PMCC PMCC

Search tips
Search criteria

Advanced
Results 1-25 (236)
 

Clipboard (0)
None

Select a Filter Below

Journals
Year of Publication
1.  A tribute to Dr. Per-Ingvar Brånemark 
doi:10.5051/jpis.2014.44.6.265
PMCID: PMC4284373  PMID: 25568805
2.  N-acetylcysteine and the human serum components that inhibit bacterial invasion of gingival epithelial cells prevent experimental periodontitis in mice 
Purpose
We previously reported that human serum significantly reduces the invasion of various oral bacterial species into gingival epithelial cells in vitro. The aims of the present study were to characterize the serum component(s) responsible for the inhibition of bacterial invasion of epithelial cells and to examine their effect on periodontitis induced in mice.
Methods
Immortalized human gingival epithelial (HOK-16B) cells were infected with various 5- (and 6-) carboxy-fluorescein diacetate succinimidyl ester-labeled oral bacteria, including Fusobacterium nucleatum, Provetella intermedia, Porphyromonas gingivalis, and Treponiema denticola, in the absence or presence of three major serum components (human serum albumin [HSA], pooled human IgG [phIgG] and α1-antitrypsin). Bacterial adhesion and invasion were determined by flow cytometry. The levels of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) and activation of small GTPases were examined. Experimental periodontitis was induced by oral inoculation of P. gingivalis and T. denticola in Balb/c mice.
Results
HSA and phIgG, but not α1-antitrypsin, efficiently inhibited the invasion of various oral bacterial species into HOK-16B cells. HSA but not phIgG decreased the adhesion of F. nucleatum onto host cells and the levels of intracellular ROS in HOK-16B cells. N-acetylcysteine (NAC), a ROS scavenger, decreased both the levels of intracellular ROS and invasion of F. nucleatum into HOK-16B cells, confirming the role of ROS in bacterial invasion. Infection with F. nucleatum activated Rac1, a regulator of actin cytoskeleton dynamics. Not only HSA and NAC but also phIgG decreased the F. nucleatum-induced activation of Rac1. Furthermore, both HSA plus phIgG and NAC significantly reduced the alveolar bone loss in the experimental periodontitis induced by P. gingivalis and T. denticola in mice.
Conclusions
NAC and the serum components HSA and phIgG, which inhibit bacterial invasion of oral epithelial cells in vitro, can successfully prevent experimental periodontitis.
Graphical Abstract
doi:10.5051/jpis.2014.44.6.266
PMCID: PMC4284374  PMID: 25568806
Albumins; Bacteria; Epithelial cells; Immunoglobulin G; Periodontitis
3.  Association between immunoglobulin G1 against Tannerella forsythia and reduction in the loss of attachment tissue 
Purpose
To evaluate whether the levels of immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibody to Tanerella forsythia are associated with periodontal status.
Methods
Patients with a diagnosis of chronic periodontitis were considered candidates for the study; thus 80 chronic periodontitis patients and 28 healthy persons (control group) were invited to participate in this investigation. The presence of T. forsythia was detected by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis using primers designed to target the respective 16S rRNA gene sequences. Peripheral blood was collected from each subject to identify the IgG1 and IgG2 serum antibodies against T. forsythia. All microbiological and immunological laboratory processes were completed blindly, without awareness of the clinical status of the study patients or of the periodontal sites tested.
Results
The bivariate analysis showed that lower mean levels of clinical attachment level (CAL) and probing depth were found in the presence of the IgG1 antibody titers against whole-cell T. forsythia; however, only the difference in CAL was statistically significant. In the presence of the IgG2 antibody titers against whole-cell T. forsythia, the periodontal parameters evaluated were higher but they did not show statistical differences, except for plaque. The unadjusted linear regression model showed that the IgG1 antibody against whole-cell T. forsythia in periodontitis patients was associated with a lower mean CAL (β=-0.654; 95% confidence interval [CI], -1.27 to -0.28; P<0.05). This statistically significant association remained after adjusting for possible confounders (β=-0.655; 95% CI, -1.28 to -0.29; P<0.05). On the other hand, smoking was a statistically significant risk factor in the model (β=0.704; 95% CI, 0.24 to 1.38; P<0.05).
Conclusions
Significantly lower mean levels of CAL were shown in the presence of the IgG1 antibody titers against whole-cell T. forsythia in periodontitis patients. Thus, the results of this study suggest that IgG1 antibody to T. forsythia may have been a protective factor from periodontitis in this sample.
