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1.  Prospective and Systematic Analysis of Unexpected Requests for Non-Cardiac Surgery or Other Invasive Procedures during the First Year after Drug-Eluting Stent Implantation 
Yonsei Medical Journal  2014;55(2):345-352.
Purpose
Unexpected requests for non-cardiac surgery requiring discontinuation of dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT) frequently occur in daily clinical practice. The objectives of this study were to evaluate prevalence, timing and clinical outcomes of such unexpected requests for non-cardiac surgery or other invasive procedures during the first year after drug-eluting stents (DESs) implantation.
Materials and Methods
We prospectively investigated the prevalence, timing and clinical outcomes of unexpected requests for non-cardiac surgery or other procedures during the first year after DESs implantation in 2117 patients.
Results
The prevalence of requested non-cardiac surgery or invasive procedures was 14.6% in 310 requests and 12.3% in 261 patients. Among 310 requests, those were proposed in 11.3% <1 month, 30.0% between 1 and 3 months, 36.8% between 4 and 6 months and 21.9% between 7 and 12 months post-DES implantation. The rates of actual discontinuation of DAPT and non-cardiac surgery or procedure finally performed were 35.8% (111 of 310 requests) and 53.2% (165 of 310 requests), respectively. On multivariate regression analysis, the most significant determinants for actual discontinuation of DAPT were Endeavor zotarolimus-eluting stent implantation with 3-month DAPT (OR=5.54, 95% CI 2.95-10.44, p<0.001) and timing of request (OR=2.84, 95% CI 1.97-4.11, p<0.001). There were no patients with any death, myocardial infarction, or stent thrombosis related with actual discontinuation of DAPT.
Conclusion
Those unexpected requests with premature discontinuation of DAPT were relatively common and continuously proposed during the first year following DES implantation. No death, myocardial infarction or stent thrombosis occurred in patients with actual discontinuation of DAPT.
doi:10.3349/ymj.2014.55.2.345
PMCID: PMC3936620  PMID: 24532502
Antiplatelet therapy; drug-eluting stents; coronary artery disease
2.  Age and prognosis of papillary thyroid carcinoma: retrospective stratification into three groups 
Purpose
We investigated the prognosis according to age in papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) patients.
Methods
We retrospectively evaluated 2,890 patients who underwent thyroidectomy due to PTC between May 2004 and Aug 2008. We divided patients into 3 groups: young (≤35 years old), middle (between 35 and 54 years old), and old (≥55 years old).
Results
Median age was 47.0 years old (range, 15 to 82 years). Within a follow-up period median of 50 months, there were 148 (5.1%) locoregional recurrences, 6 (0.2%) PTC-related deaths, and 18 (0.6%) PTC-unrelated deaths. Outcomes were more favorable in the young group, with no PTC-related death despite the frequent locoregional recurrence. In the old group compared to the middle, there was a higher proportion of male, and more aggressive types as T3 or N1b, higher mean tumor number, more multiplicity, and bilaterality. The old group of ≥55 years did not show a significant difference in PTC-related deaths than other age groups in Cox analysis (OR, 0.9; P = 0.677), but a significant cutoff age in PTC-related deaths at 62.5 years was determined in ROC analysis (area under curve = 0.912).
Conclusion
We showed that the ≤35 years group shows favorable prognosis despite the frequent locoregional recurrence and ≥62.5 years group shows a poor prognosis regardless of other factors such as male sex or tumor aggressiveness. Further multiinstitutional studies are needed to elucidate the prognosis according to patient's age.
doi:10.4174/jkss.2012.83.5.259
PMCID: PMC3491227  PMID: 23166884
Age; Prognosis; Papillary thyroid carcinoma
3.  Observational study of central metastases following thyroid lobectomy without a completion thyroidectomy for papillary carcinoma 
Purpose
There are no guidelines for the optimal timing of the decision of when to perform completion thyroidectomy, and controversy exists regarding how the timing of completion thyroidectomy impacts survival patterns. We investigated the legitimacy of an observational strategy in central node metastasis after thyroid lobectomy for papillary thyroid cancer (PTC).
Methods
We retrospectively evaluated 522 consecutive patients who underwent thyroid lobectomy. Of the 69 patients with central metastasis, 61 patients (88.4%) were included in an observational study under cautious evaluation with informed consent by the patients, and compared with an observation arm of 180 postlobectomy N0 (node negative proven) patients.
Results
Of the 522 patients, six (1.1%) thyroid, five (0.9%) central, and two (0.4%) lateral recurrences were observed. Lateral recurrences occurred in the immediate completion N0 and Nx groups but not in the N1a observation arms. There were two (3.3%) central recurrences without thyroid or lateral recurrence on the observation arm of N1a observation patients. But two (1.1%) thyroid and three (1.7%) central recurrences were on the observation arm of N0 patients. In Kaplan-Meier survival curves for central or lateral recurrences between observation arms for the N1a and N0 groups, no significant difference was found between the N1a and N0 observation arms (P = 0.365).
