Triple therapy with gabapentin, amitriptyline, and nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs is efficacious for chronic bladder pain syndrome/interstitial cystitis (BPS/IC). However, transient, fluctuating, worsening pain or flare-up symptoms may develop during treatment for a variety of reasons. Here, we assessed the validity of our observational experience regarding a short course of oral prednisolone therapy, which might be of value in the management of flare-up symptoms of BPS/IC.
Between May 2007 and May 2012, 7 women (mean age, 61.5 years; range, 44.8 to 75.4 years) with BPS/IC presenting with transient, fluctuating, worsening pain as a flare-up symptom despite low-dose triple therapy received a 1- to 3-month course of oral prednisolone 10 mg. The outcome measures used were the IC symptom scale (ICSS, O'Leary-Sant Interstitial Cystitis Symptom Index) and a visual analogue scale (VAS), which were completed at baseline and after treatment.
There were statistically significant differences in the ICSS and VAS score before and after prednisolone treatment (P<0.05 by Wilcoxon singed-rank test). The pretreatment IC symptom index (ICSI), IC problem index (ICPI), and VAS score were 16.7± 2.2, 13.7±2.3, and 8.3±1.5 (mean±standard deviation [SD]), and the posttreatment scores were 4.9±2.3, 4.3±1.1, and 2.5±0.9 (mean±SD), respectively. The ICSI, ICPI, and VAS scores were improved after prednisolone treatment by 70.7%, 68.6%, and 69.9%, respectively. Low-dose triple therapy with prednisolone caused no significant adverse effects.
In patients with BPS/IC who show transient, fluctuating, worsening pain as flare-up symptoms despite undergoing low-dose triple therapy, a short course of oral prednisolone therapy was sufficiently effective. However, large-scale studies should be performed to verify our findings.
Interstitial cystitis; Pain measurement; Adrenal cortex hormones
Recent efforts in the generation of large genomics, transcriptomics, proteomics, metabolomics and other types of 'omics' data sets have provided an unprecedentedly detailed view of certain diseases, however to date most of this literature has been focused on malignancy and other lethal pathological conditions. Very little intensive work on global profiles has been performed to understand the molecular mechanism of interstitial cystitis/painful bladder syndrome/bladder pain syndrome (IC/PBS/BPS), a chronic lower urinary tract disorder characterized by pelvic pain, urinary urgency and frequency, which can lead to long lasting adverse effects on quality of life. A lack of understanding of molecular mechanism has been a challenge and dilemma for diagnosis and treatment, and has also led to a delay in basic and translational research focused on biomarker and drug discovery, clinical therapy, and preventive strategies against IC/PBS/BPS. This review describes the current state of 'omics' studies and available data sets relevant to IC/PBS/BPS, and presents opportunities for new research directed at understanding the pathogenesis of this complex condition.
Interstitial cystitis; Omics; Medical informatics; Physiopathology
The purposes of this study were to investigate the effect of cyclophosphamide (CYP)-induced inflammatory cystitis on caveolin 1 in rat urinary bladder and to determine the role of these molecules in the bladder dysfunction that occurs in inflammatory change in rat urinary bladder.
Female Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into control (n=30) and experimental (n=30) groups. Cystitis in experimental group was induced by intraperitoneal injection of CYP (200 mg/kg). The control group underwent an intraperitoneal saline injection. After 3 days, urodynamic studies were done to measure the contraction interval and contraction pressure. The expression and cellular localization of caveolin 1 were determined by Western blot and immunofluorescent study in rat urinary bladder.
In cystometrograms, the contraction interval (minute) was significantly increased in the CYP-induced cystitis rats (15.8±1.5) than in the control group (6.3±0.5) (P<0.05). Conversely, the average contraction pressure (mmHg) was significantly higher in the CYP-induced cystitis rats (15.6±1.7) than in the control group (11.3±0.5) (P<0.05). Caveolin 1 was expressed in the capillaries, arteriols and venules. The protein expression of caveolin 1 was significantly decreased in the CYP-induced cystitis rats (P<0.05).
