We investigated the effects of pre-emptive administration of ketamine and norBNI on pain behavior and the expression of DREAM, c-Fos, and prodynorphin proteins on the ipsilateral side of the rat spinal cord at 2 and 4 hours after formalin injection.
Eighty-four male Sprague Dawley rats were divided into 4 major groups consisting of control rats (C) (n = 12), rats given only formalin injections (F) (n = 24), and rats treated with pre-emptive administration of either ketamine (K+F) (n = 24) or norBNI (N+F) (n = 24). The non-control groups were further divided into subgroups consisting of rats that were sacrificed at 2 and 4 hours (n = 12 for each group) after formalin injection. Pain behavior was recorded for 1 hour. After 2 and 4 hours, the rats were sacrificed and the spinal cords (L4-L5 sections) were removed for immunohistochemistry and Western blot analysis.
The pain behavior response was reduced in the K+F group compared to the other groups during the second phase of the formalin pain response. We detected an increase in the nuclear DREAM protein level in the K+F group at 2 and 4 hours and a transient decrease in the N+F group at 2 hours; however, it increased at 4 hours after injection. Fos-like immunoreactivity (FLI) and Prodynorphin-like immunoreactivity (PLI) neurons decreased in the K+F group but increased in the N+F group at 2 hours after injection. While FLI decreased, PLI increased in all groups at 4 hours after injection.
We suggest that NMDA and kappa opioid receptors can modulate DREAM protein expression, which can affect pain behavior and protein transcriptional processes at 2 hours and bring about either harmful or protective effects at 4 hours after formalin injection.
DREAM protein; formalin test; kappa opioid receptor; NMDA receptor; rat spinal cord
Boney metastasis may lead to terrible suffering from debilitating pain. The most likely malignancies that spread to bone are prostate, breast, and lung. Painful osseous metastases are typically associated with multiple episodes of breakthrough pain which may occur with activities of daily living, weight bearing, lifting, coughing, and sneezing. Almost half of these breakthrough pain episodes are rapid in onset and short in duration and 44% of episodes are unpredictable. Treatment strategies include: analgesic approaches with "triple opioid therapy", bisphosphonates, chemotherapeutic agents, hormonal therapy, interventional and surgical approaches, steroids, radiation (external beam radiation, radiopharmaceuticals), ablative techniques (radiofrequency ablation, cryoablation), and intrathecal analgesics.
boney metastases; breakthrough; cancer; pain; triple opioid therapy
Varicella (chickenpox) is a highly contagious airborne disease caused by primary infection with the varicella zoster virus (VZV). Following the resolution of chickenpox, the virus can remain dormant in the dorsal sensory and cranial ganglion for decades. Shingles (herpes zoster [HZ]) is a neurocutaneous disease caused by reactivation of latent VZV and may progress to postherpetic neuralgia (PHN), which is characterized by dermatomal pain persisting for more than 120 days after the onset of HZ rash, or "well-established PHN", which persist for more than 180 days. Vaccination with an attenuated form of VZV activates specific T-cell production, thereby avoiding viral reactivation and development of HZ. It has been demonstrated to reduce the occurrence by approximately 50-70%, the duration of pain of HZ, and the frequency of subsequent PHN in individuals aged ≥ 50 years in clinical studies. However, it has not proved efficacious in preventing repeat episodes of HZ and reducing the severity of PHN, nor has its long-term efficacy been demonstrated. The most frequent adverse reactions reported for HZ vaccination were injection site pain and/or swelling and headache. In addition, it should not be administrated to children, pregnant women, and immunocompromised persons or those allergic to neomycin or any component of the vaccine.
chickenpox; herpes zoster; herpes zoster vaccine; human herpesvirus 3; postherpetic neuralgia
The pes anserine bursa lies beneath the pes anserine tendon, which is the insertional tendon of the sartorius, gracilis, and semitendinosus muscles on the medial side of the tibia, but it can lie in different sites in the medial knee. Accurate diagnosis of the position of the bursa is critical for diagnostic and therapeutic goals. The aim of this study was to evaluate sonoanatomic variations of the pes anserine bursa in the medial knee.
One hundred seventy asymptomatic volunteers were enrolled in this study. Using ultrasound imaging (transverse approach, 7-13 MHz linear array probe) the sonoanatomic position of the pes anserine bursa and its relation to the pes anserine tendon were evaluated. Additionally, we evaluated the sonoanatomic variation of the saphenous nerve.