Graphical Abstract
doi:10.5051/jpis.2014.44.6.274
PMCID: PMC4284375  PMID: 25568807
Chronic periodontitis; Immunoglobulin G; Periodontal disease; Periodontitis
4.  Effects of adjunctive daily phototherapy on chronic periodontitis: a randomized single-blind controlled trial 
Purpose
The purpose of this randomized single-blind controlled trial was to elucidate the clinical and antimicrobial effects of daily phototherapy (PT) as an adjunct to scaling and root planing (SRP) in patients with chronic periodontitis.
Methods
The study was conducted from December 2013 to May 2014 at Ewha Womans University Mokdong Hospital, Seoul, Korea. Forty-one patients with mild to moderate chronic periodontitis were randomly divided into two therapeutic groups in a 1:1 ratio: SRP+PT and SRP (control) groups. All participants underwent full-mouth SRP. PT was performed thrice a day for a month by using electric toothbrushes with embedded light-emitting diodes. Plaque index, gingival index, probing pocket depth (PPD), clinical attachment level (CAL), and bleeding on probing were assessed before (baseline) and four weeks after (follow-up) the treatment. Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, Porphyromonas gingivalis, Tannerella forsythia, Treponema denticola, Prevotella intermedia, Fusobacterium nucleatum, Parvimonas micra, Campylobacter rectus, Eikenella corrodens, Streptococcus mutans, and Streptococcus sobrinus levels were detected by a real-time polymerase chain reaction at the same points in time.
Results
The clinical parameters improved in both the groups. At the follow-up assessment, PPD was significantly decreased in the SRP+PT group (P=0.00). Further, PPD and CAL showed significantly greater changes in the SRP+PT group than in the SRP group (PPD, P=0.03; CAL, P=0.04). P. gingivalis and T. forsythia levels decreased in this group, but no significant intergroup differences were noted.
Conclusions
Adjunctive PT seems to have clinical benefits, but evidence of its antimicrobial effects is not sufficient. Long-term studies are necessary to develop the most effective PT protocol and compare the effectiveness of PT with and without exogenous photosensitizers.
Graphical Abstract
doi:10.5051/jpis.2014.44.6.280
PMCID: PMC4284376  PMID: 25568808
Dental scaling; Periodontal index; Periodontitis; Photochemotherapy; Photosensitizing agents
5.  Statistical methods used in articles published by the Journal of Periodontal and Implant Science 
Purpose
The purposes of this study were to assess the trend of use of statistical methods including parametric and nonparametric methods and to evaluate the use of complex statistical methodology in recent periodontal studies.
Methods
This study analyzed 123 articles published in the Journal of Periodontal & Implant Science (JPIS) between 2010 and 2014. Frequencies and percentages were calculated according to the number of statistical methods used, the type of statistical method applied, and the type of statistical software used.
Results
Most of the published articles considered (64.4%) used statistical methods. Since 2011, the percentage of JPIS articles using statistics has increased. On the basis of multiple counting, we found that the percentage of studies in JPIS using parametric methods was 61.1%. Further, complex statistical methods were applied in only 6 of the published studies (5.0%), and nonparametric statistical methods were applied in 77 of the published studies (38.9% of a total of 198 studies considered).
Conclusions
We found an increasing trend towards the application of statistical methods and nonparametric methods in recent periodontal studies and thus, concluded that increased use of complex statistical methodology might be preferred by the researchers in the fields of study covered by JPIS.
Graphical Abstract
doi:10.5051/jpis.2014.44.6.288
PMCID: PMC4284377  PMID: 25568809
Nonparametric statistics; Periodontal diseases; Statistical data interpretation; Statistics
6.  Oral signs of acute leukemia for early detection 
Purpose
Systemic disease can manifest oral signs at an early phase, which may be crucial for the diagnosis and timing of treatment. This report describes two patients who presented with gingival enlargement as an early sign of acute leukemia.
Methods
Two patients presented with oral symptoms including severe gingival enlargement. The progress of their symptoms was associated with underlying systemic disease.
Results
The patients were transferred to the Department of Hematology and diagnosed with acute myelomonocytic leukemia. They received appropriate treatment and survived.
Conclusions
Gingival enlargement can be caused by underlying systemic diseases. Accurate diagnosis and timely referral are important for preventing a fatal situation. It must be emphasized that some oral signs and symptoms may be closely correlated with systemic diseases.