Inflammatory change of urinary bladder maybe causes a significant change in the expression of caveolin 1. These findings suggest that caveolin 1 might have a functional role in the bladder dysfunction related with cystitis in rat urinary bladder.
Caveolin 1; Cystitis; Rats
Metabolic syndrome and obesity have been advocated to be risk factors for the development of overactive bladder (OAB). Additionally, insulin resistance is the underlying mechanism of metabolic syndrome. We aimed to investigate the association of insulin resistance with overactive bladder in female patients.
We prospectively conducted the study in our urology department. Female patients aged between 30 and 76 years old applied to our policlinics with or without OAB symptoms were enrolled. One hundred and twenty-two patients with OAB and 62 age-matched controls without OAB were included into the study. Fasting serum insulin, glucose, high-density lipoprotein (HDL-c), and triglycerides levels were measured. Insulin resistance value was obtained via the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) calculator. The chi-square and Mann-Whitney U tests were used to compare differences in variables.
Serum insulin level was found higher in female patients with OAB (11.5±6.2 µU/mL) relative to controls (6.4±2.1 µU/mL), statistically significant (P=0.036). In addition, HOMA-IR was significantly found higher in the OAB group, 2.86 (0.76 to 17.04) in comparison to controls, 1.32 (0.67 to 224), P=0.018. High-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels (HDL-c) were significantly found lower in females with OAB.
Insulin resistance can be associated to overactive bladder and may play significant role in pathogenesis.
Overactive urinary bladder; Insulin resistance; Metabolic syndrome
To evaluate whether intravesical protrusion of the prostate (IPP) is related to the treatment effect of alpha-1 receptor antagonist in patients with lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS)/benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) with a prostate size of less than 40 g.
A total of 77 BPH patients over 50 years of age treated with alfuzosin (alpha blocker) were enrolled prospectively. The study included only patients with BPH of 40 g or less. The patients were classified into two groups depending on the presence of IPP at baseline: the IPP group (41 patients) and the non-IPP group (36 patients). Prostate volume, prostate-specific antigen (PSA), International Prostate Symptom Score and quality of life (IPSS/QoL), maximum flow rate (Qmax), and postvoid residual (PVR) volume were compared between the groups. The clinical significance of IPP was evaluated after the patients had been taking alfuzosin for 8 weeks.
PSA and IPSS (total and voiding subscore) showed significant correlations with IPP (P<0.05). Comparison of parameters before and after 8 weeks showed that alfuzosin improved the total IPSS and all subscores (P<0.001), QoL (P<0.001), Qmax (P<0.001), and PVR (P=0.030) in the non-IPP group.
Alfuzosin may be less effective in improving symptom scores, PVR, and Qmax in the treatment of LUTS/BPH in the presence of IPP.
Prostate; Lower urinary tract symptoms; Prostatic hyperplsia; Urinary bladder neck obstruction; Adrenergic alpha-1 receptor antagonists
To assess the compliance of Chinese urologists with China's benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) clinical practice guideline and to explore the diagnosis and therapy modalities for geriatric patients with BPH.
A cross-sectional survey study was carried out in 33 medical centers in 11 different cities in China. A total of 190 urologists participated in a survey to record their preferences for diagnostic tests and treatment options for BPH outpatients. Diagnostic test results as well as health care demands were collected by surveying 2,027 outpatients aged 60 years and older.
The survey response rate was 97.4%. The respondents generally used the diagnostic tests recommended in China's BPH clinical practice guideline at varying rates. The used rates for medical history, ultrasonography, and urinalysis were above 90.0%; that for uroflowmetry was 31.2%. In addition, the rate of use of recommended tests was higher among doctors in the north than among those in the south. Combination therapy with α-adrenoceptor antagonists and 5α-reductase inhibitors was the preferred treatment option for BPH, and was increasingly used with worsening lower urinary tract symptoms. Finasteride was the most prescribed medication (48.0%), followed by tamsulosin (22.7%).