The position of the pes anserine bursa was between the medial collateral ligament and the pes anserine tendons in 21.2%/18.8% (males/females) of subjects; between the pes anserine tendons and the tibia in 67.1%/64.7% (m/f); and among the pes anserine tendons in 8.2%/12.9% (m/f). No significant differences in the position of the bursa existed between males and females. The saphenous nerve was found within the pes anserine tendons in 77.6%/74.1% (m/f) of subjects, but outside the pes anserine tendons in 18.8%/15.3% (m/f). Visibility of sonoanatomic structures was not related to either gender or BMI.
Ultrasound provides very accurate information about variations in the pes anserine bursa and the saphenous nerve. This suggests that our proposed ultrasound method can be a reliable guide to facilitate approaches to the medial knee for diagnostic and therapeutic objectives.
bursa; pes anserine; saphenous nerve; ultrasonography
Transforaminal epidural steroid injections are known to reduce inflammation by inhibiting synthesis of various proinflammatory mediators and have been used increasingly. The anti-inflammatory properties of opioids are not as fully understood but apparently involve antagonism sensory neuron excitability and pro-inflammatory neuropeptide release. To date, no studies have addressed the efficacy of transforaminal epidural morphine in patients with radicular pain, and none have directly compared morphine with a tramadol for this indication. The aim of this study was to compare morphine and tramadol analgesia when administered via epidural injection to patients with lumbar radicular pain.
A total of 59 patients were randomly allocated to 1 of 2 treatment groups and followed for 3 months after procedure. Each patient was subjected to C-arm guided transforaminal epidural injection (TFEI) of an affected nerve root. As assigned, patients received either morphine sulfate (2.5 mg/2.5 ml) or tramadol (25 mg/0.5 ml) in combination with 0.2% ropivacaine (1 ml). Using numeric rating scale was subsequently rates at 2 weeks and 3 months following injection for comparison with baseline.
Both groups had significantly lower mean pain scores at 2 weeks and at 3 months after treatment, but outcomes did not differ significantly between groups.
TFEI of an opioid plus local anesthetic proved effective in treating radicular pain. Although morphine surpassed tramadol in pain relief scores, the difference was not statistically significant.
chronic pain; epidural analgesia; injection; morphine; radicular pain; spinal
Ketamine, an N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonist, might play a role in postoperative analgesia, but its effect on postoperative pain after caesarean section varies with study design. We investigated whether the preemptive administration of low-dose intravenous ketamine decreases postoperative opioid requirement and postoperative pain in parturients receiving intravenous fentanyl with patient-controlled analgesia (PCA) following caesarean section.
Spinal anesthesia was performed in 40 parturients scheduled for elective caesarean section. Patients in the ketamine group received a 0.5 mg/kg ketamine bolus intravenously followed by 0.25 mg/kg/h continuous infusion during the operation. The control group received the same volume of normal saline. Immediately after surgery, the patients were connected to a PCA device set to deliver 25-µg fentanyl as an intravenous bolus with a 15-min lockout interval and no continuous dose. Postoperative pain was assessed using the cumulative dose of fentanyl and visual analog scale (VAS) scores at 2, 6, 24, and 48 h postoperatively.
Significantly less fentanyl was used in the ketamine group 2 h after surgery (P = 0.033), but the difference was not significant at 6, 12, and 24 h postoperatively. No significant differences were observed between the VAS scores of the two groups at 2, 6, 12, and 24 h postoperatively.
Intraoperative low-dose ketamine did not have a preemptive analgesic effect and was not effective as an adjuvant to decrease opioid requirement or postoperative pain score in parturients receiving intravenous PCA with fentanyl after caesarean section.
caesarean delivery; ketamine; patient-controlled analgesia; preemptive analgesia; spinal anesthesia
Opioid analgesics are widely used to reduce postoperative pain and to enhance post-operative recovery. However, orthostatic intolerance (OI) induced by opioid containing intravenous patient controlled analgesia (IPCA) may hinder postoperative recovery. This study investigated factors that affect OI in patients receiving IPCA for postoperative pain control.
OI was instantly evaluated at the time of first ambulation in 175 patients taking opioid containing IPCA after open and laparoscopic subtotal gastrectomies. Patients were classified as having OI if they experienced dizziness, nausea/vomiting, blurred vision, headache, somnolence and syncope. Factors contributing to OI were assessed with logistic regression analysis.
