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1.  Mechanical thromboprophylaxis is sufficient to prevent the lower extremity deep vein thrombosis after kidney transplantation 
Purpose
Deep vein thrombosis (DVT) is a severe and common complication that occurs after the major operation. Despite the commonality of DVT there is limited data on the incidence of DVT after kidney transplantation (KT). Furthermore, most studies have been retrospective in design and were conducted in western countries. The aim of this study was to evaluate the incidence of lower extremity DVT with mechanical thromboprophylaxis within 1 month of KT in Korea.
Methods
A total of 187 consecutive patients who underwent KT were included in this study. Patients used a graduated elastic stocking (n = 93) or an intermittent pneumatic compression device (n = 94) to prevent DVT. The frequency of DVT during the first month after KT was evaluated using serial color duplex ultrasound on postoperative days 7 ± 2, 14 ± 2, and 28 ± 3. All patients were tested for eight thrombophilic factors before KT.
Results
DVT occurred in four patients (2.1%) during the first month after KT. All DVT developed in the graduated elastic stocking group. Interestingly, none of the patients had the factor V Leiden mutation or the prothrombin gene 20210A mutation.
Conclusion
The incidence of DVT in this study was relatively lower than that of western populations. We did not encounter a factor V Leiden mutation or a prothrombin gene 20210A mutation in our study population. These findings suggest that inherited thrombophilic risk factors may be partially responsible for the difference in DVT incidence rates between different nationalities and/or ethnicities.
doi:10.4174/astr.2014.87.1.28
PMCID: PMC4091441  PMID: 25025024
Kidney transplantation; Venous thrombosis; Incidence; Korean
2.  Comparisons between prosthetic vascular graft and saphenous vein graft in femoro-popliteal bypass 
Purpose
Infrainguinalfemoropopliteal bypass (IFPB) is recommended to peripheral arterial disease (PAD) with a long occlusion of the superficial femoral artery (SFA). The aims of our study were to determine the patency of graft materials, and identify the risk factors of graft failure.
Methods
From January 1995 to April 2011, we had performed 380 IFPBs in 351 patients, including 302 femoro-above the knee (AK) bypasses and 78 femoro-below the knee (BK) bypasses. We compare age, sex, severity of ischemia between polytetra-uoroethylene (PTFE) graft and saphenous vein (SV) graft, and evaluate patency rate rates of the two groups.
Results
The primary patency rates at 5 years for SV (n = 76 limbs) and PTFE grafts (n = 226 limbs) in AK were 85.2% and 64.5% (log rank = 0.03), and the secondary patency rates at 5 years for SV and PTFE grafts in AK were 88.2% and 79.0% (log rank = 0.13). The primary patency rates at 5 years for SV (n = 50 limbs) and PTFE grafts (n = 28 limbs) in BK were 63.2% and 40.0% (log rank = 0.08), and the secondary patency rates at 5 years for SV and PTFE grafts in BK were 71.6% and 55.5% (log rank = 0.18).
Conclusion
There was no statistical significant difference in secondary patency rates between SV and PTFE in IFPB. PTFE grafts as SV grafts can be a good alternative bypass material in IFPB instead of SV grafts.
doi:10.4174/astr.2014.87.1.35
PMCID: PMC4091446  PMID: 25025025
Polytetrafluoroethylene; Saphenous vein; Graft; Patency
3.  Mechanical thrombectomy-assisted thrombolysis for acute symptomatic portal and superior mesenteric venous thrombosis 
Acute portal vein and mesenteric vein thrombosis (PVMVT) can cause acute mesenteric ischemia and be fatal with mortality rate of 37%-76%. Therefore, early diagnosis and prompt venous revascularization are warranted in patients with acute symptomatic PVMVT. Due to advances in catheter-directed treatment, endovascular treatment has been used for revascularization of affected vessels in PVMVT. We report two cases of symptomatic PVMVT treated successfully by transhepatic percutaneous mechanical thrombectomy-assisted thrombolysis.
doi:10.4174/astr.2014.86.6.334
PMCID: PMC4062453  PMID: 24949327
Venous thrombosis; Endovascular procedures; Mesenteric veins; Portal vein; Ischemia
4.  Treatment of failing vein grafts in patients who underwent lower extremity arterial bypass 
Purpose
We attempted to determine risk factors for the development of failing vein graft and optimal treatment in patients with infrainguinal vein grafts.
Methods
We retrospectively reviewed a database of patients who underwent infrainguinal bypass using autogenous vein grafts due to chronic atherosclerotic arterial occlusive disease of lower extremity (LE) at a single institute between September 2003 and December 2011. After reviewing demographic, clinical, and angiographic features of the patients with failing grafts, we analyzed those variables to determine risk factors for the development of failing grafts. To determine an optimal treatment for the failing vein grafts, we compared results of open surgical repair (OSR), endovascular treatment (EVT) and conservative treatment.