Graphical Abstract
doi:10.5051/jpis.2014.44.6.293
PMCID: PMC4284378  PMID: 25568810
Dentist; Gingival hyperplasia; Leukemia
7.  Root coverage with a modified laterally positioned flap combined with a subepithelial connective tissue graft in advanced recession 
Purpose
A laterally positioned flap (LPF) combined with a subepithelial connective tissue graft (SCTG) is one of the conventional approaches for resolving gingival recession defects, with the advantages of flap flexibility and extended coverage of the tissue graft. However, thus far, evidence is lacking for the use of this technique for the treatment of advanced gingival recession defects. This report discusses three Miller class III cases with interproximal bone loss and wide and deep defects treated with a combination procedure of a modified laterally positioned flap (mLPF) and SCTG.
Methods
mLPF combined with SCTG was performed for each case. The defect size and the degree of hypersensitivity at baseline and the final appointment in each case were documented.
Results
The three cases had a mean initial defect of 7.7±1.5 mm and a mean residual defect of 1.7±1 mm at the 6-, 3-, and 36-month follow-up, respectively, after the root coverage surgery. The symptom of hypersensitivity was improved, and the patients were satisfied with the clinical outcomes.
Conclusions
The results demonstrated that the combination of mLPF with SCTG is promising for treating these advanced cases with respect to obtaining the expected root coverage with the gingival tissue.
Graphical Abstract
doi:10.5051/jpis.2014.44.6.300
PMCID: PMC4284379  PMID: 25568811
Case reports; Gingival recession; Periodontics
8.  Comparison of autogenous tooth bone graft and synthetic bone graft materials used for bone resorption around implants after crestal approach sinus lifting: a retrospective study 
Purpose
This retrospective study compares the amount of bone resorption around implants between an autogenous tooth bone graft (AutoBT) and a synthetic bone graft after a bone-added crestally approached sinus lift with simultaneous implant placements.
Methods
In all, 37 patients participated in this study. Seventeen patients were grouped as group I and underwent an AutoBT-added sinus lift using the crestal approach. The remaining 20 patients were grouped as group II and underwent synthetic bone grafting. Both groups received the implant placements simultaneously. Of the 37 participating patients, only 22 patients were included in the final results: Eleven patients of group I and 11 patients of group II. Before the surgery, the distance from the alveolar crest to the sinus floor was measured using panoramic radiography. After the surgery, the distance was measured again from the neck of the implant thread to the most superior border of the added graft materials. Then, the amount of sinus lift was calculated by comparing the two panoramic radiographs. After a year, a panoramic radiograph was taken to calculate the resorption of the bone graft material from the radiograph that was taken after the surgery. The significance of the resorption amount between the two types of graft materials was statistically analyzed.
Results
The bone height was increased to an average of 4.89 mm in group I and 6.22 mm in group II. The analysis of panoramic radiographs 1 year after the surgery showed an average bone resorption of 0.76 mm and 0.53 mm, respectively. However, the degree of lifting (P=0.460) and the amount of bone-grafted material resorption (P=0.570) showed no statistically significant difference.
Conclusions
Based on this limited study, AutoBT can be considered a good alternative bone graft to a synthetic bone graft in a bone-added sinus lift, when extraction is necessary prior to the surgery.
Graphical Abstract
doi:10.5051/jpis.2014.44.5.216
PMCID: PMC4216397  PMID: 25368809
Bone substitutes; Demineralized dentin matrix; Dental implants; Osseointegration; Sinus floor augmentation
9.  Evaluation of alveolar crest bone loss via premolar bitewing radiographs: presentation of a new method 
Purpose
This study aimed to assess the interdental bone level in premolar bitewing radiographs while retracting the cheeks.
Methods
Seventy-two horizontal bone defects were created on dried mandibles and maxillae. The distance from the bone level to the cement-enamel junction of premolars was detected by a modified digital caliper (considered the gold standard). The reliability of all radiographs was assessed by intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC), and the validity was compared to the gold standard using the analysis of variance test. P-values less than 0.05 were considered statistically significant.
Results
This study showed that the reliability of radiographs without a cheek simulator and with 0.16 second exposure time was significantly higher than that of the two other groups (ICC=0.96 compared to 0.93 and 0.88, respectively). The results from the radiographs without a cheek simulator and with 0.16 second exposure time were more similar to the gold standard measures than those of the two other groups, although the difference was not statistically significant.
Conclusions
Retracting the buccal soft tissue plays an important role in increasing the accuracy of radiographs in detecting the interdental alveolar bone level and produces more accurate results than increasing the exposure time, although it does not have a significant role in reliability of results.
Graphical Abstract
doi:10.5051/jpis.2014.44.5.222
PMCID: PMC4216398  PMID: 25368810
Alveolar bone loss; Bitewing radiography; Cheek
10.  A comparative evaluation of CO2 and erbium-doped yttrium aluminium garnet laser therapy in the management of dentin hypersensitivity and assessment of mineral content 
Purpose
Dentin hypersensitivity is a potential threat to oral health. Laser irradiation may provide reliable and reproducible treatment but remains controversial. The present study aimed to evaluate the effects of CO2 or erbium-doped yttrium aluminium garnet (Er:YAG) laser therapy, and to assess mineral content.