Out of 175 patients, 61 (52.6%) male and 44 (74.6%) female patients experienced OI at the time of first ambulation. The frequency of OI related symptoms were dizziness (97, 55.4%), nausea (46, 26.3%), headache (9, 5.1%), blurred vision (3, 1.7%) and vomiting (2, 1.1%). Significant risk factors for OI were gender (P=0.002) and total amount of opioids administered (P=0.033).
The incidence of OI is significantly higher in male than in female patients and is influenced by the opioid dose.
factors; opioid; orthostatic intolerance; postoperative ambulation
Air injected into the epidural space may spread along the nerves of the paravertebral space. Depending on the location of the air, neurologic complications such as multiradicular syndrome, lumbar root compression, and even paraplegia may occur. However, cases of motor weakness caused by air bubbles after caudal epidural injection are rare. A 44-year-old female patient received a caudal epidural injection after an air-acceptance test. Four hours later, she complained of motor weakness in the right lower extremity and numbness of the S1 dermatome. Magnetic resonance imaging showed no anomalies other than an air bubble measuring 13 mm in length and 0.337 ml in volume positioned near the right S1 root. Her symptoms completely regressed within 48 hours.
caudal epidural block; complications; epidural air; epidural injection
There are various origins for chronic abdominal pain. About 10-30% of patients with chronic abdominal pain have abdominal wall pain. Unfortunately, abdominal wall pain is not thought to be the first origin of chronic abdominal pain; therefore, patients usually undergo extensive examinations, including diagnostic laparoscopic surgery. Entrapment of abdominal cutaneous nerves at the muscular foramen of the rectus abdominis is a rare cause of abdominal wall pain. If abdominal wall pain is considered in earlier stage of chronic abdominal pain, unnecessary invasive procedures are not required and patients will reach symptom free condition as soon as the diagnosis is made. Here, we report a case of successful treatment of a patient with abdominal cutaneous nerve entrapment syndrome by ultrasound guided injection therapy.
abdominal pain; abdominal wall; nerve compression syndromes; ultrasonography
Glomus tumors are benign tumors that account for 1% to 5% of all soft tissue tumors of the hand and are characterized by a triad of sensitivity to cold, localized tenderness and severe paroxysmal pain. Paroxysmal pain is a symptom common not only in glomus tumors but also in CRPS, and the hand is one of the commonly affected sites in patients with both glomus tumors and CRPS. Therefore, it is not easy to clinically diagnose glomus tumors superimposed on already affected region of CRPS patients. We report a case of glomus tumor concomitantly originating with CRPS at the hand.
complex regional pain syndrome; glomus tumor
Erythromelalgia is a rare neurovascular pain syndrome characterized by a triad of redness, increased temperature, and burning pain primarily in the extremities. Erythromelalgia can present as a primary or secondary form, and secondary erythromelalgia associated with a myeloproliferative disease such as essential thrombocythemia often responds dramatically to aspirin therapy, as in the present case. Herein, we describe a typical case of a 48-year-old woman with secondary erythromelalgia linked to essential thrombocythemia in the unilateral hand. As this case demonstrates, detecting and visualizing the hyperthermal area through infrared thermography of an erythromelalgic patient can assist in diagnosing the patient, assessing the therapeutic results, and understanding the disease course of erythromelalgia.
aspirin; erythromelalgia; infrared thermography; neuropathic pain
Postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome (POTS) refers to the presence of orthostatic intolerance with a heart rate (HR) increment of 30 beats per minute (bpm) or an absolute HR of 120 bpm or more. There are sporadic reports of the autonomic nervous system dysfunction in migraine and fibromyalgia. We report a case of POTS associated with migraine and fibromyalgia. The patient was managed with multidisciplinary therapies involving medication, education, and exercise which resulted in symptomatic improvement. We also review the literature on the association between POTS, migraine, and fibromyalgia.
fibromyalgia; migraine; postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome
Ultrasound has emerged to become a commonly used modality in the performance of chronic pain interventions. It allows direct visualization of tissue structure while allowing real time guidance of needle placement and medication administration. Ultrasound is a relatively affordable imaging tool and does not subject the practitioner or patient to radiation exposure. This review focuses on the anatomy and sonoanatomy of peripheral non-axial structures commonly involved in chronic pain conditions including the stellate ganglion, suprascapular, ilioinguinal, iliohypogastric, genitofemoral and lateral femoral cutaneous nerves. Additionally, the review discusses ultrasound guided intervention techniques applicable to these structures.
