery. In contrast, no significant factors were found to be associated with the development of a parastomal hernia.
Ventral hernia; Surgical stomas; Ileostomies; Colostomies
For the treatment of acute appendicitis, a conventional laparoscopic appendectomy (LA) has been widely performed. Recently, the use of single incision laparoscopic surgery (SILS) is increasing because it is believed to have advantages over conventional laparoscopic surgery. In this study, we compared SILS and a conventional LA.
We analyzed the 217 patients who received laparoscopy-assisted appendectomies between August 2010 and April 2012 at Inje University Sanggye Paik Hospital. One hundred-twelve patients underwent SILS, and 105 patients underwent LA. For the two groups, we compared the operation times, postoperative laboratory results, postoperative pain, hospital stay, and postoperative complications.
The patients' demographics, including body mass index, were not significantly different between the two groups. There were 6 perforated appendicitis cases in the SILS group and 5 cases in the LA group. The mean operative time in the SILS group was 65.88 ± 22.74 minutes whereas that in the LA group was 61.70 ± 22.27 minutes (P = 0.276). There were no significant differences in the mean hospital stays, use of nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs, and wound infections between the two groups.
Postoperative pain, complications and hospital stay showed no statistically significant differences between the SILS and the LA groups. However, our SILS method uses a single trocar and two latex tubes, so cost savings and reduced interference during surgery are expected.
Single port; Laparoscope; Appendectomy
The aim of this retrospective study was to evaluate the rate of recurrence and incontinence after the treatment of fistulae or fistulous abscesses by using the staged drainage seton method.
According to the condition, a drainage seton alone or a drainage seton combined with internal opening (IO) closure and relocation of the seton was used. After a period of time, the seton was changed with 3-0 nylon; then, after another period of time, the authors terminated the treatment by removing the 3-0 nylon. Telephone interviews were used for follow-up. The following were evaluated: the relationship between the type of fistula and recurrence; the relationship between the type of fistula and the period of treatment; the relationship between the recurrence and presence of abscess; the relationship between IO closure and recurrence; the relationship between the period of seton change and recurrence; reported continence for flatus, liquid stool, and solid stool.
The recurrence rate of fistulae or suppuration was 6.5%, but for cases of horseshoe extension, the recurrence rate was 57.1%. The rate of recurrence was related to the type of fistula (P = 0.001). Incontinence developed in 3.8% of the cases. No statistically significant relationship was found between the rate of recurrence and the presence of an abscess or between the closure of the IO and the period of seton change or removal.
In the treatment of anal fistulae or fistulous abscesses, the use of a staged drainage seton can reduce the rate of recurrence and incontinence.
Seton; Surgical drainage; Fistula; Perianal abscess
Placenta growth factor (PlGF) is a member of the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) family. PlGF is implicated in several pathologic processes, including the growth and spread of cancer and tumor angiogenesis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the expression and the clinical implications of PlGF in colorectal cancer.
In order to ascertain the clinical significance of PlGF expression in colorectal cancer, the researcher analyzed the expression pattern of PlGF by using an immunohistochemical method and attempted to establish if a relationship existed between PlGF expression and microvessel density (MVD), and subsequently between PlGF expression and the predicted prognosis. A total of 83 patients with colorectal cancer were included for immunohistochemical staining. Clinicopathological characteristics were defined according to the tumor-node-metastasis (TNM) criteria of the Union for International Cancer Control. Clinicopathologic factors, such as age, sex, histological types of tumors, tumor cell grade, TNM stage, lymphovascular invasion, and lymph-node metastasis, were reviewed.
In this study, the PlGF protein expression level was significantly correlated with MVD, patient survival, and clinicopathological factors such as lymph-node metastasis, TNM staging, lymphatic invasion and vascular invasion.
PlGF may be an important angiogenic factor in human colorectal cancer, and in this study, PlGF expression level was significantly correlated with positive lymph-node metastases, tumor stage, and patient survival. These findings suggest that PlGF expression correlates with disease progression and may be used as a prognostic marker for colorectal cancer.
