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1.  Comparison of long-term results of above-the-knee femoro-popliteal bypass with autogenous vein and polytetrafluoroethylene grafts 
Purpose
To analyze the long-term results of above-the-knee femoro-popliteal bypass (ATKFPB) with vein grafts compared with polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) grafts.
Methods
A database of patients with chronic atherosclerotic occlusive disease who underwent ATKFPB was retrospectively reviewed. Characteristics of patient and arterial lesion, and follow-up results were compared between vein grafts and PTFE grafts. Graft patency was determined by periodic examinations of duplex ultrasonography or CT angiograms. Graft patency and limb salvage rates were calculated using the Kaplan-Meier method.
Results
In total, 253 ATKFPBs (107 vein grafts; 146 PTFE grafts; critical limb ischemia, 32%) were performed on 228 patients (mean age, 68.5 years; male, 87.7%). No significant differences were observed between the two groups with respect to demographic characteristics, characteristics of arterial lesions, or distal runoff score. During the mean follow-up period of 41 months (range, 1-122 months), 14.5% patients died, and 94% of all limbs were available for follow-up. The primary patency rates were not significantly different between the two groups at 10 years after treatment (75% vs. 42%, P = 0.330). However, the primary-assisted patency rates (88% vs. 42%, P = 0.003) and secondary patency rates (91% vs. 49%, P = 0.013) were significantly higher in the vein grafts compared with the PTFE grafts. Graft occlusion developed more often in the PTFE grafts (5.6% vs. 20.5%, P = 0.001). When graft occlusion occurred, acute limb ischemia was significantly more frequent in the PTFE grafts than in the vein grafts (0% vs. 53%, P = 0.027).
Conclusion
After ATKFPB, autologous vein grafts showed significantly better long-term results compared with PTFE grafts.
doi:10.4174/astr.2015.88.1.28
PMCID: PMC4279987  PMID: 25553322
Comparative study; Vascular graft occlusion; Peripheral arterial occlusive disease
2.  High Prevalence of Peripheral Arterial Disease in Korean Patients with Coronary or Cerebrovascular Disease 
Journal of Korean Medical Science  2012;27(6):625-629.
This prospective study surveyed the prevalence of peripheral arterial disease (PAD) in Korean patients with coronary arterial disease (CAD) or cerebrovascular disorder (CVD). From March 2010, 576 hospitalized patients in cardiovascular or stroke center were enrolled as the study group. Ankle-brachial index (ABI) was measured and the cut-off point for diagnosing PAD was ≤ 0.9 at rest. A total of 424 hospitalized patients in the Department of Surgery and aged ≥ 50 yr was enrolled as the control group. The prevalence of PAD was significantly higher in the study group than the control group (7.6% vs 1.7%; P < 0.001). To analyze the relationship of other vascular diseases and PAD, the patients were regrouped; group A (no CAD or CVD), group B (CAD only), group C (CVD only), and group D (CAD and CVD). Compared with group A, those with other vascular diseases (group B, C, D) had significantly higher prevalence of PAD, diabetes, dyslipidemia, renal insufficiency and claudication. The trend that patients with CAD or CVD are at risk of PAD is observed in this cross-sectional study in Koreans. Routine ABI measurement is recommended in these high-risk groups for early detection and proper management of PAD.
doi:10.3346/jkms.2012.27.6.625
PMCID: PMC3369448  PMID: 22690093
Ankle-Brachial Index; Peripheral Arterial Disease; Prevalence; Coronary Artery Disease; Cerebrovascular Disorder
3.  Immunoglobulin G4 Non-Related Sclerosing Disease with Intracardiac Mass Mimicking Mitral Stenosis: Case Report 
Journal of Korean Medical Science  2013;28(12):1830-1834.
The cardiovascular system may be one of the target organs of both immunoglobulin G4 related and non-related systemic multifocal fibrosclerosis. We present a case of IgG4 non-related systemic multifocal fibrosclerosis mimicking mitral stenosis on echocardiography. For a more detailed differential diagnosis, we used multimodal imaging techniques. After surgical biopsy around the abdominal aortic area in the retroperitoneum, histological examination revealed IgG4 non-related systemic multifocal fibrosclerosis. We describe the multimodal imaging used to diagnose IgG4 non-related systemic multifocal fibrosclerosis and a positive response to steroid treatment. There have been no previous case reports of IgG4 non-related systemic multifocal fibrosclerosis with intracardiac involvement. Here, we report a case of IgG4 non-related systemic multifocal fibrosclerosis mimicking mitral stenosis.