This study assessed the preferences of urologists in the diagnosis and treatment of BPH, which will serve as an important reference for updating and improving China's current BPH clinical practice guideline.
Prostatic hyperplasia; Diagnosis; Practice guideline; Therapy
Although endoscopic realignment has been accepted as a standard treatment for urethral injuries, the long-term follow-up data on this procedure are not sufficient. We report the long-term outcome of primary endoscopic realignment in bulbous urethral injuries.
Patients with bulbous urethral injuries were treated by primary endoscopic realignment between 1991 and 2005. The operative procedure included suprapubic cystostomy and transurethral catheterization using a guide wire, within 72 hours of injury. The study population included 51 patients with a minimum follow-up duration of 5 years.
The most common causes of the injuries were straddle injury from falling down (74.5%), and pelvic bone fracture (7.8%). Gross hematuria was the most common complaint (92.2%). Twenty-three patients (45.1%) had complete urethral injuries. The mean time to operation after the injury was 38.8±43.2 hours. The mean operation time and mean indwelling time of a urethral Foley catheter were 55.5±37.6 minutes and 22.0±11.9 days, respectively. Twenty out of 51 patients (39.2%) were diagnosed with urethral stricture in 89.1±36.6 months after surgery. A multivariate analysis revealed that young age and operation time were independent risk factors for strictures as a complication of urethral realignment (hazard ratio [HR], 6.554, P=0.032; HR, 6.206, P=0.035).
Urethral stricture commonly developed as a postoperative complication of primary endoscopic urethral realignment for bulbous urethral injury, especially in young age and long operation time.
Urethra; Wounds and injuries; Risk factors
Lyme disease is a multi-systemic, tick-borne infectious disease caused by a spirochete, Borrelia burgdorferi. Various urologic symptoms are associated with Lyme disease, which can be primary or late manifestations of the disease. Although voiding dysfunction is a rarely reported symptom in patients with Lyme disease, it is one of the most disabling complications of Lyme disease. Korea is not an endemic area of Lyme disease, thus, fewer cases have been reported. Herein, we report a case of a 32-year-old man with rapidly progressive bilateral ptosis, dysphagia, spastic paraparesis, and voiding difficulty in whom Lyme disease was diagnosed through serologic tests for antibodies and Western blot testing. A urodynamic study demonstrated detrusor areflexia and bulbocavernosus reflex tests showed delayed latency, indicating demyelination at S2-S4 levels. He received a 4-week course of intravenous ceftriaxone (2 g/day). The patient has recovered from the bilateral ptosis and spastic paraparesis but still suffers from neurogenic bladder.
Lyme disease; Neurogenic urinary bladder; Urodynamics
Since the renal epidermoid cyst is too rare, the mechanisms of squamous morphogenesis have not well characterized. A 73-year-old female was referred with an incidentally detected renal pelvis mass. Abdominopelvic computed tomography scan revealed a noncalcified soft tissue mass in the renal pelvis. Total nephroureterectomy was performed under the impression of a renal pelvis malignancy. The patient was discharged without postoperative complication. The outer surface of mass lesion was lined with urothelia and squamous epithelia, containing keratinous materials. The urothelia were positively stained against uroplakin II and cytokeratin 7, whereas almost of the squamous epithelia were negative with uroplakin II. The two different epithelia were generally sharply demarcated. Interestingly, some part of squamous epithelia contained uroplakin-positive and many more cytokeratin 7-positive cells. The atypical clinical features in our case can reconsider the diagnostic clues of renal epidermoid cysts that have been reported before, and the unique immunohistochemical results may understand the histogenetic implications of the lesion.