Placenta growth factor; Colorectal neoplasms
Colouterine fistula is an extremely rare condition because the uterus is a thick, muscular organ. Here, we present a case of a colouterine fistula secondary to colonic diverticulitis. An 81-year-old woman was referred to the emergency department with abdominal pain and vaginal discharge. Computed tomography showed a myometrial abscess cavity in the uterus adherent to the thick sigmoid wall. Upon contrast injection via the cervical os for fistulography, we observed spillage of the contrast into the sigmoid colon via the uterine fundus. Inflammatory adhesion of the distal sigmoid colon to the posterior wall of the uterus was found during surgery. The colon was dissected off the uterus. Resection of the sigmoid colon, primary anastomosis, and repair of the fistula tract of the uterus were performed. The postoperative course was uneventful. This case represents an unusual type of diverticulitis complication and illustrates diagnostic procedures and surgical management for a colouterine fistula.
Colon; Uterus; Diverticulitis; Fistula
Necrotizing fasciitis usually occurs after dermal injury or through hematogenous spread. To date, few cases have been reported as necrotizing fasciitis of the thigh secondary to rectal perforation in rectal cancer patients. A 66-year-old male complained of pelvic and thigh pain and subsequently developed necrotizing fasciitis in his right thigh. Four years earlier, he had undergone a low anterior resection and radiotherapy due to of rectal cancer. An ulcerative lesion had been observed around the anastomosis site during the colonoscopy that had been performed two months earlier. Pelvic computed tomography and sigmoidoscopy showed rectal perforation and presacral abscess extending to buttock and the right posterior thigh fascia. Thus, the necrotizing fasciitis was believed to have occurred because of ulcer perforation, one of the complications of chronic radiation colitis, at the anastomosis site. When a rectal-cancer patient complains of pelvic and thigh pain, the possibility of a rectal perforation should be considered.
Radiation colitis; Necrotizing fasciitis; Rectal neoplasms; Thigh
Based on a review of the literature, this paper provides an update on surgical treatment of middle and low rectal cancer and discusses issues of debate surrounding that treatment. The main goal of the surgical treatment of rectal cancer is radical resection of the tumor and surrounding lymphatic tissue. Local excision of early rectal cancer can be another treatment option, in which the patient can avoid possible complications related to radical surgery. Neoadjuvant chemoradiation therapy (CRT) has been recommended for patients with cT3-4N0 or any T N+ rectal cancer because CRT shows better local control and less toxicity than adjuvant CRT. However, recent clinical trials showed promising results for local excision after neoadjuvant CRT in selected patients with low rectal cancer. In addition, the "wait and see" concept is another modality that has been reported for the management of tumors that show complete clinical remission after neoadjuvant CRT. Although radical surgery for middle and low rectal cancer is the cornerstone therapy, an ultralow anterior resection with or without intersphincteric resection (ISR) has become an alternative standard surgical method for selected patients. Many studies have reported on the oncological safety of the ISR, but few of them have addressed the issue the functional outcome. Furthermore, an abdominoperineal resection (APR) has problems with high rates of tumor perforations and positive circumferential resection margins, and those factors have contributed to its having a high rate of local recurrence and a poor survival rate for rectal cancer compared with sphincter-saving procedures. Recently, great efforts have been made to reduce these problems, and the total levator excision or the extended APR concept has emerged. Surgical management for low rectal cancer should aim to radically excise the tumor and to preserve as much of the sphincter function as possible by using multidisciplinary approaches. However, further prospective clinical trials are needed for tailored treatment of rectal cancer patients.
Rectal neoplasms; Local excision; Neoadjuvant chemoradiation therapy; Multidisciplinary approach
Among the various stoma complications, the parastomal hernia (PSH) is the most common. Prevention of PSH is very important to improve the quality of life and to prevent further serious complications. The aim of this study was to analyze the incidence and the risk factors of PSH.
From January 2002 and October 2008, we retrospectively reviewed 165 patients who underwent an end colostomy. As a routine oncologic follow-up, abdomino-pelvic computed tomography was used to examine the occurrence of the PSH. The associations of age, sex, body mass index (BMI), history of steroid use and comorbidities to the development of the PSH were analyzed. The median duration of the follow-up was 36 months (0 to 99 months).
