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1.  Biliary phytobezoar resulting in intestinal obstruction 
Phytobezoar is the most common type of bezoar. It is composed of indigestible vegetable matter and is usually found in the stomach. Biliary phytobezoar is extremely rare and difficult to diagnose preoperatively. The pathogenesis is not clear, and there have been only a few reports of biliary bezoars associated with sphincteric impairmentat the ampulla of Vater. Here, we present a report of biliary bezoar that resulted in jejunal obstruction. We were unable to identifythe bezoar in the extrahepatic bile duct until it obstructed the small bowel lumen. To our knowledge, this is the first report of small bowel obstruction resulting frommigration of a biliary bezoar.
doi:10.3748/wjg.v19.i1.133
PMCID: PMC3542761  PMID: 23326176
Phytobezoar; Biliary; Intestinal obstruction; Choledochoduodenal; Fistula; Multidetector-row computed tomography
2.  Balanced approach can help initial outcomes: analysis of initial 50 cases of a new liver transplantation program in East Asia 
Purpose
To evaluate patient triage pattern and outcomes according to types of liver transplantation as part of a new liver transplant program developed in an East Asian country with a limited number of deceased donors.
Methods
Medical records of initial 50 liver transplantations were reviewed retrospectively.
Results
Twenty-nine patients underwent deceased donor liver transplantation (DDLT) and 21 patients underwent living donor liver transplantation (LDLT). Mean model for end-stage liver disease scores of recipients of DDLT and LDLT were 24.9 ± 11.6 and 13.1 ± 5.4, respectively (P < 0.0001). Twenty-eight patients had HCCs and 17 of them (60.7%) underwent LDLT, which was 80.9% of LDLTs. There were 2 cases of perioperative mortality; each was from DDLT and LDLT, respectively. Median follow-up was 18 months. Overall patient and graft survival rates at 6 months, 1 and 2 years were 95.7%, 93.4%, and 89.8%, respectively. There was no significant difference in survival between DDLT and LDLT. Overall recurrence-free survival rates of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients at 6 month, 1, and 2 years were 96.3%, 96.3%, and 90.3%, respectively. There was no significant difference in recurrence-free survival between DDLT and LDLT.
Conclusion
As a new liver transplant program with limited resource and waiting list, patients with critical condition could undergo DDLT whereas relatively stable patients with HCCs were mostly directed to LDLT. We recommend a balanced approach between DDLT and LDLT for initiating liver transplant programs.
doi:10.4174/astr.2014.87.1.22
PMCID: PMC4091440  PMID: 25025023
Liver transplantation; Donor selection; Liver transplantation program; Outcome; Survival
3.  Primary Hepatic Marginal Zone B Cell Lymphoma : A Case Report and Review of the Literature 
The Indian Journal of Surgery  2012;75(Suppl 1):331-336.
Background
Primary hepatic lymphoma (PHL) is a very rare malignancy, and constitutes about 0.016 % of all cases of non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma and is often misdiagnosed. The optimal therapy is still unclear and the outcomes are uncertain. Among PHLs, a primary hepatic low-grade marginal zone B-cell lymphoma of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT lymphoma) is extremely rare.
Methods
We present a case of primary hepatic lymphoma (MALT lymphoma) treated with surgical resection and adjuvant chemotherapy. A 38-year-old Korean man, who was diagnosed with chronic hepatitis B 20 years ago, was admitted for liver biopsy after liver lesions were detected on follow-up computed tomography scan (CT). Liver biopsy revealed the diagnosis of marginal zone B-cell malignant lymphoma (MALT lymphoma). The preoperative clinical staging was IE, given that no additional foci of lymphoma were found anywhere else in the body. The patient underwent left hemihepatectomy. Subsequently, the patient received two cycles of CHOP (cyclophosphamide, adriamycin, vincristine, and prednisone) regimen.
Results
After 15 months of follow-up, the patient is alive and well without any evidence of disease recurrence.
Conclusion
Although the prognosis is variable, good response to early surgery combined with postoperative chemotherapy can be achieved in strictly selected patients.
doi:10.1007/s12262-012-0695-1
PMCID: PMC3693344  PMID: 24426608
Primary hepatic lymphoma; MALT lymphoma; Chronic hepatitis B; Surgery; Adjuvant chemotherapy
4.  Use of right lobe graft with type IV portal vein accompanied by type IV biliary tree in living donor liver transplantation: report of a case 
Anatomic variations of the portal vein (PV) and bile duct (BD) are more common on the right lobe as compared with left lobe grafts in living donor liver transplantation (LDLT). We recently experienced a case of LDLT for hepatocellular carcinoma combined with liver cirrhosis secondary to hepatitis B virus and hepatitis C virus infection. The only available donor had right lobe graft with type IV PV associated with type IV BD. The patient underwent relaparotomy for PV stenting due to PV stenosis. Percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage was done for a stricture at the site of biliary reconstruction. Thereafter, the patient was discharged in good health. Our experience suggests that, the use of right lobe graft with type IV PV accompanied by type IV BD should be the last choice for LDLT, because of its technical difficulty and risks of associated complications.
doi:10.4174/astr.2014.86.6.331
PMCID: PMC4062452  PMID: 24949326
Vascular complication; Postoperative complications; Anastomosis; Roux-en-Y
5.  Liver transplantation for acute-on-chronic liver failure from erythropoietic protoporphyria 
Clinical and molecular hepatology  2012;18(4):411-415.