Conclusion
The timing of when to perform completion thyroidectomy in central metastases-proven patients after lobectomy for PTC should be based on the patient's risk category.
doi:10.4174/jkss.2012.83.4.196
PMCID: PMC3467385  PMID: 23091791
Observation; Lymphatic metastasis; Thyroid neoplasms; Thyroidectomy
4.  Phase II randomized trial of neoadjuvant metformin plus letrozole versus placebo plus letrozole for estrogen receptor positive postmenopausal breast cancer (METEOR) 
BMC Cancer  2014;14:170.
Background
Neoadjuvant endocrine therapy with an aromatase inhibitor has shown efficacy comparable to that of neoadjuvant chemotherapy in patients with postmenopausal breast cancer. Preclinical and clinical studies have shown that the antidiabetic drug metformin has anti-tumor activity. This prospective, multicenter, phase II randomized, placebo controlled trial was designed to evaluate the direct anti-tumor effect of metformin in non-diabetic postmenopausal women with estrogen-receptor (ER) positive breast cancer.
Methods/Design
Patients meeting the inclusion criteria and providing written informed consent will be randomized to 24 weeks of neoadjuvant treatment with letrozole (2.5 mg/day) and either metformin (2000 mg/day) or placebo. Target accrual number is 104 patients per arm. The primary endpoint will be clinical response rate, as measured by calipers. Secondary endpoints include pathologic complete response rate, breast conserving rate, change in Ki67 expression, breast density change, and toxicity profile. Molecular assays will be performed using samples obtained before treatment, at week 4, and postoperatively.
Discussion
This study will provide direct evidence of the anti-tumor effect of metformin in non-diabetic, postmenopausal patients with ER-positive breast cancer.
Trial registration
ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier NCT01589367
doi:10.1186/1471-2407-14-170
PMCID: PMC3984742  PMID: 24612502
Metformin; Letrozole; Neoadjuvant; Estrogen receptor-positive Breast cancer
5.  Atypia of undetermined significance on thyroid fine needle aspiration: surgical outcome and risk factors for malignancy 
Purpose
This study was performed to analyze the surgical pathology results of the "atypia of undetermined significance" (AUS) category from thyroid fine needle aspiration (FNA) and to describe the characteristics to distinguish a malignant from a benign nodule.
Methods
A retrospective analysis was done on 116 patients who underwent thyroid surgery from December 2008 to December 2012, following a diagnosis of AUS from preoperative thyroid FNA. We investigated the age, gender, size and site of the nodules, ultrasonographic criteria, cytological features, the number of atypia results after repeated FNAs, surgical method, and final pathologic results.
Results
Sixty-five out of 116 patients underwent total thyroidectomy and the rest had partial thyroidectomy. The final pathologic results were 41 malignancies (35.3%) and 75 benign diseases (64.7%). AUS was divided into group 1: 'cannot rule out malignancy' or group 2: 'cannot rule out follicular neoplasm'. After surgery, group 1 revealed papillary thyroid cancer in most cases and group 2 revealed follicular adenoma in most cases. Age over 40 years, ultrasonographic findings suggestive of malignancy, more than 2 results of atypia from repeated FNAs and nodules less than 2 centimeters were risk factors for malignancy on univariate analysis. Multivariate analysis showed that ultrasonographic findings suggestive of malignancy was a significant risk factor for malignancy.
Conclusion
For proper evaluation of the risk for malignancy in thyroid AUS patients, the ultrasonographic criteria should be considered along with other clinicopathological findings such as age, nodule size, number of atypia, cytologic features.
doi:10.4174/astr.2014.86.3.109
PMCID: PMC3994624  PMID: 24761418
Atypia of undetermined significance; Fine needle aspiration; Thyroid neoplasms
6.  Prognostic Significance of Metabolic Tumor Volume Measured by 18F-FDG PET/CT in Operable Primary Breast Cancer 
Purpose
We investigated whether PET indices measured by 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) can predict prognosis in patients with operable primary breast cancer.
Methods
We reviewed 53 patients with operable primary breast cancer who underwent pretreatment FDG PET/CT. PET indices, maximum standardized uptake value (SUV) and metabolic tumor volume (MTV), were measured in the primary breast tumor (P), metastatic lymph nodes (N) and total tumor (T). The Cox proportional hazards model was used with age, tumor size, clinical lymph node status, method of surgery, presence or absence of neoadjuvant chemotherapy, histological type, histological grade, hormone receptors and HER2 status to predict disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS).