During follow-up, 50 patients developed a PSH and the 5-year cumulative incidence rate of a PSH, obtained by using the Kaplan-Meier method, was 37.8%. In the multivariate COX analysis, female gender (hazard ratio [HR], 3.29; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.77 to 6.11; P < 0.0001), age over 60 years (HR, 2.37; 95% CI, 1.26 to 4.46; P = 0.01), BMI more than 25 kg/m2 (HR, 1.8; 95% CI, 1.02 to 3.16; P = 0.04), and hypertension (HR, 2.08; 95% CI, 1.14 to 3.81; P = 0.02) were all independent risk factors for the development of a PSH.
The 5-year incidence rate of a PSH was 37.8%. The significant risk factors of a PSH were as follows: female gender, age over 60 years, BMI more than 25 kg/m2, and hypertension. Using a prophylactic mesh during colostomy formation might be advisable when the patients have these factors.
Colostomy; Hernia; Incidence; Risk factors; Complication
This study aims to reveal more effective clinical or laboratory markers for the diagnosis of acute appendicitis and to score the severity based on a sufficiently large number of patients with acute appendicitis.
We identified 1,195 patients with acute appendicitis after excluding those with other causes of hyperbilirubinemia among the 1,271 patients that underwent a laparoscopic or an open appendectomy between 2009 and 2010. A retrospective chart review of the medical records, including laboratory and histologic results, was conducted. We then analyzed the data using univariate and multivariate analyses.
Among the 1,195 patients, a laparoscopic appendectomy was performed in 685 cases (57.32%), and an open appendectomy was performed in 510 cases (42.68%). The univariate analysis demonstrated significant differences for white blood cell count (P < 0.0001), segmented neutrophils (P = 0.0035), total bilirubin (P < 0.0001), and systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) score between groups (P < 0.0001). The multivariate analysis demonstrated that total bilirubin (odds ratio, 1.772; 95% confidence interval, 1.320 to 2.379; P = 0.0001) and SIRS score (odds ratio, 1.583; 95% confidence interval, 1.313 to 1.908; P < 0.0001) have statistically significant diagnostic value for perforated appendicitis.
Hyperbilirubinemia is a statistically significant diagnostic marker for acute appendicitis and the likelihood of perforation.
Appendicitis; Appendicitis, Perforated; Appendectomy; Hyperbilirubinemia
Prostaglandin (PG) E2 is known to be closely related to cancer progression and is inactivated by 15-hydroxyprostaglandin dehydrogenase (PGDH). 15-PGDH is shown to have tumor suppressor activity and to be down-regulated in various cancers, including colorectal cancer (CRC). Therefore, we evaluated the expression of 15-PGDH and its prognostic effect in patients with CRC.
15-PGDH expression was examined by using immunohistochemistry in 77 patients with CRC. Its prognostic significance was statistically evaluated.
Negative 15-PGDH expression was noted in 55.8% of the 77 cases of CRC. 15-PGDH expression showed no correlation with any of the various clinicopathologic parameters. The status of lymph node metastasis, tumor-node-metastasis stages, and pre-operative carcinoembryonic antigen levels showed significant prognostic effect. However, univariate analysis revealed down-regulation of 15-PGDH not to be a predictor of poor survival. The 5-year overall survival rate was 71.7% in the group with positive expression of 15-PGDH and 67.1% in the group with negative expression of 15-PGDH, but this difference was not statistically significant (P = 0.751).
15-PGDH was down-regulated in 55.8% of the colorectal cancer patients. However, down-regulation of 15-PGDH showed no prognostic value in patients with CRC. Further larger scale or prospective studies are needed to clarify the prognostic effect of 15-PGDH down-regulation in patients with colorectal cancer.
Colorectal neoplasms; 15-hydroxyprostaglandin dehydrogenase; Down-regulation; Immunohistochemistry; Prognosis
Adjuvant chemotherapy is currently recommended for Stage IIIA colon cancers. This study aimed to elucidate the oncologic outcomes of Stage IIIA colon cancer according to the chemotherapeutic regimen based on a retrospective review.