Epidermal cyst; Uroplakins; Pathology; Kidney
The longevity of the world's population is increasing, and among male patients, complaints of lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) are growing. Testing to diagnose LUTS and to differentiate between the various causes should be quick, easy, cheap, specific, not too bothersome for the patient, and noninvasive or minimally so. Urodynamic evaluation is the gold standard for diagnosing bladder outlet obstruction (BOO) but presents some inconveniences such as embarrassment, pain, and dysuria; furthermore, 19% of cases experience urinary retention, macroscopic hematuria, or urinary tract infection. A greater number of resources in the diagnostic armamentarium could increase the opportunity for selecting less invasive tests. A number of groups have risen to this challenge and have formulated and developed ideas and technologies to improve noninvasive methods to diagnosis BOO. These techniques start with flowmetry, an increase in the interest of ultrasound, and finally the performance of urodynamic evaluation without a urethral catheter. Flowmetry is not sufficient for confirming a diagnosis of BOO. Ultrasound of the prostate and the bladder can help to assess BOO noninvasively in all men and can be useful for evaluating the value of BOO at assessment and during treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia patients in the future. The great advantages of noninvasive urodynamics are as follows: minimal discomfort, minimal risk of urinary tract infection, and low cost. This method can be repeated many times, permitting the evaluation of obstruction during clinical treatment. A urethral connector should be used to diagnose BOO, in evaluation for surgery, and in screening for treatment. In the future, noninvasive urodynamics can be used to identify patients with BOO to initiate early medical treatment and evaluate the results. This approach permits the possibility of performing surgery before detrusor damage occurs.
Urodynamics; Bladder neck obstruction; Urination disorders; Urethra; Equipment and suppplies
Continence and micturition involve urethral closure. Especially, insufficient strength of the pelvic floor muscles including the urethral sphincter muscles causes urinary incontinence (UI). Thus, it is most important to understand the main mechanism causing UI and the relationship of UI with the urethral sphincter. Functionally and anatomically, the urethral sphincter is made up of the internal and the external sphincter. We highlight the basic and clinical anatomy of the internal and the external sphincter and their clinical meaning. Understanding these relationships may provide a novel view in identifying the main mechanism causing UI and surgical techniques for UI.
Urethral sphincters; Pudendal nerve; Autonomic nervous system; Urinary incontinence; Urination
The in vivo muscarinic receptor binding of antimuscarinic agents (oxybutynin, solifenacin, tolterodine, and imidafenacin) used to treat urinary dysfunction in patients with overactive bladder is reviewed. Transdermal administration of oxybutynin in rats leads to significant binding of muscarinic receptors in the bladder without long-term binding in the submaxillary gland and the abolishment of salivation evoked by oral oxybutynin. Oral solifenacin shows significant and long-lasting binding to muscarinic receptors in mouse tissues expressing the M3 subtype. Oral tolterodine binds more selectively to muscarinic receptors in the bladder than in the submaxillary gland in mice. The muscarinic receptor binding of oral imidafenacin in rats is more selective and longer-lasting in the bladder than in other tissues such as the submaxillary gland, heart, colon, lung, and brain, suggesting preferential muscarinic receptor binding in the bladder. In vivo quantitative autoradiography with (+)N-[11C]methyl-3-piperidyl benzilate in rats shows significant occupancy of brain muscarinic receptors with the intravenous injection of oxybutynin, solifenacin, and tolterodine. The estimated in vivo selectivity in brain is significantly greater for solifenacin and tolterodine than for oxybutynin. Imidafenacin occupies few brain muscarinic receptors. Similar findings for oral oxybutynin were observed with positron emission tomography in conscious rhesus monkeys with a significant disturbance of short-term memory. The newer generation of antimuscarinic agents may be advantageous in terms of bladder selectivity after systemic administration.
Overactive urinary bladder; Muscarinic antagonists; Receptors; Bladder
Sialic acid-binding Ig-like lectin (Siglec) is an immune inhibitory receptor that plays a role in the negative regulation of the activation of immune cells. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of anti-Siglec-F on plasma and urinary histamine levels in ovalbumin (OVA)-challenged urinary bladder in mice.