Results
Median follow-up period was 50 months (range, 17–73 months), during which 17 patients had recurrent disease and nine of whom died. The univariate analysis showed that high SUV of N (NSUV, P = 0.011), MTV of N (NMTV, P = 0.011) and MTV of T (TMTV, P = 0.045) as well as high histological grade (P = 0.008), negative estrogen (P = 0.045) and negative progesterone (P = 0.029) receptor status were associated with shorter DFS. High NSUV (P = 0.035), NMTV (P = 0.035) and TMTV (P = 0.035) as well as high histological grade (P = 0.012) and negative estrogen receptor status (P = 0.009) were associated with shorter OS. NSUV, NMTV and TMTV were found to be significantly associated with high histological grade (P = 0.005). However, those failed to be statistically significant prognostic factors on multivariate analysis.
Conclusions
PET indices seem to be useful in the preoperative evaluation of prognosis in patients with operable primary breast cancer. NSUV, NMTV and TMTV might be considerable factors associated with patient outcome in operable breast cancer.
doi:10.1007/s13139-012-0161-9
PMCID: PMC4043062  PMID: 24900075
Breast cancer; FDG PET/CT; Maximum standardized uptake value; Metabolic tumor volume; Prognosis
7.  Malignant thyroid bed mass after total thyroidectomy 
Purpose
Ultrasonographic (US) criteria on malignant thyroid bed mass have been suggested, including taller than wide shape, loss of echogenic hilum, abnormal vascularity, and microcalcification. The relationship between fine-needle aspiration (FNA) cytology findings and US findings on thyroid bed mass is unknown. We have retrospectively assessed the malignant thyroid bed mass after total thyroidectomy due to papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC).
Methods
We retrospectively evaluated 2,048 patients who underwent total thyroidectomy due to PTC. FNA was performed in 97 patients on the thyroid bed under US surveillance. The 97 suspicious thyroid bed masses were divided into two groups: metastatic thyroid bed group (n = 34) and nonmetastatic group (n = 63). The groups were evaluated according to various clinical, serologic, and US findings.
Results
Within a median 47.0 months of follow-up, the proportion of malignant thyroid bed mass was high in large tumor size (1.37 cm vs. 1.03 cm), isthmic position (10.3% vs. 3.9%), and previous N1a (55.9% vs. 34.9%). US findings revealed that the presence of microcalcification or macrocalcification (47.1% vs. 19.0%) and thyroid bed mass height (5.4 mm vs. 3.9 mm) were the only discriminable criteria for central compartment recurrence. But, degree of echogenicity, loss of hilum, and irregularity of margin failed to discriminate malignant thyroid bed mass.
Conclusion
US findings on malignant thyroid bed mass were different from previously reported general criteria on lateral metastatic nodes. Additional FNA cytology should be performed on patients, even low-risk patients, who present the above findings.
doi:10.4174/jkss.2013.85.3.97
PMCID: PMC3764368  PMID: 24020017
Ultrasonography; Fine-needle biopsy; Thyroidectomy; Papillary thyroid cancer
8.  Trans-Radial versus Trans-Femoral Intervention for the Treatment of Coronary Bifurcations: Results from Coronary Bifurcation Stenting Registry 
Journal of Korean Medical Science  2013;28(3):388-395.
Trans-radial (TR) approach is increasingly recognized as an alternative to the routine use of trans-femoral (TF) approach. However, there are limited data comparing the outcomes of these two approaches for the treatment of coronary bifurcation lesions. We evaluated outcomes of TR and TF percutaneous coronary interventions (PCI) in this complex lesion. Procedural outcomes and clinical events were compared in 1,668 patients who underwent PCI for non-left main bifurcation lesions, according to the vascular approach, either TR (n = 503) or TF (n = 1,165). The primary outcome was major adverse cardiac events (MACE), including cardiac death, myocardial infarction (MI), and target lesion revascularization (TLR) in all patients and in 424 propensity-score matched pairs of patients. There were no significant differences between TR and TF approaches for procedural success in the main vessel (99.6% vs 98.6%, P = 0.08) and side branches (62.6% vs 66.7%, P = 0.11). Over a mean follow-up of 22 months, cardiac death or MI (1.8% vs 2.2%, P = 0.45), TLR (4.0% vs 5.2%, P = 0.22), and MACE (5.2% vs 7.0%, P = 0.11) did not significantly differ between TR and TF groups, respectively. These results were consistent after propensity score-matched analysis. In conclusion, TR PCI is a feasible alternative approach to conventional TF approaches for bifurcation PCI (clinicaltrials.gov number: NCT00851526).
doi:10.3346/jkms.2013.28.3.388
PMCID: PMC3594602  PMID: 23486858
Bifurcation; Percutaneous Coronary Intervention; Trans-Radial Approach
9.  Recurrent Syncope Triggered by Temporal Lobe Epilepsy: Ictal Bradycardia Syndrome 
Korean Circulation Journal  2012;42(5):349-351.