Methods
Eighteen human single-rooted teeth affected with advanced periodontitis were obtained. Buccal and lingual surfaces were planed to form 36 specimens. Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid gel (24%) was applied to remove the smear layer and simulate hypersensitive teeth. The experimental groups were: group 1, control (no irradiation); group 2, CO2 laser (repetitive pulsed mode, 2 W, 2.7 J/cm2); and group 3, Er:YAG laser (slight contact mode, 40 mJ/pulse and 10 Hz). To evaluate dentinal tubule occlusion, six specimens per group (2-mm thickness) were prepared and observed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) for calculation of the occlusion percentage. To evaluate the mineral content, six specimens per group (0.6-mm thickness) were used, and then the levels of Ca, K, Mg, Na, and P were measured by inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry. In addition, the surface temperature of the specimens during laser irradiation was analyzed by a thermograph.
Results
The SEM photomicrographs indicated melted areas around exposed dentinal tubules and a significantly greater percentage of tubular occlusion in the CO2 and Er:YAG laser groups than the control, and in the Er:YAG group than the CO2 laser group. In addition, no significant differences were noted among the experimental groups for the mineral elements analyzed. The CO2 laser group showed an evident thermal effect compared to the Er:YAG group.
Conclusions
CO2 and Er:YAG laser are effective in treating dentin hypersensitivity and reducing its symptoms. However, the Er:YAG laser has a more significant effect; thus, it may constitute a useful conditioning item. Furthermore, neither CO2 nor Er:YAG lasers affected the compositional structure of the mineral content.
Graphical Abstract
doi:10.5051/jpis.2014.44.5.227
PMCID: PMC4216399  PMID: 25368811
Dentin; Hypersensitivity; Laser; Minerals
11.  Human CD103+ dendritic cells promote the differentiation of Porphyromonas gingivalis heat shock protein peptide-specific regulatory T cells 
Purpose
Regulatory T cells (Tregs), expressing CD4 and CD25 as well as Foxp3, are known to play a pivotal role in immunoregulatory function in autoimmune diseases, cancers, and graft rejection. Dendritic cells (DCs) are considered the major antigen-presenting cells (APCs) for initiating these T-cell immune responses, of which CD103+ DCs are derived from precursor human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). The aim of the present study was to evaluate the capacity of these PBMC-derived CD103+ DCs to promote the differentiation of antigen-specific Tregs.
Methods
Monocyte-derived DCs were induced from CD14+ monocytes from the PBMCs of 10 healthy subjects. Once the CD103+ DCs were purified, the cell population was enriched by adding retinoic acid (RA). Peptide numbers 14 and 19 of Porphyromonas gingivalis heat shock protein 60 (HSP60) were synthesized to pulse CD103+ DCs as a tool for presenting the peptide antigens to stimulate CD3+ T cells that were isolated from human PBMC. Exogenous interleukin 2 was added as a coculture supplement. The antigen-specific T-cell lines established were phenotypically identified for their expression of CD4, CD25, or Foxp3.
Results
When PBMCs were used as APCs, they demonstrated only a marginal capacity to stimulate peptide-specific Tregs, whereas CD103+ DCs showed a potent antigen presenting capability to promote the peptide-specific Tregs, especially for peptide 14. RA enhanced the conversion of CD103+ DCs, which paralleled the antigen-specific Treg-stimulating effect, though the differences failed to reach statistical significance.
Conclusions
We demonstrated that CD103+ DCs can promote antigen-specific Tregs from naive T cells, when used as APCs for an epitope peptide from P. gingivalis HSP60. RA was an effective reagent that induces mature DCs with the typical phenotypic expression of CD103 that demonstrated the functional capability to promote antigen-specific Tregs.
Graphical Abstract
doi:10.5051/jpis.2014.44.5.235
PMCID: PMC4216400  PMID: 25368812
Autoimmune diseases; Cells; Immunity; Periodontitis; Proteins
12.  Early bone healing onto implant surface treated by fibronectin/oxysterol for cell adhesion/osteogenic differentiation: in vivo experimental study in dogs 
Purpose
This study aimed to evaluate the effects of fibronectin and oxysterol immobilized on machined-surface dental implants for the enhancement of cell attachment and osteogenic differentiation, on peri-implant bone healing in the early healing phase using an experimental model in dogs.
