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1.  A completely isolated intestinal duplication cyst mimicking ovarian cyst torsion in an adult 
Intestinal duplications are rare congenital anomalies that can occur anywhere in the gastrointestinal tract. They are most commonly located in the ileum and are usually detected in infancy or early childhood. Duplicated segments are usually firmly attached to and sometimes communicate with the normal gastrointestinal tract. Rarely, intestinal duplications are completely isolated, thus not associated at all with any part of the gastrointestinal tract. Such duplications do not share a common blood supply with the adjacent normal intestinal segment, unlike the usual form of duplication, but rather have a separate vascular pedicle. Reports of completely isolated duplication cysts in adults are extremely rare; we found only five such reports in the English-language medical literature. Here, we report a case of a completely isolated duplication cyst 12 cm long in an adult female. The cyst had no connection to any part of the intestinal tract and had a dedicated vascular pedicle.
PMCID: PMC3923038  PMID: 24574732
Congenital abnormalities; Digestive system; Duplication; Cysts; Adult
2.  Concurrent Bladder Lymphoma and Bladder Cancer Presenting as Metastatic Bladder Cancer 
The World Journal of Men's Health  2012;30(2):141-145.
Malignant lymphoma of the bladder is a rare lesion, representing approximately 0.2% of the primary lesions and approximately 1.8% of the secondary lesions. A disseminated lymphoma presenting as a bladder mass is an infrequent phenomenon. The authors report the case of a 71-year-old patient with concurrent bladder lymphoma and bladder cancer presenting as metastatic bladder cancer. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of concurrent bladder lymphoma and bladder cancer.
PMCID: PMC3623523  PMID: 23596602
Urinary bladder neoplasms; Carcinoma, transitional cell; Lymphoma, non-Hodgkin
3.  Development of a Screening Algorithm for Alzheimer's Disease Using Categorical Verbal Fluency 
PLoS ONE  2014;9(1):e84111.
We developed a weighted composite score of the categorical verbal fluency test (CVFT) that can more easily and widely screen Alzheimer's disease (AD) than the mini-mental status examination (MMSE). We administered the CVFT using animal category and MMSE to 423 community-dwelling mild probable AD patients and their age- and gender-matched cognitively normal controls. To enhance the diagnostic accuracy for AD of the CVFT, we obtained a weighted composite score from subindex scores of the CVFT using a logistic regression model: logit (case)  = 1.160+0.474× gender +0.003× age +0.226× education level – 0.089× first-half score – 0.516× switching score -0.303× clustering score +0.534× perseveration score. The area under the receiver operating curve (AUC) for AD of this composite score AD was 0.903 (95% CI = 0.883 – 0.923), and was larger than that of the age-, gender- and education-adjusted total score of the CVFT (p<0.001). In 100 bootstrapped re-samples, the composite score consistently showed better diagnostic accuracy, sensitivity and specificity for AD than the total score. Although AUC for AD of the CVFT composite score was slightly smaller than that of the MMSE (0.930, p = 0.006), the CVFT composite score may be a good alternative to the MMSE for screening AD since it is much briefer, cheaper, and more easily applicable over phone or internet than the MMSE.
PMCID: PMC3879263  PMID: 24392109
4.  Comparison of outpatient versus inpatient transurethral prostate resection for benign prostatic hyperplasia: Comparative, prospective bi-centre study 
We compare the symptomatic relief with urodynamic parameter change and operative safety of the outpatient transurethral resection in saline (TURIS-V) technique with inpatient transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP) for the management of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH).
This prospective cohort comparison study enrolled patients who needed BPH surgery. Between January 2010 and June 2011, outpatient TURIS-V was performed at 1 centre and the results of the treatment were compared with inpatient TURP performed at a separate hospital. Preoperative characteristics, including prostate volume, were similar in both groups. Perioperative data and any treatment complications were recorded. The analysis compared postoperative outcomes, including a 6-month postoperative International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS), a quality of life (QoL) evaluation and a record of any changes in uroflowmetry findings, between the 2 groups.
In the TURIS-V patient group, 75 patients agreed to be in the study. Of these, 69 ultimately complete the study. In the TURP group, 76 patients agreed and 71 of these completed the study. Both study groups were well-matched for age, IPSS, QoL and uroflowmetry findings. The TURIS-V group experienced both shorter operation times (54.6 vs. 74.8 minutes) and shorter catheterization times (2.2 vs. 4.2 days) when compared to the TURP group. There were comparable improvements in the 6-month postoperative IPSS, QoL, and uroflowmetry findings between the 2 groups. There were also equally low incidence rates of procedural complications.