Ictal asystole is potentially lethal, and known to originate from the involvement of limbic autonomic regions. Appropriate treatment must include an antiepileptic drug and the implantation of a pacemaker. We report the case of a 54-year-old male with recurrent syncope secondary to ictal asystole triggered by temporal lobe epilepsy. This was confirmed by combined Holter and video-electroencephalogram monitoring.
doi:10.4070/kcj.2012.42.5.349
PMCID: PMC3369968  PMID: 22701136
Bradycardia; Syncope; Electrocardiography
10.  The 'Harmonizing Optimal Strategy for Treatment of coronary artery stenosis - sAfety & effectiveneSS of drug-elUting stents & antiplatelet REgimen' (HOST-ASSURE) trial: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial 
Trials  2012;13:29.
Background
Second-generation drug-eluting stents (DES) have raised the bar of clinical performance. These stents are mostly made from cobalt chromium alloy. A newer generation DES has been developed from platinum chromium alloy, but clinical data regarding the efficacy and safety of the platinum chromium-based everolimus-eluting stent (PtCr-EES) is limited, with no comparison data against the cobalt chromium-based zotarolimus-eluting stent (CoCr-ZES). In addition, an antiplatelet regimen is an integral component of medical therapy after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). A 1-week duration of doubling the dose of clopidogrel (double-dose antiplatelet therapy (DDAT)) was shown to improve outcome at 1 month compared with conventional dose in acute coronary syndrome (ACS) patients undergoing PCI. However in Asia, including Korea, the addition of cilostazol (triplet antiplatelet therapy (TAT)) is used more commonly than doubling the dose of clopidogrel in high-risk patients.
Methods
In the 'Harmonizing Optimal Strategy for Treatment of coronary artery stenosis - sAfety & effectiveneSS of drug-elUting stents & antiplatelet REgimen' (HOST-ASSURE) trial, approximately 3,750 patients are being prospectively and randomly assigned in a 2 × 2 factorial design according to the type of stent (PtCr-EES vs CoCr-ZES) and antiplatelet regimen (TAT vs DDAT). The first primary endpoint is target lesion failure at 1 year for the stent comparison, and the second primary endpoint is net clinical outcome at 1 month for comparison of antiplatelet therapy regimen.
Discussion
The HOST-ASSURE trial is the largest study yet performed to directly compare the efficacy and safety of the PtCr-EES versus CoCr-ZES in an 'all-comers' population. In addition, this study will also compare the clinical outcome of TAT versus DDAT for 1-month post PCI.
Trial registration
ClincalTrials.gov number NCT01267734.
doi:10.1186/1745-6215-13-29
PMCID: PMC3342216  PMID: 22463698
Cilostazol; cobalt chromium; coronary heart disease; everolimus-eluting stent; platinum chromium; zotarolimus-eluting stent
12.  Is it possible to predict hypothyroidism after thyroid lobectomy through thyrotropin, thyroglobulin, anti-thyroglobulin, and anti-microsomal antibody? 
Purpose
We investigated the incidence and risk factors of hypothyroidism after thyroid lobectomy, and evaluated the possibility to predict hypothyroidism preoperatively with serologic markers, such as thyrotropin (TSH), thyroglobulin (TG), anti-thyroglobulin (ATA), and anti-microsomal antibody (AMA).
Methods
We enrolled 123 consecutive patients who underwent thyroid lobectomy due to benign conditions between May 2004 and April 2008. Only preoperative euthyroid patients were included. Patients were divided into two groups by postoperative thyroid function outcomes, into hypothyroid (n = 97) and euthyroid groups (n = 26), and analyzed specially for the preoperative levels of TSH, TG, ATA, and AMA.
Results
Twenty-six (21.1%) patients developed hypothyroidism following thyroid lobectomy within 35.7 months of follow-up. The proportion of post-lobectomy hypothyroidism was high in patients with high-normal preoperative TSH level, and the cut-off value was 2.0 mIU/L, with 67% sensitivity and 75% specificity. The quantitative titer of preoperative TG, ATA, and AMA was not significant, but the outcome of categorical analysis of two or more positivities on these three markers was significantly higher in hypothyroid patients than in euthyroid patients (28.6% vs. 3.9%, P = 0.024). The combined positivity of preoperative TSH and two or more positivities of TG, ATA, and AMA possess 100% positive predictive value and 81% negative predictive value.
Conclusion
The incidence of hypothyroidism following thyroid lobectomy was 21.1%. High-normal preoperative TSH and two or more positivities for TG, ATA, and AMA are good pre-operative predictive markers. Such high-risk patients need close TSH monitoring before the onset of clinical hypothyroidism.
doi:10.4174/jkss.2011.81.6.380
PMCID: PMC3243854  PMID: 22200038
Hypothyroidism; Thyrotropin; Thyroglobulin; Thyroid microsomal antibodies
13.  Culprit-Lesion-Only Versus Multivessel Revascularization Using Drug-Eluting Stents in Patients With ST-Segment Elevation Myocardial Infarction: A Korean Acute Myocardial Infarction Registry-Based Analysis 
Korean Circulation Journal  2011;41(12):718-725.