genitofemoral nerve; ilioinguinal nerve; lateral femoral cutaneous nerve; stellate ganglion; suprascapular nerve; ultrasound
5-hydroxytryptamine 3 (5-HT3) receptors have been known to be associated with the modulation of nociceptive transmission. However, it is uncertain whether 5-HT3 plays a role in the antinociceptive or pronociceptive pathway for incisional pain. In this study, we evaluated the effects of palonosetron, a 5-HT3 receptor antagonist, on incisional pain in rats when administered intrathecally or intraplantarly.
An intrathecal catheter was implanted through the cisterna magna and placed in the intrathecal space of rats. An incision in the plantaris muscle of the right hind paw was done under anesthesia with sevoflurane. Withdrawal thresholds were evaluated with the von Frey filament after 2 hours. Palonosetron (0.5 and 0.1 µg intrathecally; 0.5 µg intraplantarly) was administered and the thresholds were observed for 4 hours.
Mechanical hypersensitivity developed after the incision. Intrathecal palonosetron (0.5 µg and 0.1 µg) did not alter the paw withdrawal threshold. Intraplantar palonosetron (0.5 µg) also did not change the paw withdrawal threshold.
Intrathecal and intraplantar palonosetron (0.5 µg) had no effect on modulating the mechanical hypersensitivity in the incisional pain model of rats.
5-HT3 receptor; nociceptive pain; pain threshold; palonosetron; Sprague-Dawley rats
The aims of this study were to analyze the anatomic variations of supraorbital foramina/notches in Koreans and to compare the results with those of previous studies examining other races. We evaluated the three-dimensional computed tomography (3D-CT) images of human faces using multidetector computed tomography (MDCT).
A total of 395 adults (232 men and 163 women) were enrolled and the 3D-CT images of their faces were reviewed in this study. In this study, the data from the images included the presence, shape, width and distance from the nasion to the supraorbital foramina/notches. ANOVA was used to assess the main effects of gender and side (right or left foramen/notch), and comparisons of the means were done by paired t-test.
The most common shapes in Koreans were a single notch (39.5%) on the right hand side and a single foramen (42.3%) on the left hand side. The incidence of a single foramen in Koreans was high compared to other races. The mean foramen diameter was 2.34 ± 0.78 mm, and the mean distance from the nasion was 27.19 ± 4.03 mm. The mean notch diameter was 3.37 ± 1.71 mm, and the mean distance from the nasion was 23.42 ± 2.45 mm.
This is the first study on the variations of supraorbital foramina/notches in Koreans using 3D-CT images of faces. The anatomic characteristics of the supraorbital foramina/notch will help in performing nerve blocks and maxillofacial surgery.
Koreans; multidetector computed tomography; supraorbital foramen; supraorbital notch
Although paclitaxel is a widely used chemotherapeutic agent for the treatment of solid cancers, side effects such as neuropathic pain lead to poor compliance and discontinuation of the therapy. Ethyl pyruvate (EP) is known to have analgesic effects in several pain models and may inhibit apoptosis. The present study was designed to investigate the analgesic effects of EP on mechanical allodynia and apoptosis in dorsal root ganglion (DRG) cells after paclitaxel administration.
Rats were randomly divided into 3 groups: 1) a control group, which received only vehicle; 2) a paclitaxel group, which received paclitaxel; and 3) an EP group, which received EP after paclitaxel administration. Mechanical allodynia was tested before and at 7 and 14 days after final paclitaxel administration. Fourteen days after paclitaxel treatment, DRG apoptosis was determined by activated caspase-3 immunoreactivity (IR).
Post-treatment with EP did not significantly affect paclitaxel-induced allodynia, although it tended to slightly reduce sensitivities to mechanical stimuli after paclitaxel administration. After paclitaxel administration, an increase in caspase-3 IR in DRG cells was observed, which was co-localized with NF200-positive myelinated neurons. Post-treatment with EP decreased the paclitaxel-induced caspase-3 IR. Paclitaxel administration or post-treatment with EP did not alter the glial fibrillary acidic protein IRs in DRG cells.