doi:10.3346/jkms.2013.28.12.1830
PMCID: PMC3857383  PMID: 24339717
Immunoglobulin G4 Non-Related Sclerosing Disease; Periaortitis; Left Atrium Mass; Mitral Valve Stenosis
4.  Open surgical decompression of celiac axis compression by division of the median arcuate ligament 
Median arcuate ligament syndrome is a rare cause of abdominal pain which results from compression of the celiac artery (CA) or rarely, the superior mesenteric artery by a ligament formed by the right and left crura of the diaphragm. We report a case of open surgical decompression of the CA by division of the median arcuate ligament for a 37-year-old female patient who had suffered from chronic postprandial epigastric pain and severe weight loss. We described clinical features, characteristic angiographic findings and details of the surgical procedure for the patient with this rare vascular problem.
doi:10.4174/jkss.2013.85.2.93
PMCID: PMC3729994  PMID: 23908968
Median arcuate ligament; Celiac artery stenosis
5.  Treatment of failing vein grafts in patients who underwent lower extremity arterial bypass 
Purpose
We attempted to determine risk factors for the development of failing vein graft and optimal treatment in patients with infrainguinal vein grafts.
Methods
We retrospectively reviewed a database of patients who underwent infrainguinal bypass using autogenous vein grafts due to chronic atherosclerotic arterial occlusive disease of lower extremity (LE) at a single institute between September 2003 and December 2011. After reviewing demographic, clinical, and angiographic features of the patients with failing grafts, we analyzed those variables to determine risk factors for the development of failing grafts. To determine an optimal treatment for the failing vein grafts, we compared results of open surgical repair (OSR), endovascular treatment (EVT) and conservative treatment.
Results
Two hundred and fifty-eight LE arterial bypasses using autogenous vein grafts in 242 patients were included in this study. During the follow-up period of 39 ± 25 months (range, 1 to 89 months), we found 166 (64%) patent grafts with no restenosis, 41 (15.9%) failing grafts, 39 (15.1%) graft occlusions, and 12 (4.7%) grafts lost in follow-up. In risk factor analysis for the development of a failing graft, no independent risk factors were identified. After 50 treatments of the 41 failing grafts (24 OSR, 18 EVT, 8 conservative management), graft occlusion was significantly more common in conservative treatment group and severe (>75%) restenosis was significantly more common following EVT than OSR (P = 0.001). Reintervention-free graft patency was also superior in the OSR group to that of the EVT group (87% vs. 42%, P = 0.015).
Conclusion
OSR of failing grafts has better outcomes than EVT or conservative management in treating failing grafts.
doi:10.4174/jkss.2012.83.5.307
PMCID: PMC3491233  PMID: 23166890
Lower extremity; Bypass; Failing graft; Stenosis; Graft occlusion
6.  Renal and abdominal visceral complications after open aortic surgery requiring supra-renal aortic cross clamping 
Purpose
The aim of this study was to assess renal or abdominal visceral complications after open aortic surgery (OAS) requiring supra-renal aortic cross clamping (SRACC).
Methods
We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 66 patients who underwent SRACC. Among them, 17 followed supra-celiac aortic cross clamping (SCACC) procedure, 42 supra-renal, and 7 inter-renal aorta. Postoperative renal, hepatic or pancreatic complications were investigated by reviewing levels of serum creatinine and hepatic and pancreatic enzymes. Preoperative clinical and operative variables were analyzed to determine risk factors for postoperative renal insufficiency (PORI).
Results
Indications for SRACC were 25 juxta-renal aortic occlusion and 41 aortic aneurysms (24 juxta-renal, 12 supra-renal and 5 type IV thoraco-abdominal). The mean duration of renal ischemic time (RIT) was 30.1 ± 22.2 minutes (range, 3 to 120 minutes). PORI developed in 21% of patients, including four patients requiring hemodialysis (HD). However, chronic HD was required for only one patient (1.5%) who had preoperative renal insufficiency. RIT ≥ 25 minutes and SCACC were significant risk factors for PORI development by univariate analysis, but not by multivariate analysis. Serum pancreatic and hepatic enzyme was elevated in 41% and 53% of the 17 patients who underwent SCACC, respectively.
Conclusion
Though postoperative renal or abdominal visceral complications developed often after SRACC, we found that most of those complications resolved spontaneously unless there was preexisting renal disease or the aortic clamping time was exceptionally long.
doi:10.4174/jkss.2012.83.3.162
PMCID: PMC3433553  PMID: 22977763
Renal insufficiency; Visceral ischemia; Abdominal aortic aneurysm; Aortic occlusive disease; Suprarenal aortic cross clamping
7.  Risk factors for delayed recanalization of calf vein thrombosis 
Purpose
To determine the risk factors of delayed recanalization of isolated calf vein thrombosis (CVT).