Methods
Five types of dental implants were installed at a healed alveolar ridge in five dogs: a machined-surface implant (MI), apatite-coated MI (AMI), fibronectin-loaded AMI (FAMI), oxysterol-loaded AMI (OAMI), and sand-blasted, large-grit, acid-etched surface implant (SLAI). A randomly selected unilateral ridge was observed for 2 weeks, and the contralateral ridge for a 4-week period. Histologic and histometric analyses were performed for the bone-to-implant contact proportion (BIC) and bone density around the dental implant surface.
Results
Different bone healing patterns were observed according to the type of implant surface 2 weeks after installation; newly formed bone continuously lined the entire surfaces in specimens of the FAMI and SLAI groups, whereas bony trabecula from adjacent bone tissue appeared with minimal new bone lining onto the surface in the MI, AMI, and OAMI groups. Histometric results revealed a significant reduction in the BIC in MI, AMI, and OAMI compared to SLAI, but FAMI demonstrated a comparable BIC with SLAI. Although both the BIC and bone density increased from a 2- to 4-week healing period, bone density showed no significant difference among any of the experimental and control groups.
Conclusions
A fibronectin-coated implant surface designed for cell adhesion could increase contact osteogenesis in the early bone healing phase, but an oxysterol-coated implant surface designed for osteoinductivity could not modify early bone healing around implants in normal bone physiology.
Graphical Abstract
doi:10.5051/jpis.2014.44.5.242
PMCID: PMC4216401  PMID: 25368813
Cell adhesion; Dental implants; Fibronectins; Surface properties; Titanium
13.  Tomographic and histometric analysis of autogenous bone block and synthetic hydroxyapatite block grafts without rigid fixation on rabbit calvaria 
Purpose
The preferred material for bone augmentation beyond the envelope of skeletal bone is the bone block graft, due to its dimensional stability. We evaluated the necessity of rigid fixation for the bone block graft, and compared the bone regeneration and volume maintenance associated with grafting using a synthetic hydroxyapatite block (HAB) and an autogenous bone block (ABB) without rigid fixation on rabbit calvaria over two different periods.
Methods
Cylinder-shaped synthetic HAB and ABB were positioned without fixation on the rabbit calvarium (n=16). The animals were sacrificed at 4 or 8 weeks postoperatively, and the grafted materials were analyzed at each healing period using microcomputed tomography and histologic evaluation.
Results
Integration of the graft and the recipient bed was observed in all specimens, although minor dislocation of the graft materials from the original position was evident in some specimens (six ABB and ten HAB samples). A tendency toward progressive bone resorption was observed in the grafted ABB but not in the grafted HAB, which maintained an intact appearance. In the HAB group, the area of new bone increased between 4 and 8 weeks postoperatively, but the difference was not statistically significant.
Conclusions
The nonfixed HAB was successfully integrated into the recipient bed after both healing periods in the rabbit calvaria. In spite of limited bone formation activity in comparison to ABB, HAB may be a favorable substitute osteoconductive bone material.
Graphical Abstract
doi:10.5051/jpis.2014.44.5.251
PMCID: PMC4216402  PMID: 25368814
Animal experiments; Bone regeneration; Hydroxyapatites
14.  Long-term results of new deproteinized bovine bone material in a maxillary sinus graft procedure 
Purpose
The aim of this case report is to present the longitudinal results of sinus grafting using a new demineralized bovine bone material (DBBM) in human cases.
Methods
A patient with a resorbed maxilla was treated by maxillary sinus grafting using a new deproteinized bovine bone material. After a healing period of 6.5 months, three implants were placed and restored. The patient was periodically recalled and followed up for 5 years after restoration.
Results
Twelve partially edentulous patients (average age, 55.7 years) were followed up. All patients had insufficient residual height in their maxillary posterior area and underwent maxillary sinus graft surgery to increase the height of their maxilla. In all, 27 fixtures were placed in the augmented bone area. On average, 8.6 months later, implants were loaded using provisional or final restorations. The observation period ranged from 27 to 75 months (average, 43.3 months), and the patients did not show any severe resorption of the graft material or any infection during this time.
Conclusions
Our results show that the new DBBM is useful for a maxillary sinus graft procedure. Good healing responses as well as reliable results were obtained for an average follow-up period of 43.3 months.
Graphical Abstract
doi:10.5051/jpis.2014.44.5.259
PMCID: PMC4216403  PMID: 25368815
Bone substitute; Maxillary sinus; Sinus floor augmentation
15.  A call for attention to developmental disabilities in dental care 
doi:10.5051/jpis.2014.44.5.215
PMCID: PMC4216396  PMID: 25368808
17.  Impact of scaling and root planing on C-reactive protein levels in gingival crevicular fluid and serum in chronic periodontitis patients with or without diabetes mellitus 
Purpose
The present study was conducted to evaluate the impact of scaling and root planing (SRP) on the C-reactive protein (CRP) levels of gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) and serum in chronic periodontitis patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM-CP) or without type 2 diabetes mellitus (NDM-CP).