From 1995 to 2008, Stage IIIA colon cancer patients were identified from a prospectively maintained database at a single institution. Exclusion criteria were as follows: rectal cancer, another malignancy other than colon cancer, no adjuvant chemotherapy and unknown chemotherapeutic regimen. One hundred thirty-one patients were enrolled in the study, and the clinicopathologic and the oncologic characteristics were analyzed. The number of males was 72, and the number of females was 59; the mean age was 59.5 years (range, 25 to 76 years), and the median follow-up period was 33 months (range, 2 to 127 months).
Of the 131 patients, fluorouracil/leucovorin (FL)/capecitabine chemotherapy was performed in 109 patients, and FOLFOX chemotherapy was performed in 22 patients. When the patients who received FL/capecitabine chemotherapy and the patients who received FOLFOX chemotherapy were compared, there was no significant difference in the clinicopathologic factors between the two groups. The 5-year overall survival and the 5-year disease-free survival were 97.2% and 94.5% in the FL/capecitabine patient group and 95.5% and 90.9% in the FOLFOX patient group, respectively, and no statistically significant differences were noted between the two groups.
Stage IIIA colon cancer showed good oncologic outcomes, and the chemotherapeutic regimen did not seem to affect the oncologic outcome.
Stage IIIA; Colon neoplasm; Chemotherapeutic agent; Prognosis
This study was conducted to evaluate the technical feasibility and safety of robotic extended lateral pelvic lymph node dissection (LPLD) in patients with advanced low rectal cancer.
A review of a prospectively-collected database at Kyungpook National University Medical Center from January 2011 to November revealed a series of 8 consecutive robotic LPLD cases with a preoperative diagnosis of lateral node metastasis. Data regarding patient demographics, operating time, perioperative blood loss, surgical morbidity, lateral lymph node status, and functional outcome were analyzed.
In all eight patients, the procedures were completed without conversion to open surgery. The mean operative time of extended pelvic node dissection was 38 minutes (range, 20 to 51 minutes), the mean number of lateral lymph nodes harvested was 4.1 (range, 1 to 13), and 3 patients (38%) were found to have lymph node metastases. Postoperative mortality and morbidity were 0% and 25%, respectively, but, there was no LPLD-related morbidity. The mean hospital stay was 7.5 days (range, 5 to 12 days).
Robotic LPLD is safe and feasible, with the advantage of being a minimally invasive approach. Further large-scale studies comparing robotic and conventional surgery with long-term follow-up evaluation are needed to confirm these findings.
Robotic surgery; Pelvic lymph node dissection; Rectal cancer
Crohn's disease (CD) is a chronic inflammatory bowel disease of unknown etiology. Most patients with CD will eventually develop a stricturing or penetrating complication. Colonoscopic findings may predict the clinical course in patients with CD. Moreover, since CD patients are at increased risk for developing dysplasia and colorectal cancer, surveillance colonoscopy is necessary for the detection of malignancies. We describe here a CD patient with a high-grade anorectal stricture who successfully underwent a total colon examination with an ultra-slim upper endoscope after an insertion failure with a standard colonoscope and gastroscope.
Crohn disease; Stricture; Ultra-slim upper endoscope; Gastroscopes
Tuberculosis of the sigmoid colon is a rare disorder. An 80-year-old man visited Bongseng Memorial Hospital for medical examination. A colonoscopy was performed, and a lesion in the sigmoid colon that was suspected to be colon cancer was found. A biopsy was performed, and tuberculous enteritis with chronic granulomatous inflammation was diagnosed. Intestinal tuberculosis is most frequent in the ileocecal area, followed by the ascending colon, transverse colon, duodenum, stomach, and sigmoid colon, in descending order. Hence, we report a case of intestinal tuberculosis in the sigmoid colon, which is rare and almost indistinguishable from colon cancer.
Tuberculosis, Gastrointestinal; Sigmoid colon; Colonic neoplasms