Background and Objectives
In patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) and multivessel disease, complete revascularization (CR) for non-culprit lesions is not routinely recommended. The aim of this study was to compare the clinical outcomes of multivessel compared with infarct-related artery (IRA)-only revascularization in patients undergoing primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) for STEMI.
Subjects and Methods
From the Korean Acute Myocardial Infarction Registry (KAMIR) database, 1,094 STEMI patients with multivessel disease who underwent primary PCI with drug-eluting stents were enrolled in this study. The patients were divided into two groups: culprit-vessel-only revascularization (COR, n=827) group; multivessel revascularization, including non-IRA (MVR, n=267) group. The primary endpoint of this study included major adverse cardiac events (MACEs), such as death, myocardial infarction, or target or nontarget lesion revascularization at one year.
Results
There was no difference in clinical characteristics between the two groups. During the one-year follow-up, 102 (15.2%) patients in the COR group and 32 (14.2%) in the MVR group experienced at least one MACE (p=0.330). There were no differences between the two groups in terms of rates of death, myocardial infarction, or revascularization (2.1% vs. 2.0%, 0.7% vs. 0.8%, and 11.7% vs. 10.1%, respectively; p=0.822, 0.910, and 0.301, respectively). The MACE rate was higher in the incompletely revascularized patients than in the completely revascularized patients (15% vs. 9.5%, p=0.039), and the difference was attributable to a higher rate of nontarget vessel revascularization (8.6% vs. 1.8%, p=0.002).
Conclusion
Although multivessel angioplasty during primary PCI for STEMI did not reduce the MACE rate compared with culprit-vessel-only PCI, CR was associated with a lower rate of repeat revascularization after multivessel PCI.
doi:10.4070/kcj.2011.41.12.718
PMCID: PMC3257455  PMID: 22259602
Myocardial infarction; Coronary artery disease; Angioplasty
14.  Importance of Clinical and Echocardiographic Hemodynamic Assessment in Chronic Pulmonary Embolism 
We describe a 42-year-old man presenting to the emergency department with cardiogenic shock. He had a prior history of acute pulmonary embolism (PE), and had been on anticoagulation for 2 years. Although computed tomographic pulmonary angiography performed at the emergency department showed no change in the extent of PE and did not support a role of surgical treatment, pulmonary embolectomy was recommended by attending physician based on clinical and echocardiographic hemodynamic findings like unstable vital sign and markedly enlarged right ventricle with severely depressed systolic function. Surgery confirmed the presence of fresh thrombi. After surgery, hemodynamic status was progressively improved, but the patient died due to pneumonia and pulmonary hemorrhage.
doi:10.4250/jcu.2011.19.4.224
PMCID: PMC3259551  PMID: 22259670
Pulmonary embolism; Computed tomography; Echocardiography
15.  Cardiac Myxoma Originating from the Anterior Mitral Valve Leaflet 
Primary cardiac tumors are rare and myxoma is the most common tumor among them. Cardiac myxoma usually occurs in the left atrium. Myxoma originating from mitral valve is extremely rare. We report a case of mitral valve myxoma. The tumor originated from the anterior mitral valve leaflet. The tumor was completely removed and replacement of the mitral valve was not done.
doi:10.4250/jcu.2011.19.4.228
PMCID: PMC3259552  PMID: 22259671
Myxoma; Mitral valve; Heart neoplasms
16.  Primary papillary carcinoma originated from a branchial cleft cyst 
Journal of the Korean Surgical Society  2011;81(Suppl 1):S12-S16.
Although branchial cleft cysts are common, papillary carcinomas arising from them are rare. Here we report a 41-year-old woman with papillary carcinoma originating from a right lateral branchial cleft cyst without any evidence of a papillary carcinoma in the thyroid gland. The patient underwent right lateral neck dissection followed by total thyroidectomy. We then confirmed papillary carcinoma arising from the branchial cleft cyst through microscopic and immunohistochemical staining with thyroglobulin (TG), thyroid-associated transcription factor-1 (TTF-1) and p63. It is the 10th case worldwide describing papillary carcinoma in a branchial cleft cyst with a review of the literature on the features of the disease and discussion of the role of immunohistochemical staining with TG, TTF -1 and p63. In conclusion, it should be emphasized that the surgeon must be cautioned of the possibility of primary papillary carcinoma in the branchial cleft cyst.
doi:10.4174/jkss.2011.81.Suppl1.S12
PMCID: PMC3267057  PMID: 22319730
Branchioma; Thyroid neoplasms; Papillary carcinoma
17.  Analysis of Infections Occurring in Breast Cancer Patients after Breast Conserving Surgery Using Mesh 
Journal of Breast Cancer  2011;14(4):328-332.