Both TURIS-V and TURP relieve lower urinary tract symptoms in a similar way, with great efficacy and safety. Overall, TURIS-V had shorter operative and catheterization times compared to TURP. Notwithstanding the paper’s limitations (non- randomized cohort comparison with possible selection or surgeon bias and small heterogeneous sample size), TURIS-V can be performed safely even in an outpatient setting.
PMCID: PMC3896556  PMID: 24454598
5.  The Effect of the Partial Obstruction Site of the Renal Vein on Testis and Kidney in Rats: Is the Traditional Animal Model Suitable for Varicocele Research? 
Korean Journal of Urology  2010;51(8):565-571.
We investigated the influence of the location of the partial renal vein obstruction on the left kidney, the bilateral testes, and cauda epididymal sperm quality and determined whether this animal model is suitable for varicocele study.
Materials and Methods
A total of 25 adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were assigned to three groups: group 1 (experimental varicocele by partial ligation medial to the internal spermatic vein for 8 weeks, n=8), group 2 (partial ligation lateral to the internal spermatic vein for 8 weeks, n=10), and group 3 (sham operation for 8 weeks, n=7). Rats in groups 1, 2, and 3 underwent a left nephrectomy and bilateral orchiectomy at 8 weeks after the operation. Histological changes and Johnsen score in both testes were analyzed. Fibrotic changes in the left kidney were assessed by quantitative image analysis. Numbers of sperm and proportions of motile sperm in the cauda epididymides were determined.
Significant histological abnormalities and Johnsen score changes were observed in the testes in group 1. Renal fibrosis did not differ significantly among the groups. The proportions of motile sperm were significantly lower bilaterally in group 1 than in groups 2 and 3. However, the mean bilateral epididymal sperm count in group 1 was not significantly lower than in groups 2 and 3.
Our results showed that experimental varicocele in the rat, induced by partial ligation medial to the internal spermatic vein, influences epididymal sperm quality without harmful effects on the left kidney. The present study certifies that this traditional animal model is suitable for varicocele research.
PMCID: PMC2924562  PMID: 20733964
Animal models; Physiopathology; Rats; Varicocele
6.  Are Hypoechoic Lesions on Transrectal Ultrasonography a Marker for Clinically Significant Prostate Cancer? 
Korean Journal of Urology  2013;54(10):666-670.
To investigate the relationship of transrectal ultrasound (TRUS) findings with the pathological characteristics of prostate cancer (PCa).
Materials and Methods
The study was conducted retrospectively by analyzing the data for 970 patients who underwent prostate biopsies. Gleason scores and other clinical variables were compared between PCa patients with and without hypoechoic lesions on TRUS.
Of the 970 patients, PCa was diagnosed in 291 (30%). Of these, high-grade PCa (Gleason score of 7 or more) was diagnosed in 190 (65%). The cancer detection rate was higher in patients with hypoechoic lesions (43.9%) than in those without hypoechoic lesions (21.4%, p<0.001). High-grade PCa was detected more often in patients with hypoechoic lesions than in those without hypoechoic lesions (p<0.001). Independent predictors for high-grade PCa by logistic regression analysis included hypoechoic lesions on TRUS and abnormal digital rectal examination findings.
Patients with PCa who had hypoechoic lesions on TRUS had more aggressive pathological disease than did those without lesions. Therefore, hypoechoic lesions on TRUS could be a marker for clinically significant PCa.
PMCID: PMC3806989  PMID: 24175039
Clinical marker; Prostate neoplasms; Ultrasonography
7.  Effect of Treadmill Exercise on Interleukin-15 Expression and Glucose Tolerance in Zucker Diabetic Fatty Rats 
Diabetes & Metabolism Journal  2013;37(5):358-364.
Interleukin-15 (IL-15), a well-known myokine, is highly expressed in skeletal muscle and is involved in muscle-fat crosstalk. Recently, a role of skeletal muscle-derived IL-15 in the improvement of glucose homeostasis and insulin sensitivity has been proposed. However, little is known regarding the influence of endurance training on IL-15 expression in type 2 diabetic skeletal muscles. We investigated the effect of endurance exercise training on glucose tolerance and IL-15 expression in skeletal muscles using type 2 diabetic animal models.
Male Zucker diabetic fatty (ZDF) and ZDF lean control (ZLC) rats were randomly divided into three groups: sedentary ZLC, sedentary ZDF (ZDF-Con), and exercised ZDF (ZDF-Ex). The ZDF-Ex rats were forced to run a motor-driven treadmill for 60 minutes once a day 5 times per week for 12 weeks. Intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test (IPGTT) was performed after 12 weeks. Expression of IL-15 was measured using ELISA in extracted soleus (SOL) and gastrocnemius medial muscles.