Results
Two hundred and fifty-eight LE arterial bypasses using autogenous vein grafts in 242 patients were included in this study. During the follow-up period of 39 ± 25 months (range, 1 to 89 months), we found 166 (64%) patent grafts with no restenosis, 41 (15.9%) failing grafts, 39 (15.1%) graft occlusions, and 12 (4.7%) grafts lost in follow-up. In risk factor analysis for the development of a failing graft, no independent risk factors were identified. After 50 treatments of the 41 failing grafts (24 OSR, 18 EVT, 8 conservative management), graft occlusion was significantly more common in conservative treatment group and severe (>75%) restenosis was significantly more common following EVT than OSR (P = 0.001). Reintervention-free graft patency was also superior in the OSR group to that of the EVT group (87% vs. 42%, P = 0.015).
Conclusion
OSR of failing grafts has better outcomes than EVT or conservative management in treating failing grafts.
doi:10.4174/jkss.2012.83.5.307
PMCID: PMC3491233  PMID: 23166890
Lower extremity; Bypass; Failing graft; Stenosis; Graft occlusion
5.  Renal and abdominal visceral complications after open aortic surgery requiring supra-renal aortic cross clamping 
Purpose
The aim of this study was to assess renal or abdominal visceral complications after open aortic surgery (OAS) requiring supra-renal aortic cross clamping (SRACC).
Methods
We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 66 patients who underwent SRACC. Among them, 17 followed supra-celiac aortic cross clamping (SCACC) procedure, 42 supra-renal, and 7 inter-renal aorta. Postoperative renal, hepatic or pancreatic complications were investigated by reviewing levels of serum creatinine and hepatic and pancreatic enzymes. Preoperative clinical and operative variables were analyzed to determine risk factors for postoperative renal insufficiency (PORI).
Results
Indications for SRACC were 25 juxta-renal aortic occlusion and 41 aortic aneurysms (24 juxta-renal, 12 supra-renal and 5 type IV thoraco-abdominal). The mean duration of renal ischemic time (RIT) was 30.1 ± 22.2 minutes (range, 3 to 120 minutes). PORI developed in 21% of patients, including four patients requiring hemodialysis (HD). However, chronic HD was required for only one patient (1.5%) who had preoperative renal insufficiency. RIT ≥ 25 minutes and SCACC were significant risk factors for PORI development by univariate analysis, but not by multivariate analysis. Serum pancreatic and hepatic enzyme was elevated in 41% and 53% of the 17 patients who underwent SCACC, respectively.
Conclusion
Though postoperative renal or abdominal visceral complications developed often after SRACC, we found that most of those complications resolved spontaneously unless there was preexisting renal disease or the aortic clamping time was exceptionally long.
doi:10.4174/jkss.2012.83.3.162
PMCID: PMC3433553  PMID: 22977763
Renal insufficiency; Visceral ischemia; Abdominal aortic aneurysm; Aortic occlusive disease; Suprarenal aortic cross clamping
6.  Ten year outcomes after bypass surgery in aortoiliac occlusive disease 
Purpose
Most outcome studies of bypass surgery are limited to five years of follow-up. However, as human life expectancy has increased, analyses of more long-term outcomes are needed. The aim of this study is to evaluate 10-year outcomes of anatomical bypasses in aortoiliac occlusive disease.
Methods
From 1996 to 2009, 92 patients (82 males and 10 females) underwent aortic anatomical bypasses to treat aortoiliac occlusive disease at Samsung Medical Center. The patients were reviewed retrospectively. Kaplan-Meier survival analyses were performed using PASW ver. 18.0 (IBM Co).
Results
A total of 72 patients (78.3%) underwent aorto-femoral bypasses (uni- or bi-femoral), 15 patients (16.3%) underwent aorto-iliac bypasses (uni- or bi-iliac), and 5 patients (5.4%) underwent aorto-iliac and aorto-femoral bypasses. The overall primary patency rates of the 92 patients were 86.2% over 5 years and 77.6% over 10 years. The 10-year limb salvage rate and overall survival rate were 97.7% and 91.7%, respectively.
Conclusion
The overall patency rates of bypass graft and limb salvage rates decreased as time passed. The analysis of results after bypass surgery to treat arterial occlusive disease will be needed to extend for 10 years of follow-up.
doi:10.4174/jkss.2012.82.6.365
PMCID: PMC3373986  PMID: 22708098
Aortoiliac occlusive disease; Leriche syndrome; Bypass
7.  Spontaneous aortic rupture in a patient with neurofibromatosis type 1 
Neurofibromatosis type I (NF-1) is a rare autosomal dominant genetic disorder occurring in 1 in 3,000 individuals. Vasculopathy is a rarely reported finding in patients with NF-1. Here, we report a case of recurrent aortic pseudoaneurysm after endovascular aneurysm repair in a 49-year-old male patient with NF-1. On the sixth postoperative day following a successful open surgical repair of an aortic pseudoaneurysm, he developed hemoperitoneum due to a delayed rupture of the mesenteric artery branch. This was treated with endovascular coil embolization. We report the clinical features and histologic findings of this rare vascular disorder with a review of the relevant literature.
doi:10.4174/jkss.2012.82.4.261
PMCID: PMC3319782  PMID: 22493769
Aortic aneurysm; Aortic rupture; Neurofibromatosis 1

Results 1-7 (7)