Purpose
Breast conserving surgery using mesh can effectively fill the defective space, but there is the risk of infection.
Methods
From June 2007 to August 2010, 243 patients who underwent breast conserving surgery with polyglactin 910 mesh insert for breast cancer at our institution were retrospectively studied.
Results
Infection occurred in 25 (10.3%) of 243 patients. When comparing the infection and non-infection groups in multivariate analysis, there was no significant difference in age, underlying disease, preoperative biopsy methods, mass location, axillary lymph node dissection, operative methods, neoadjuvant or adjuvant chemotherapy use, mass size and removed breast volume. The infection appeared more common only in patients with body mass index (BMI) greater than 25. Infection symptoms occurred, on average, 119.5 days after surgery, and the average duration of the required treatment was 34.4 days. Out of 25 patients with postoperative infection complications, 16 (64%) patients underwent incision and drainage with mesh removal, whereas the remaining 9 (36%) only required conservative treatment.
Conclusion
During breast conserving surgery, the risk of infection is increased in patients with high BMI, and should be taken into account when considering insertion of a polyglactin 910 mesh. Patient's age, underlying disease and perioperative treatment methods were not significant risk factors for developing mesh infection. Given that most infections seem to develop symptoms one month after surgery, a long enough observation period should be initiated. Early detection and appropriate conservative treatments may effectively address infections, thus reducing the need for more invasive therapies.
doi:10.4048/jbc.2011.14.4.328
PMCID: PMC3268931  PMID: 22323921
Breast neoplasms; Breast-conserving surgery; Infection; Polyglactin 910
18.  Thyroid gland metastasis arising from primary liver cholangiocarcinoma: The first case report involving surgical operation 
Introduction
A primary cancer causing thyroid metastasis is extremely rare. In western countries, the most common primary tumors causing thyroid metastases include kidney, lung, breast, and gastrointestinal cancers. In contrast, breast is the most common primary site, followed by kidney, colon, and lung cancers in Korea. To the best of our knowledge, surgically confirmed thyroid metastasis from cholangiocarcinoma has not been reported. Herein, we report the first case of thyroid metastasis secondary to cholangiocarcinoma on which surgery was performed.
Presentation of case
A 55-year-old man was diagnosed with hepatic malignancy in December 2008. He subsequently received 2 cycles of transarterial chemoembolization and 4 cycles of radio-frequency ablation between 2008 and 2010. At follow-up in January 2011, brain metastasis was identified in the right parietal area secondary to cholangiocarcinoma. In April 2011, the patient was found to have palpable masses on the left thyroid and lateral neck. The patient subsequently underwent total thyroidectomy followed by left radical neck dissection. Intraoperatively, an ill-defined mass measuring 6.0 cm was found infiltrating the subcutaneous tissue into the prevertebral fascia. Microscopic and immunohistochemical findings confirmed that the thyroid masses and lymph nodes were metastatic cholangiocarcinoma.
Discussion
Positive immunohistochemical staining for cytokeratin 7, cytokeratin 19, and AFP and negative results for TG, TTF-1, and cytokeratin 20 can be definitely helpful in arriving at a correct diagnosis.
Conclusion
To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case report on surgically resected thyroid and lateral neck metastases secondary to cholangiocarcinoma.
doi:10.1016/j.ijscr.2011.11.001
PMCID: PMC3267264  PMID: 22288052
Neoplasm metastasis; Thyroid metastasis; Cholangiocarcinoma
19.  Wolff-Parkinson-White Syndrome in a Patient With Mitochondrial Encephalopathy, Lactic Acidosis and Stroke-Like Episodes Syndrome 
Korean Circulation Journal  2011;41(11):674-676.
Mitochondrial encephalopathy, lactic acidosis and stroke-like episodes (MELAS) syndrome is a multisystem disorder, which is clinically characterized by encephalopathy, dementia, seizures and stroke-like episodes. Multiple organs can be affected and cardiac involvement often dominates the clinical picture because of its high energy requirement. We report a case of a 21-year-old woman with MELAS syndrome who had pre-excitation ECG and one episode of tachycardia attack.
doi:10.4070/kcj.2011.41.11.674
PMCID: PMC3242024  PMID: 22194764
MELAS syndrome; Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome
20.  The Role of Lymphovascular Invasion as a Prognostic Factor in Patients with Lymph Node-Positive Operable Invasive Breast Cancer 
Journal of Breast Cancer  2011;14(3):198-203.
Purpose
Lymphovascular invasion (LVI) is an important prognostic factor in patients with lymph node-negative patients with invasive breast cancer. However, the prognostic value of LVI it is unclear and controversial about its prognostic value in patients with lymph node-positive breast cancer patients. So, we report the an analysis of the prognostic significance of LVI in a large cohort study of patients with lymph node-positive patients with invasive breast cancer.