Methods
Forty-eight human participants were divided into two groups: an experimental (T2DM-CP) group (group I, n=24) comprising chronic periodontitis patients with random blood sugar ≥200 mg/dL and type 2 diabetes mellitus, and control (NDM-CP) group (group II, n=24) of those with chronic periodontitis and random blood sugar <200 without T2DM for the study. All subjects underwent nonsurgical periodontal therapy (NSPT) including complete SRP and subgingival debridement. Periodontal health parameters, plaque index (PI), gingival index (GI), probing pocket depth (PPD), clinical attachment level (CAL), GCF volume (GCF vol), GCF-CRP, random blood glucose (RBS), glycated hemoglobin, and systemic inflammatory markers, serum CRP, total leukocyte count (TLC), neutrophil count (Neutr) and lymphocyte count (Lymph), were evaluated at baseline, 1 month, and 3 months after SRP.
Results
NSPT resulted in statistically significant improvement in periodontal health parameters (PI, GI, PPD, CAL, GCF vol), CRP levels in serum as well as GCF of both groups I and II. The mean improvement in periodontal health parameters (PI, GI, PPD, CAL, GCF vol), CRP levels in serum and GCF was greater in group I than group II after NSPT. There was nonsignificant increase in GCF-CRP, TLC, Lymph, and RBS, and a significant increase in Neutr and Serum CRP in group II at 1 month. The Serum CRP level of 20 out of 24 group II patients had also increased at 1 month.
Conclusions
The CRP levels in both GCF and serum were higher in T2DM-CP patients than in NDM-CP patients. Although there was a significant improvement in both the groups, greater improvement was observed in both GCF and serum samples of T2DM-CP patients.
Graphical Abstract
doi:10.5051/jpis.2014.44.4.158
PMCID: PMC4148628  PMID: 25177517
Chronic periodontitis; C-reactive protein; Diabetes mellitus; Root planning
18.  Serum level changes of long chain-polyunsaturated fatty acids in patients undergoing periodontal therapy combined with one year of omega-3 supplementation: a pilot randomized clinical trial 
Purpose
We aimed to investigate the impact of nonsurgical periodontal treatment combined with one-year dietary supplementation with omega (ω)-3 on the serum levels of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), docosapentaenoic acid (DPA), and arachidonic acid (AA).
Methods
Fifteen patients with chronic generalized periodontitis were treated with scaling and root planing. The test group consisted of seven patients (43.1±6.0 years) supplemented with ω-3, consisting of EPA plus DHA, three capsules, each of 300 mg of ω-3 (180-mg EPA/120-mg DHA), for 12 months. The control group was composed of eight patients (46.1±11.6 years) that took a placebo capsule for 12 months. The periodontal examination and the serum levels of DPA, EPA, DHA, and AA were performed at baseline (T0), and 4 (T1), and 12 (T2) months after therapy.
Results
In the test group, AA and DPA levels had been reduced significantly at T1 (P<0.05). AA and EPA levels had been increased significantly at T2 (P<0.05). The ΔEPA was significantly higher in the test compared to the placebo group at T2-T0 (P=0.02). The AA/EPA had decreased significantly at T1 and T2 relative to baseline (P<0.05).
Conclusions
Nonsurgical periodontal treatment combined with ω-3 supplementation significantly increased the EPA levels and decreased the AA/EPA ratio in serum after one year follow-up. However, no effect on the clinical outcome of periodontal therapy was observed.
Graphical Abstract
doi:10.5051/jpis.2014.44.4.169
PMCID: PMC4148629  PMID: 25177518
Arachidonic acid; Omega-3 fatty acid; Periodontitis
19.  Paracrine effect of the bone morphogeneticprotein-2 at the experimental site on healing of the adjacent control site: a study in the rabbit calvarial defect model 
Purpose
The aim of this study was to assess the possible paracrine effect of bone morphogeneticprotein-2 (BMP-2) at the experimental site on the adjacent control site for validating a rabbit calvarial defect model as a means of verifying the effect of BMP-2.