Thirty BALB/c mice were used. In group I (control group, n=5), mice were sensitized with OVA and challenged with saline. In group II (OVA challenge group, n=5), OVA was used for intraperitoneal sensitization and intravesical challenge. The challenged mice in group III (control immunoglobulin G [IgG] group, n=5) and those in group IV (anti-Siglec-F group, n=5) were intraperitoneally pretreated with rabbit control IgG or anti-Siglec-F antibody, respectively. In groups V (N-acetylcysteine [NAC] in OVA challenge group, n=5) and VI (control NAC only, n=5), mice were pretreated with NAC.
Urinary histamine concentrations were significantly higher 7 days after intravesical OVA challenge (P<0.01), whereas plasma histamine levels were not. Pretreatment with anti-Siglec-F antibody significantly prevented the increase in urinary histamine release (P<0.05), whereas pretreatment with the IgG antibody control did not. Also, pretreatment of the OVA challenge group with NAC did not affect the histamine concentration in either urine or plasma.
Systemic anti-Siglec-F treatment showed anti-allergic effects at least on local histamine release, particularly in the lower urinary bladder.
Histamine; Mice; Ovalbumin; Reactive oxygen species; Sialic acid binding Ig-like lectin; Urinary bladder
Overactive bladder (OAB) is a common condition. In women, studies have shown that the prevalence of OAB is positively related to increasing body mass index (BMI). Our objective was to define a relationship between BMI and OAB through correlation with urodynamic study (UDS).
A prospective study was conducted. Ambulatory women aged 18 years or older who had symptoms of OAB for at least 3 months were enrolled. Patients answered a questionnaire, had their weight and height recorded, and underwent UDS. Patients were categorized into 3 groups as follows: group 1, BMI<25; group 2, BMI 25 to 29.9; and group 3, BMI≥30.
A total of 113 patients were examined (group 1, n=32; group 2, n=40; group 3, n=41). The patients' mean ages were 50, 55, and 59 years for groups 1, 2, and 3, respectively (P<0.05). Group 3 showed a significant increase in the incidence of subjective mixed leakage and the number of pads used compared with groups 1 and 2. No significant differences were seen among the groups in duration of symptoms, OAB V-8 score, or the incidence of subjective urgency or stress leakage. The UDS parameters of groups 1, 2, and 3 showed no statistically significant differences for most variables. Group 3 showed a significant increase in the incidence of urge leakage by UDS compared with group 2 only.
Increasing BMI was age related. A BMI≥30 showed a higher incidence of subjective urinary mixed leakage and pad use. UDS showed no significant correlation between OAB and any BMI category for most UDS parameters.
Overactive urinary bladder; Body mass index; Urodynamics; Risk factors
We aimed primarily to investigate the level of health-related quality of life (HRQoL), lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS), and depression in older adults and secondly to identify the impact of LUTS and depression on HRQoL.
A community-based cross-sectional study was conducted from April to November 2010. Participants were recruited from five community senior centers serving community dwelling older adults in Jeju city. Data analysis was based on 171 respondents. A structured questionnaire was used to guide interviews; the data were collected including demographic characteristics, body mass index, adherence to regular exercise, comorbidities (hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and osteoarthritis), depression, urinary incontinence, LUTS (measured via the International Prostate Symptom Score [IPSS]), and HRQoL as assessed by use of the EQ-5D Index. Stepwise multiple regression analysis was used to test predictors of HRQoL.
Eighteen percent (18.6%) of the respondents reported depressive symptoms. The mean LUTS score was 8.9 (IPSS range, 0 to 35). The severity of LUTS, was reported to be mild (score, 0 to 7) by 53% of the respondents, moderate (score, 8 to 19) by 34.5%, and severe (score, 20 to 35) by 12.5%. HRQoL was significantly predicted by depression (Partial R2=0.193, P<0.01) and LUTS (Partial R2=0.048, P=0.0047), and 24% of the variance in HRQoL was explained.