After 12 weeks of treadmill training, reduction of body weight was observed in ZDF-Ex compared to ZDF-Con rats. Glucose tolerance using IPGTT in diabetic rats was significantly improved in ZDF-Ex rats. Furthermore, the expression of IL-15 was significantly increased (P<0.01) only in the SOL of ZDF-Ex rats compared to ZDF-Con. Additionally, IL-15 expression in SOL muscles was negatively correlated with change of body weight (R=-0.424, P=0.04).
The present study results suggest that 12 weeks of progressive endurance training significantly improved glucose tolerance with concomitant increase of IL-15 expression in SOL muscles of type 2 diabetic rats.
PMCID: PMC3816137  PMID: 24199165
Exercise; Glucose intolerance; Interleukin-15; Rats, Zucker; Treadmill
8.  A Prospective Randomized Controlled Trial of the Efficacy of Tamsulosin After Extracorporeal Shock Wave Lithotripsy for a Single Proximal Ureteral Stone 
Korean Journal of Urology  2013;54(8):527-530.
The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of tamsulosin on stone clearance after extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL) in patients with a single proximal ureteral stone.
Materials and Methods
This prospective randomized controlled trial was performed on 88 patients with a single proximal ureteral stone. After consenting with a doctor, the patients were allocated to the treatment (tamsulosin 0.2 mg once a day) or control (no medication) group, and the efficacy of tamsulosin was evaluated. The primary outcome of this study was the stone-free rate, and the secondary outcomes were the period until clearance, pain intensity, analgesic requirement, and incidence of complications.
A stone-free state was reported in 37 patients (84.1%) in the treatment group and 29 (65.9%) in the control group (p=0.049). The mean expulsion period of the stone fragments was 10.0 days in the treatment group and 13.2 days in the control group (p=0.012). There were no statistically significant differences in aceclofenac requirement or pain score between the two groups. Only one patient in the treatment group experienced transient dizziness associated with medical expulsive therapy, and this adverse event disappeared spontaneously.
The results of this prospective randomized controlled trial of the efficacy of tamsulosin after ESWL for a single proximal ureteral stone suggest that tamsulosin helps in the earlier clearance of stone fragments and reduces the expulsion period of stone fragments after ESWL.
PMCID: PMC3742905  PMID: 23956828
Lithotripsy; Tamsulosin; Urolithiasis
9.  Free Prostate-Specific Antigen Provides More Precise Data on Benign Prostate Volume Than Total Prostate-Specific Antigen in Korean Population 
To investigate the efficacy of total prostate-specific antigen (tPSA) and free prostate-specific antigen (fPSA) for the estimation of prostate volume (PV) in pathologically-proven benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) patients.
From January 2010 to March 2013, 165 Korean men with a PSA less than 10 ng/mL who were diagnosed without prostate cancer by prostate biopsy were enrolled. Patients were classified into three age groups: ≤60, 61-70, and >70 years old. The results were organized to estimate and compare the ability of serum tPSA and fPSA to assess the PV.
Enrolled patients had a median age of 63.5 years (44 to 80), a median tPSA of 5.72 ng/mL, a median fPSA of 0.98 ng/mL and a median PV of 53.68 mL, respectively. Among the associations between tPSA, fPSA, age, and PV, the highest correlation was verified between fPSA and PV (r=0.377, P<0.0001); the correlation coefficient between tPSA and PV was much lower (r=0.262, P<0.001). All stratified age cohorts showed the same findings. The ROC curves (for PV greater than 30, 40, and 50 mL) showed that fPSA (area under the curve [AUC]=0.781, 0.718, and 0.700) outperformed tPSA (AUC=0.657, 0.583, and 0.67) in its ability to predict clinically significant PV enlargement.
Both tPSA and fPSA significantly correlated with PV in Korean men, while the correlation efficiency between fPSA and PV was more powerful. fPSA may be a useful tool in making therapeutic decisions and follow-up management in BPH patients.
PMCID: PMC3713245  PMID: 23869271
Prostate-specific antigen; Prostatic hyperplasia; Organ volume
10.  Rapid resolution of acute subdural hematoma in child with severe head injury: a case report 
Rapid spontaneous resolution of traumatic acute subdural hematoma is an infrequent phenomenon and mainly develops in a case of simple acute subdural hematoma without parenchymal contusion. However, it has been rarely reported in a pediatric case with severe initial head injury.
Case presentation
A 7-year-old Asian girl with traumatic acute subdural hematoma was transferred to our hospital for an emergency operation based on the results of an initial computed tomography scan and neurological examination. However, a repeat computed tomography scan two hours after trauma disclosed considerable reduction of the hematoma and midline shift with neurological improvements. Serial follow-up imaging studies demonstrated apparent redistribution of the hematoma over the cerebellar tentorium, posterior interhemispheric fissure and subarachnoid space. The patient was discharged with mild confusion 40 days after the admission.