Methods
One hundred fifty limbs of 110 patients with CVT between September 2007 and April 2010 were enrolled. We used ultrasonography for the diagnosis and follow-up examinations of CVT. We calculated recanalization rates at 1 and 3 months after initial diagnosis and analyzed the risk factors associated with delayed recanalization of CVT.
Results
CVTs were located in the muscular calf vein in 110 (73.3%), in the deep calf vein in 18 (12%), and in both in 22 cases (14.7%). Among all CVTs, 94 limbs (63%) were symptomatic. Major risk factors for CVT were orthopedic surgery (87.3%), malignancy (21.3%), and immobilization (15.3%). Sixty-seven patients (60.9%) were treated with oral anticoagulation therapy, while 43 patients by low molecular weight heparin (n = 19) or by conservative methods including elastic compression stockings and ambulation (n = 21). The cumulative recanalization rate at 1 and 3 months was 23% and 82% and it was significantly higher in patients who underwent oral anticoagulation therapy compared with patients without oral anticoagulation therapy (84% vs. 65%, P = 0.008 by log-rank test). Malignancy (odds ratio [OR], 2.789; P = 0.043) and immobilization (OR, 4.191; P = 0.029) were independent risk factors for delayed recanalization of CVT and oral anticoagulation (OR, 0.300; P = 0.020) was an independent factor in promoting recanalization in multivariate analysis.
Conclusion
For patients with isolated CVT, no oral anticoagulation resulted in higher rates of delayed recanalization compared to oral anticoagulation treatment. Immobilization and having malignancy were independent risk factors for delayed recanalization.
doi:10.4174/jkss.2012.82.5.306
PMCID: PMC3341480  PMID: 22563538
Thrombosis; Venous thrombosis; Deep vein thrombosis
8.  Spontaneous aortic rupture in a patient with neurofibromatosis type 1 
Neurofibromatosis type I (NF-1) is a rare autosomal dominant genetic disorder occurring in 1 in 3,000 individuals. Vasculopathy is a rarely reported finding in patients with NF-1. Here, we report a case of recurrent aortic pseudoaneurysm after endovascular aneurysm repair in a 49-year-old male patient with NF-1. On the sixth postoperative day following a successful open surgical repair of an aortic pseudoaneurysm, he developed hemoperitoneum due to a delayed rupture of the mesenteric artery branch. This was treated with endovascular coil embolization. We report the clinical features and histologic findings of this rare vascular disorder with a review of the relevant literature.
doi:10.4174/jkss.2012.82.4.261
PMCID: PMC3319782  PMID: 22493769
Aortic aneurysm; Aortic rupture; Neurofibromatosis 1
9.  Measurement of carotid artery stenosis: correlation analysis between B-mode ultrasonography and contrast arteriography 
Purpose
To evaluate the efficacy of B-mode ultrasonography (US) in measurement of carotid stenosis% (CS%).
Methods
One hundred and thirth-three carotid arteries in 96 patients who underwent both carotid US and carotid arteriography (CA) were included in this retrospective study. To measure CS% on US, a cross sectional view of the most stenotic segment of the internal carotid artery was captured and residual diameter and original diameter of that segment were measured with electronic caliper on the same plane and in the same direction. To measure CS% on an angiogram, we used European Carotid Surgery Trial (ECST) and the North American Symptomatic Carotid Endarterectomy Trial (NASCET) methods. Pearson's correlation analysis and linear regression analysis were used to determine the correlation between CS% on an US and angiogram.
Results
Pearson's correlation coefficient (R) between CS% measured in US and CA were 0.853 (ECST method, P < 0.001) and 0.828 (NASCET method, P < 0.001). Accuracies of B-mode US were 93.2%, 88.0%, and 81.2% for estimating CS% by ECST method and 86.5%, 82.7%, and 82% for estimating CS% by NASCET method.
Conclusion
CS% measured in B-mode US was simpler and showed a strong positive correlation with that measured on an arteriogram either ECST or NASCET method.
doi:10.4174/jkss.2011.80.5.348
PMCID: PMC3204697  PMID: 22066059
Carotid stenosis; Ultrasonography; Accuracy; Arteriography
10.  Genetic Predisposition of Donors Affects the Allograft Outcome in Kidney Transplantation; Polymorphisms of Stromal-Derived Factor-1 and CXC Receptor 4 
PLoS ONE  2011;6(2):e16710.