Methods
Sixteen rabbits were divided into two groups (n=8 in each) according to whether or not BMP-2 would be used. Two circular defects (8 mm in diameter) were created side by side, 2 mm apart, in the calvarium of all of the rabbits. In each animal, one of the defects was grafted with either BMP-2-loaded carrier or carrier material alone. The control defects adjacent to these grafted defects, designated CB (the nongrafted defect adjacent BMP-2-loaded carrier-grafted defect) and CC (the nongrafted defect adjacent to carrier only-grafted defect), respectively, were the focus of this study, and were filled only with a blood clot in all of the animals. Histologic observation and histomorphometric analysis were performed at 2 and 8 weeks (n=4 animals per point in time) after surgery.
Results
There was no noteworthy difference in the healing pattern, and no statistically significant differences in histomorphometric parameters such as the defect closure, new bone area, or total augmented area between the CC and CB groups.
Conclusions
The results of this study suggest that rabbit calvarial defects separated by a distance of 2 mm are suitable for evaluating the effects of BMP-2 and the control defect can be regarded not to be affected by BMP-2 applied defect.
Graphical Abstract
doi:10.5051/jpis.2014.44.4.178
PMCID: PMC4148630  PMID: 25177519
Animal experimentation; Bone morphogenetic protein 2; Bone regeneration; Research design
20.  Accuracy of computer-aided template-guided oral implant placement: a prospective clinical study 
Purpose
The aim of the present study was to evaluate the in vivo accuracy of flapless, computer-aided implant placement by comparing the three-dimensional (3D) position of planned and placed implants through an analysis of linear and angular deviations.
Methods
Implant position was virtually planned using 3D planning software based on the functional and aesthetic requirements of the final restorations. Computer-aided design/computer-assisted manufacture technology was used to transfer the virtual plan to the surgical environment. The 3D position of the planned and placed implants, in terms of the linear deviations of the implant head and apex and the angular deviations of the implant axis, was compared by overlapping the pre- and postoperative computed tomography scans using dedicated software.
Results
The comparison of 14 implants showed a mean linear deviation of the implant head of 0.56 mm (standard deviation [SD], 0.23), a mean linear deviation of the implant apex of 0.64 mm (SD, 0.29), and a mean angular deviation of the long axis of 2.42° (SD, 1.02).
Conclusions
In the present study, computer-aided flapless implant surgery seemed to provide several advantages to the clinicians as compared to the standard procedure; however, linear and angular deviations are to be expected. Therefore, accurate presurgical planning taking into account anatomical limitations and prosthetic demands is mandatory to ensure a predictable treatment, without incurring possible intra- and postoperative complications.
Graphical Abstract
doi:10.5051/jpis.2014.44.4.184
PMCID: PMC4148631  PMID: 25177520
Computer-aided design; Dental implants; X-ray computed tomography
21.  Comparative study of two collagen membranes for guided tissue regeneration therapy in periodontal intrabony defects: a randomized clinical trial 
Purpose
The purpose of this study was to assess and compare the clinical and radiographic outcomes of guided tissue regeneration therapy for human periodontal intrabony defects using two different collagen membranes: a porous nonchemical cross-linking collagen membrane (NC) and a bilayer collagen membrane (BC).
Methods
Thirty subjects were randomly assigned and divided into the following 3 groups: a test group (NC+BM), in which a NC was used with xenograft bone mineral (BM), a positive control group (BC+BM), in which a BC was used with xenograft BM, and a negative control group (BM), in which only xenograft BM was used. The following clinical measurements were taken at baseline and 3 months after surgery: plaque index, gingival index, probing pocket depth, gingival recession, and clinical attachment level. Radiographic analysis was performed at baseline, 1 week and 3 months after surgery.
Results
Membrane exposure was not observed in any cases. Significant probing depth reduction, attachment-level gain and bone fill were observed for both test and control groups compared to baseline at 3 months after surgery (P<0.05). However, there were no statistically significant differences in clinical improvement and radiographic bone fill between treatment protocols (P>0.05).
Conclusions
Within the limitations of this study, the results suggest that both NC and BC were comparable in terms of clinical and radiographic outcomes for the treatment of periodontal intrabony defects in human subjects.
Graphical Abstract
doi:10.5051/jpis.2014.44.4.194
PMCID: PMC4148632  PMID: 25177521
Chronic periodontitis; Collagen; Guided tissue regeneration
22.  Outcomes of nonsurgical periodontal therapy in severe generalized aggressive periodontitis 
Purpose
Aggressive periodontitis, especially in its severe form, was traditionally considered to have an unfavourable prognosis. It required a complex treatment and its stabilization was often achieved by surgical therapy. The aim of this study was to investigate the results of nonsurgical periodontal treatment in severe generalized forms of aggressive periodontitis.