LUTS and depression were the principal predictors of HRQoL in older adults.
Lower urinary tract symptoms; Depression; Quality of life; Aged
To evaluate the effects of botulinum toxin on urodynamic parameters and quality of life in patients with neurogenic detrusor overactivity.
Thirty four adult patients with spinal cord injury and detrusor overactivity were selected. The patients received 300 units of botulinum toxin type A. The endpoints evaluated with the episodes of urinary incontinence and measured the maximum cystometric capacity, maximum amplitude of detrusor pressure and bladder compliance at the beginning and end of the study (24 weeks) and evaluated the quality of life by applying the Qualiveen questionnaire.
A significant decrease in the episodes of urinary incontinence was observed. All urodynamic parameters presented a significant improvement. The same was observed in the quality of life index and the specific impact of urinary problems scores from the Qualiveen questionnaire. Six patients did not complete the study, two due to incomplete follow-up, and four violated protocol and were excluded from the analyses. No systemic adverse events of botulinum toxin type A were reported.
A botulinum toxin type A showed a significantly improved response in urodynamics parameters and specific and general quality of life.
Overactive urinary bladder; Botulinum toxins; Quality of life; Urodynamics
Different techniques for cystocele repair including the conventional anterior colporrhaphy and mesh technique are known. Our goal was to evaluate the anatomical success and safety of our method of transvaginal anterior vaginal wall repair by the purse-string technique reinforced with three simple additional sutures in the repair of cystocele over a 4-year follow-up period.
This was a retrospective review of 69 consecutive patients (grades 2 to 4) who underwent the above operations between 2001 and 2011, including their success rates as assessed by use of the Baden-Walker halfway classification system.
Of the patients, 62 patients (98%) were completely cured of cystocele and 1 patient showed grade 2 cystocele recurrence that required no further treatment. Two patients with grade 4 cystocele were completely cured. There was no vaginal erosion related to the cystocele repair.
Transvaginal anterior colporrhaphy by a purse-string technique reinforced with simple additive sutures appears to be a simple, safe, and easily performed approach in cystocele repair. There is no need for other material for reinforcement, even in high-grade cystocele, which is an advantage of our technique.
Urinary bladder diseases; Prolapse; Vagina; Retrospective studies; Surgery
Posterior urethral valves (PUV) are now commonly suspected on antenatal ultrasound, but can present with a broad spectrum of severity postnatally. Rarely, the diagnosis is missed until adolescence or adulthood when the patient usually presents with lower urinary tract symptoms. We describe an even rarer case of PUV in a late adolescent who first presented with preserved renal function and urinary incontinence. We review the literature on presentation, natural history and outcomes of both early and late presenting PUV cases.
Urethra; Abnormalities; Adolescent
We report a case of an intravesical foreign body that was incompletely removed endoscopically and that defied diagnosis with current diagnostic tools. A 65-year-old man visited Korea University Anam Hospital complaining of dysuria and a sensation of residual urine. His medical history included an intravesical foreign body caused by penetrating trauma, and he had undergone endoscopic removal of foreign bodies 1 year previously. After additional remnant intravesical foreign bodies were found, he had undergone additional endoscopic removal and his urinary symptoms subsided. After 2 years, however, he again presented to the clinic complaining of dysuria and gross hematuria. Cystoscopy and computed tomography for intravesical foreign bodies were performed, but no evidence of a remnant foreign body was found. Open exploration revealed a remnant foreign body penetrating the bladder. A partial cystectomy including the foreign body was performed. We suggest that cases of penetrating injury with a radiolucent object may warrant primary open exploration and foreign body removal owing to the inherent difficulties in diagnosis and endoscopic treatment of such objects.
Urinary bladder; Foreign bodies; Penetrating wounds