Erythropoietic protoporphyria (EPP) is an inherited disorder of the heme metabolic pathway that is characterized by accumulation of protoporphyrin in the blood, erythrocytes, and tissues, and cutaneous manifestations of photosensitivity, all resulting from abnormalities in ferrochelatase (FECH) activity due to mutations in the FECH gene. Protoporphyrin is excreted by the liver, and excess protoporphyrin leads to cholelithiasis with obstructive episodes and chronic liver disease, finally progressing to liver cirrhosis. Patients with end-stage EPP-associated liver disease require liver transplantation. We describe here a 31-year-old male patient with EPP who experienced acute-on-chronic liver failure and underwent deceased-donor liver transplantation. Surgical and postoperative care included specific shielding from exposure to ultraviolet radiation to prevent photosensitivity-associated adverse effects. The patient recovered uneventfully and was doing well 24 months after transplantation. Future prevention and treatment of liver disease are discussed in detail.
doi:10.3350/cmh.2012.18.4.411
PMCID: PMC3540379  PMID: 23323258
Liver transplantation; Acute-on-chronic liver failure; Erythropoietic protoporphyria
6.  Metastatic hepatocellular carcinoma to the parotid gland: Case report and review of the literature 
INTRODUCTION
Hepatocellular carcinoma, the most frequent primary hepatic tumor, metastasizes in more than 50% of cases. However, parotid gland metastatic HCCs are very uncommon. We report a patient in whom the finding of a left parotid mass revealed metastatic HCC.
PRESENTATION OF CASE
A thirty-six-year-old male presented with a round palpable left neck mass that persisted for 3 months. He had received right hemihepatectomy for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Preoperative evaluation revealed a benign tumor of the parotid gland. We performed superficial parotidectomy. Metastatic hepatocellular carcinoma of the parotid gland was diagnosed.
DISCUSSION
Although HCC metastases to the oral cavity have been reported, to date, only 4 cases HCC metastasis to the parotid gland have been reported. Although clinicians and cytopathologists alike both agree that salivary gland fine needle aspiration biopies (FNABs) are highly useful and safe diagnostic alternatives to biopsies and resections, we believe that in specific clinical situations, awareness of potential diagnostic pitfalls in salivary gland FNAB is a necessary part of the microscopic interpretations of these lesions.
CONCLUSION
Although rare, since HCC can metastasize to the parotid gland, high suspicion should be maintained in a patient presenting with a parotid mass with a history of HCC. In addition, since potential diagnostic pitfalls in salivary gland fine-needle aspiration (FNA) biopsies exist, incisional or excisional biopsy may be necessary for definite diagnosis of metastatic HCC to the parotid gland.
doi:10.1016/j.ijscr.2012.08.018
PMCID: PMC3537927  PMID: 23123420
HCC, hepatocellular carcinoma; FNA, fine-needle aspiration; Metastatic hepatocellular carcinoma; Parotid gland; Fine-needle aspiration
7.  Liver abscess developed after cadaveric liver transplantation due to ligation of an accessory right hepatic artery of the donor graft 
It is important that extrahepatic arteries are identified precisely at the time of graft procurement. We present a case where the accessory right hepatic artery of the liver was ligated leading to postoperative liver abscess formation in the liver graft. A forty-seven-year-old female patient diagnosed with liver cirrhosis underwent orthotopic cadaveric liver transplantation due to altered mentality. The donor graft showed a variant of the hepatic artery anatomy where an accessory right hepatic artery arose from the superior mesenteric artery. This artery was accidentally transected during procurement. Since the back bleeding test using perfusion fluid was good, the artery was ligated. Postoperative abdominal computed tomography scan revealed a 6 cm low attenuating lesion in the liver. The patient underwent conservative treatment. We believe that even small accessory arteries (1 to 2 mm) should be reconstructed whenever possible to avoid postoperative complications such as liver abscess.
doi:10.4174/jkss.2012.83.4.246
PMCID: PMC3467392  PMID: 23091798
Liver abscess; Liver transplantation; Postoperative complications; Hepatic artery

Results 1-7 (7)