Methods
Patients with advanced generalized aggressive periodontitis were included in the study. Probing depth (PD) of pockets ≥7 mm and clinical attachment level (CAL) of sites with attachment loss ≥5 mm were measured at baseline before nonsurgical periodontal treatment, at re-evaluation, and after treatment. The following other parameters were recorded: resolution of inflammation and bone fill. We compared the baseline values with re-evaluation and posttreatment values using the Friedman test. The Wilcoxon test with the Bonferroni correction was used for both re-evaluation and posttreatment values.
Results
Seven patients with 266 periodontal sites were examined. A significant difference was found between values, reported as medians with interquartile ranges, for PD at baseline (7.94 [7.33-8.19] mm) and both re-evaluation (4.33 [3.63-5.08] mm) and posttreatment (3.54 [3.33-4.11] mm) values (P=0.002). A significant difference was also found between values for CAL at baseline (9.02 [7.5-9.2] mm) and both re-evaluation (6.55 [6.30-6.87] mm) and posttreatment (6.45 [5.70-6.61] mm) (P=0.002). Inflammation was resolved and angular bone defects were repaired in all cases.
Conclusions
These therapeutic results suggest that this form of periodontitis could have positive outcomes after nonsurgical periodontal treatment. The reparative potential of tissue affected by severe aggressive periodontitis should encourage clinicians to save apparently hopeless teeth in cases of this form of periodontitis.
Graphical Abstract
doi:10.5051/jpis.2014.44.4.201
PMCID: PMC4148633  PMID: 25177522
Aggressive periodontitis; Periodontal debridement; Treatment outcome
23.  Micronutrients and superoxide dismutase in postmenopausal women with chronic periodontitis: a pilot interventional study 
Purpose
The study was aimed at investigating changes in periodontal parameters and superoxide dismutase activity triggered by root surface debridement with and without micronutrient supplementation in postmenopausal women.
Methods
Forty-three postmenopausal chronic periodontitis patients were divided into two groups: group 1 (n=22) were provided periodontal treatment in the form of scaling and root planing (SRP) and group 2 (n=21) patients received SRP along with systemic administration of micronutrient antioxidants. Patients in both groups were subjected to root surface debridement. Group 2 patients also received adjunctive micronutrient antioxidant supplementation. Serum and salivary superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity along with periodontal parameters were recorded at baseline and 3 months after therapy.
Results
Salivary and serum SOD values significantly (P<0.05) improved with periodontal treatment. Improvement in systemic enzymatic antioxidant status along with reduction in gingival inflammation and bleeding on probing (%) sites was significantly greater in group 2 as compared to group 1.
Conclusions
Adjunctive micronutrient supplements reduce periodontal inflammation and improve the status of systemic enzymatic antioxidants in postmenopausal women.
Graphical Abstract
doi:10.5051/jpis.2014.44.4.207
PMCID: PMC4148634  PMID: 25177523
Antioxidants; Clinical trial; Chronic periodontitis; Root planning
24.  The digital version of JPIS offers more than ever 
doi:10.5051/jpis.2014.44.3.101
PMCID: PMC4050225  PMID: 24921052
25.  Long-term implant success at the Academy for Oral Implantology: 8-year follow-up and risk factor analysis 
Purpose
Rehabilitation of the incomplete dentition by means of osseointegrated dental implants represents a highly predictable and widespread therapy; however, little is known about potential risk factors that may impair long-term implant success.
Methods
From 2004 to 2012, a total of 13,147 implants were placed in 4,316 patients at the Academy for Oral Implantology in Vienna. The survival rates after 8 years of follow-up were computed using the Kaplan-Meier method, and the impact of patient- and implant-related risk factors was assessed.
Results
Overall implant survival was 97% and was not associated with implant length (P=0.930), implant diameter (P=0.704), jaw location (P=0.545), implant position (P=0.450), local bone quality (P=0.398), previous bone augmentation surgery (P=0.617), or patient-related factors including osteoporosis (P=0.661), age (P=0.575), or diabetes mellitus (P=0.928). However, smoking increased the risk of implant failure by 3 folds (P<0.001) and a positive history of periodontal disease doubled the failure risk (P=0.001).
Conclusions
Summing up the long-term results of well over 10,000 implants at the Academy for Oral Implantology in Vienna it can be concluded that there is only a limited number of patients that do not qualify for implant therapy and may thus not benefit from improved quality of life associated with fixed implant-retained prostheses.
Graphical Abstract
doi:10.5051/jpis.2014.44.3.102
PMCID: PMC4050226  PMID: 24921053
Dental implants; Endosseous dental implantation; Implant-supported dental prosthesis; Periodontal diseases; Risk factors; Survival analysis

Results 1-25 (236)