Inhibition of apoptosis in DRG neurons by EP may not be critical in paclitaxel-induced mechanical allodynia.
allodynia; apoptosis; dorsal root ganglion; ethyl pyruvate; paclitaxel
Medical doctors who perform C-arm fluoroscopy-guided procedures are exposed to X-ray radiation. Therefore, radiation-protective shields are recommended to protect these doctors from radiation. For the past several years, these protective shields have sometimes been used without regular inspection. The aim of this study was to investigate the degree of damage to radiation-protective shields in the operating room.
This study investigated 98 radiation-protective shields in the operation rooms of Konkuk University Medical Center and Jeju National University Hospital. We examined whether these shields were damaged or not with the unaided eye and by fluoroscopy.
There were seventy-one aprons and twenty-seven thyroid protectors in the two university hospitals. Fourteen aprons (19.7%) were damaged, whereas no thyroid protectors (0%) were. Of the twenty-six aprons, which have been used since 2005, eleven (42.3%) were damaged. Of the ten aprons, which have been used since 2008, none (0%) was damaged. Of the twenty-three aprons that have been used since 2009, two (8.7%) of them were damaged. Of the eight aprons used since 2010, one (12.3%) was damaged. Of the four aprons used since 2011, none (0%) of them were damaged. The most common site of damage to the radiation-protective shields was at the waist of the aprons (51%).
As a result, aprons that have been used for a long period of time can have a higher risk of damage. Radiation-protective shields should be inspected regularly and exchanged for new products for the safety of medical workers.
fluoroscopy; radiation exposure; radiation-protective shields
C-arm fluoroscope has been widely used to promote more effective pain management; however, unwanted radiation exposure for operators is inevitable. We prospectively investigated the differences in radiation exposure related to collimation in Medial Branch Block (MBB).
This study was a randomized controlled trial of 62 MBBs at L3, 4 and 5. After the patient was laid in the prone position on the operating table, MBB was conducted and only AP projections of the fluoroscope were used. Based on a concealed random number table, MBB was performed with (collimation group) and without (control group) collimation. The data on the patient's age, height, gender, laterality (right/left), radiation absorbed dose (RAD), exposure time, distance from the center of the field to the operator, and effective dose (ED) at the side of the table and at the operator's chest were collected. The brightness of the fluoroscopic image was evaluated with histogram in Photoshop.
There were no significant differences in age, height, weight, male to female ratio, laterality, time, distance and brightness of fluoroscopic image. The area of the fluoroscopic image with collimation was 67% of the conventional image. The RAD (29.9 ± 13.0, P = 0.001) and the ED at the left chest of the operators (0.53 ± 0.71, P = 0.042) and beside the table (5.69 ± 4.6, P = 0.025) in collimation group were lower than that of the control group (44.6 ± 19.0, 0.97 ± 0.92, and 9.53 ± 8.16), resepectively.
Collimation reduced radiation exposure and maintained the image quality. Therefore, the proper use of collimation will be beneficial to both patients and operators.
collimation; image quality; radiation absorbed dose; radiation exposure
Femoroacetabular Impingement (FAI) arises from morphological abnormalities between the proximal femur and acetabulum. Impingement caused by these morphologic abnormalities induces early degenerative changes in the hip joint. Furthermore, FAI patients complain of severe pain and limited range of motion in the hip, but a guideline for treatment of FAI has not yet been established. Medication, supportive physical treatment and surgical procedures have been used in the treatment of the FAI patients; however, the efficacies of these treatments have been limited. Here, we report the diagnosis and treatment for 3 cases of FAI patients. Intra-articular (IA) steroid injection of the hip joint was performed in all three patients. After IA injection, pain was reduced and function had improved for up to three months.
femoroacetabular impingement; hip osteoarthritis; intra-articular injection
Malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors (MPNSTs) are very rare sarcomas derived from various cells in the peripheral nerve sheath. Malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors have a known association with neurofibromatosis type 1. Diagnosis of MPNSTs is difficult in patients with chronic pain, when MPNST occurs at an overlapping area of chronic pain. Therefore, the diagnosis can be missed unless clinicians pay attention to the possibility of this disease. Here in, we report a case of concurrent malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor with complex regional pain syndrome type 1. A 44-year female patient, who was diagnosed with complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) type 1 in her left ankle, visited our clinic because of aggravated pain. The cause of the aggravated pain was revealed as concurrent MPNST in the left common peroneal nerve territory, which overlapped the site of pain from CRPS.
complex regional pain syndrome; nerve sheath neoplasm; neurofibromatosis