Methods
We retrospectively reviewed 967 patients with invasive breast cancer that had undergone surgical treatment at our hospital, from January 2004 to December 2007. Among these thempatients, 349 patients with lymph node-positive breast cancer patients are were included in this study. We evaluated clinical and pathological data in these patients, we compared with 5-year overall survival and disease-free survival between an LVI-present group and an LVI-absent group.
Results
The median follow-up was 48 months (range, 12-78 months), and the mean age of the patients was 48 years (range, 23-78 years). LVI was present in 192 patients (55%) of with tumors and was associated with age ≤40 years (p=0.009), high histologichistological grade (p=0.007), estrogen receptor status (p=0.001), tumor size ≥2 cm (p<0.001), and number of involved lymph nodes (p<0.001), but not with progesterone receptor status, HER2 status, p53 status, or tumor multiplicity. LVI was a significant independent prognostic factor for disease-free survival (p<0.001) and overall survival (p=0.006). By multivariate analysis revealed that LVI (p=0.003), number of involved lymph nodes (≥4; p=0.005), and high histological grade (II and III; p=0.02) was were an independent significant predictors of disease-free survival and overall survival in the whole group of patients.
Conclusion
In this case, we demonstrated that LVI is a significant predictor of poor prognosis in patients with lymph node-positive patients with primary invasive breast cancer, LVI is a significant predictive predictor value of poor prognosis. So, LVI should be considered in the therapeutic strategy as a decision making tool in the adjuvant chemotherapy setting.
doi:10.4048/jbc.2011.14.3.198
PMCID: PMC3200515  PMID: 22031801
Breast neoplasms; Lymph node metastasis; Lymphovascular invasion; Prognostic factor
21.  Comparing Two-Stent Strategies for Bifurcation Coronary Lesions: Which Vessel Should be Stented First, the Main Vessel or the Side Branch? 
Journal of Korean Medical Science  2011;26(8):1031-1040.
This study compared two-stent strategies for treatment of bifurcation lesions by stenting order, 'main across side first (A-family)' vs 'side branch first (S-family). The study population was patients from 16 centers in Korea who underwent drug eluting stent implantation with two-stent strategy (A-family:109, S-family:140 patients). The endpoints were cardiac death, myocardial infarction (MI), stent thrombosis (ST), and target lesion revascularization (TLR) during 3 years. During 440.8 person-years (median 20.2 months), there was 1 cardiac death, 4 MIs (including 2 STs), and 12 TLRs. Cumulative incidence of cardiac death, MI and ST was lower in A-family (0% in A-family vs 4.9% in S-family, P = 0.045). However, TLR rates were not different between the two groups (7.1% vs 6.2%, P = 0.682). Final kissing inflation (FKI) was a predictor of the hard-endpoint (hazard ratio 0.061; 95% CI 0.007-0.547, P = 0.013), but was not a predictor of TLR. The incidence of hard-endpoint of S-family with FKI was comparable to A-family, whereas S-family without FKI showed the poorest prognosis (1.1% vs 15.9%, retrospectively; P = 0.011). In conclusion, 'A-family' seems preferable to 'S-family' if both approaches are feasible. When two-stent strategy is used, every effort should be made to perform FKI, especially in 'S-family'.
doi:10.3346/jkms.2011.26.8.1031
PMCID: PMC3154338  PMID: 21860553
Bifurcation; Coronary Artery Disease; Drug-Eluting Stents; Percutaneous Coronary Intervention
22.  Basal-like breast cancer displays distinct patterns of promoter methylation 
Cancer biology & therapy  2010;9(12):1017-1024.
Recent microarray profiling studies on breast cancer have identified distinct subtypes that are associated with different clinical outcomes. Promoter hypermethylation of several known or putative tumor suppressor genes occurs frequently during the pathogenesis of breast cancer. We proposed that immunohistopathologic subtypes of breast cancer are likely to contain distinct promoter methylation patterns. A panel of ten gene promoters was assessed by quantitative multiplex methylation-specific PCR in 114 invasive ductal carcinomas from Korea representing the three major subtypes [57 luminal, 24 human epidermal growth factor 2 (HER2), and 33 basal-like] based on immunohistochemical findings of estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor, HER2, cytokeratin 5/6 and epidermal growth factor receptor. The median methylation levels of HIN1, RASSF1A and TWIST, and the average methylation ratio were significantly lower in basal-like subtype compared to luminal or HER2 subtypes. In contrast, BRCA1 methylation level was significantly higher in basal-like subtype than in luminal subtype. The methylation status of a panel of four genes (APC1, CDH, BRCA1 and RAR-β) in luminal and HER2 subtypes were dissimilar, where HER2 tumors showed a significantly higher level of methylation compared to luminal tumors. These results suggest that gene methylation in breast cancer can potentially serve as epigenetic biomarkers and may contribute further to current breast cancer classification.