Genetic interaction between donor and recipient may dictate the impending responses after transplantation. In this study, we evaluated the role of the genetic predispositions of stromal-derived factor-1 (SDF1) [rs1801157 (G>A)] and CXC receptor 4 (CXCR4) [rs2228014 (C>T)] on renal allograft outcomes. A total of 335 pairs of recipients and donors were enrolled. Biopsy-proven acute rejection (BPAR) and long-term graft survival were traced. Despite similar allele frequencies between donors and recipients, minor allele of SDF1 rs1801157 (GA+AA) from donor, not from recipients, has a protective effect on the development of BPAR compared to wild type donor (GG) (P = 0.005). Adjustment for multiple covariates did not affect this result (odds ratio 0.39, 95% C.I 0.20–0.76, P = 0.006). CXCR4 rs2228014 polymorphisms from donor or recipient did not affect the incidence of acute rejection. SDF1 was differentially expressed in renal tubular epithelium with acute rejection according to genetic variations of donor rs1801157 showing higher expressions in the grafts from GG donors. Contrary to the development of BPAR, the presence of minor allele rs1801157 A, especially homozygocity, predisposed poor graft survival (P = 0.001). This association was significant after adjusting for several risk factors (hazard ratio 3.01; 95% C.I = 1.19–7.60; P = 0.020). The allelic variation of recipients, however, was not associated with graft loss. A donor-derived genetic polymorphism of SDF1 has influenced the graft outcome. Thus, the genetic predisposition of donor should be carefully considered in transplantation.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0016710
PMCID: PMC3033398  PMID: 21304904
11.  Trends in Deceased Organ Donation and Utilization in Korea: 2000-2009 
Journal of Korean Medical Science  2010;25(8):1122-1127.
Continuous efforts have been made by the organ donation and transplantation community in Korea to increase organ donation by the deceased. The authors detailed trends of organ donation and utilization over the past 10 yr using data provided by the KONOS. The yearly number of deceased donors has grown gradually since 2003. The number and percentage of old donors (≥50 yr) and donors dying from intracranial hemorrhage has increased continuously. Therefore, the percentage of standard criteria donors (SCD) has been declining significantly, from 94% in 2000 to 79.2% in 2009. The number of organs transplanted per donor (OTPD) has also declined slightly since 2007, from 3.28 in 2007 to 2.95 in 2009. This decline may be attributable to increases in the number and percentage of extended criteria donors (ECD) and donors after cardiac death (DCD), since the OTPD was 2.25 for DCD, 2.5 for ECD, and 3.09 for SCD in 2009. In summary, the makeup of donors has changed significantly. There is an urgent need for establishment of an institutional framework including an independent organ procurement organization and for improvement for the National Transplant Act to increase deceased donor pool and to optimize management of ECD and DCD.
doi:10.3346/jkms.2010.25.8.1122
PMCID: PMC2908778  PMID: 20676320
Deceased Organ Donors; Expanded Criteria Donors; Donors after cardiac death; Tissue and Organ Procurement; Organ Utilization
12.  Sequential evolution of IL-17 responses in the early period of allograft rejection 
Experimental & Molecular Medicine  2009;41(10):707-716.
In addition to CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ regulatory T (Treg) cells which protect against autoimmune tissue injury, IL-17-producing CD4+ T (Th17) cells have been recently described and shown to play a crucial role in autoimmune injury. It appears that there is a reciprocal developmental pathway between Th17 and Treg cells. Although IL-17 is known to be associated with allograft rejection, the cellular source of IL-17 and the nature of Th17 in the context of allograft rejection remain unknown. In the current study, the dynamics of Treg and IL-17-producing cells after syngeneic and allogeneic transplantation were examined using a wild-type murine cardiac transplantation model. Ly6G+ cells were found to produce IL-17 during the early postoperative period and CD8+ as well as CD4+ T cells were also found to produce IL-17 during alloimmune response. Graft-infiltrating Ly6G+, CD4+, and even CD8+ cells were found to express IL-17 highly compared to those in spleen. Although the frequencies of Th17 and Treg were found to gradually increase in both syngeneic and allogeneic recipients, Th17/Treg ratios were significantly higher in recipients with allograft rejection than in syngeneic recipients. In conclusion, IL-17 is produced by neutrophils during the early postoperative period and subsequently by Th17 and CD8+ T cells during allograft rejection. Th17/Treg imbalance is associated with the development of allograft rejection. This study would provide basic information on Th17 biology for future investigation in the field of transplantation.
doi:10.3858/emm.2009.41.10.077
PMCID: PMC2772973  PMID: 19561402
graft rejection; interleukin-17; neutrophils; T-lymphocytes, regulatory

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