PMCID: PMC3094906  PMID: 20505321
breast cancer; basal-like; luminal; HER2; methylation; quantitation
23.  Alpha-Type 1 Polarized Dendritic Cells Loaded with Apoptotic Allogeneic Breast Cancer Cells Can Induce Potent Cytotoxic T Lymphocytes against Breast Cancer 
Purpose
Various tumor antigens can be loaded onto dendritic cells (DCs) to induce a potent cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) response in DC-based immunotherapy against breast cancer. However, in the clinical setting, obtaining a sufficient number of autologous tumor cells as a source of tumor antigens is a laborious process. We therefore investigated the feasibility of immunotherapy using breast-cancer-specific CTLs generated in vitro by use of alpha-type 1 polarized DCs (α DC1s) loaded with ultraviolet B-irradiated cells of the breast cancer cell line MCF-7.
Materials and Methods
αDC1s were induced by loading allogeneic tumor antigen generated from the MCF-7 UVB-irradiated breast cancer cell line. Antigen-pulsed αDC1s were evaluated by morphological and functional assays, and the breast-cancer-specific CTL response was analyzed by cytotoxic assay.
Results
The αDC1s significantly increased the expression of several molecules related to DC maturation without differences according to whether the αDC1s were loaded with tumor antigens. The αDC1s showed a high production of interleukin-12 both during maturation and after subsequent stimulation with CD40L, which was not significantly affected by loading with tumor antigens. Breast-cancer-specific CTLs against autologous breast cancer cells were successfully induced by αDC1s loaded with apoptotic MCF-7 cells.
Conclusion
Autologous DCs loaded with an allogeneic breast cancer cell line can generate potent breast-cancer-specific CTL responses. This may be a practical method for cellular immunotherapy in patients with breast cancer.
doi:10.4143/crt.2011.43.1.56
PMCID: PMC3072536  PMID: 21509164
Dendritic cells; Breast neoplasms; Allogeneic; Cytotoxic T lymphocytes; Immunotherapy
24.  A multicenter, prospective, randomized, controlled trial evaluating the safety and efficacy of intracoronary cell infusion mobilized with granulocyte colony-stimulating factor and darbepoetin after acute myocardial infarction: study design and rationale of the 'MAGIC cell-5-combination cytokine trial' 
Trials  2011;12:33.
Background
Bone marrow derived stem/progenitor cell transplantation after acute myocardial infarction is safe and effective for improving left ventricular systolic function. However, the improvement of left ventricular systolic function is limited. This study will evaluate novel stem/progenitor cell therapy with combination cytokine treatment of the long-acting erythropoietin analogue, darbepoetin, and granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) in patients with acute myocardial infarction.
Methods
The 'MAGIC Cell-5-Combination Cytokine Trial' is a multicenter, prospective, randomized, 3-arm, controlled trial with blind evaluation of the endpoints. A total of 116 patients will randomly receive one of the following three treatments: an intravenous darbepoetin infusion and intracoronary infusion of peripheral blood stem cells mobilized with G-CSF (n = 58), an intracoronary infusion of peripheral blood stem cells mobilized with G-CSF alone (n = 29), or conventional therapy (n = 29) at phase I. Patients with left ventricular ejection fraction < 45% at 6 months, in the patients who received stem cell therapy at phase I, will receive repeated cell therapy at phase II. The objectives of this study are to evaluate the safety and efficacy of combination cytokine therapy with erythropoietin and G-CSF (phase I) and repeated progenitor/stem cell treatment (phase II).
Discussion
This is the first study to evaluate the safety and efficacy of combination cytokine based progenitor/stem cell treatment.
Trial registration
http://www.ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT00501917.
doi:10.1186/1745-6215-12-33
PMCID: PMC3045901  PMID: 21299845
25.  Papillary Thyroglossal Duct Cyst Carcinoma with Synchronous Occult Papillary Thyroid Microcarcinoma 
Yonsei Medical Journal  2010;51(4):609-611.
This is a case report on papillary thyroglossal duct cyst (TGDC) carcinoma along with synchronous occult papillary thyroid microcarcinoma. A 46-year-old woman visited our hospital because she had an anterior midline neck mass below her hyoid bone. Preoperative ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration cytology revealed signs of papillary TGDC carcinoma. We performed a Sistrunk operation and a total thyroidectomy. Histopathological examination of the specimen revealed papillary carcinoma arising in the TGDC and papillary microcarcinoma of the thyroid gland without extrathyroidal extension. Surgeons should be aware of TGDC carcinoma during surgical planning and postoperative treatment and should differentiate this carcinoma from an anterior midline neck mass.
doi:10.3349/ymj.2010.51.4.609
PMCID: PMC2880280  PMID: 20499433
Thyroglossal duct cyst carcinoma; synchronous; occult; thyroid microcarcinoma

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