A follow-up computed tomography scan is strongly recommended before surgery when a child with a severe head injury presents with any sign of neurological improvement, especially with a mixed density hematoma on the initial computed tomography scan.
PMCID: PMC3607936  PMID: 23497374
Acute subdural hematoma; Pediatric head injury; Rapid resolution; Spontaneous resolution
11.  Effective application duration of sodium ascorbate antioxidant in reducing microleakage of bonded composite restoration in intracoronally-bleached teeth 
The aim of this study was to determine an appropriate application duration of sodium ascorbate (SA) antioxidant gel in reducing microleakage of bonded composite restoration in intracoronally-bleached teeth.
Materials and Methods
Eighty endodontically-treated human incisors were randomly divided into eight groups: control, no bleaching; IB and DB, immediate and delayed bonding after bleaching, respectively; S10m, S60m, S24h, S3d and S7d, bleaching + SA gel for 10 min, 60 min, 24 hr, 3 day and 7 day, respectively. For bleaching, a mixture of 30% hydrogen peroxide and sodium perborate was applied for 7 day. All access cavities were restored using One-Step adhesive (Bisco Inc.) and then Aelite LS Packable composite (Bisco Inc.). The bonded specimens were subjected to 500 thermal cycles, immersed in 1% methylene blue for 8 hr, and longitudinally sectioned. Microleakage was assessed with a 0 - 4 scoring system and analyzed using nonparametric statistical methods (α = 0.05).
Group IB showed a significantly higher microleakge than the control group (p = 0.006) and group DB a statistically similar score to the control group (p > 0.999). Although groups S10m, S60m, and S24h exhibited significantly higher scores than group DB (p < 0.05), the microleakage in groups S3d and S7d was statistically similar to that in group DB (p = 0.771, p > 0.999).
Application of SA gel for 3 day after nonvital bleaching was effective in reducing microleakage of composite restoration in intracoronally-bleached teeth.
PMCID: PMC3591585  PMID: 23493742
Application duration; Composite restoration; Intracoronal bleaching; Microleakage; Sodium ascorbate
12.  Clinical Features of Mumps Orchitis in Vaccinated Postpubertal Males: A Single-Center Series of 62 Patients 
Korean Journal of Urology  2012;53(12):865-869.
Although the measles-mumps-rubella vaccination covers most children against mumps in Korea, the development of mumps has been reported. However, the clinical manifestations of mumps orchitis in postpubertal vaccinated patients have never been investigated. Herein we report the clinical features of mumps orchitis in postpubertal vaccinated patients.
Materials and Methods
This study included a total of 62 postpubertal males who developed acute mumps orchitis from 2005 to 2010. The clinical manifestations such as the incubation period, febrile duration, and the mean duration of orchitis were retrospectively investigated. The laboratory and sonographic findings were also reviewed and compared with the features of previously reported cases of unvaccinated postpubertal mumps orchitis.
The mean age of the 62 patients was 17.56 years (range, 15 to 29 years). All patients were serologically confirmed with acute mumps infection (positive immunoglobulin [Ig] M and negative or positive IgG). The mean incubation period was 5.39 days (range, 0 to 23 days), with a febrile duration of 1.8 days (range, 0.5 to 3 days), and a mean duration of orchitis of 4.96 days (range, 0 to 17 days). Sonography revealed unilateral orchitis in 58 patients (93.6%) and bilateral orchitis in only 6 (6.4%).
In our study, mumps orchitis in postpubertal vaccinated patients showed a relatively shorter febrile duration. In addition, less scrotal swelling and a lower incidence of bilaterality were found upon physical examination and ultrasonography. In the future, additional long-term follow-up is needed to determine the features of mumps orchitis in postpubertal vaccinated males, and an additional booster vaccination should be considered.
PMCID: PMC3531641  PMID: 23301132
Mumps; Orchitis; Vaccination; Young adult
13.  Metastatic Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Kidney from Cholangiocarcinoma 
The World Journal of Men's Health  2012;30(3):198-201.
We present a rare case of a metastatic renal tumor originating from adenosquamous carcinoma of the intrahepatic bile duct. A 64-year-old man treated with bisegmentectomy and extended cholecystectomy for cholangiocarcinoma had a left cystic renal mass, which had irregular wall thickening, heterogeneously low attenuation, and soft tissue infiltration as determined by a computed tomography scan. The first impression was renal abscess. Left nephrectomy was performed and the nonencapsulated mass was gray in color macroscopically. Histological examination of the specimen revealed alveolar proliferation of small cancer cells, which was consistent with the original tumor of the intrahepatic bile duct. The left renal tumor was misdiagnosed as a renal abscess but finally diagnosed as squamous cell carcinoma metastasized from the intrahepatic bile duct. The patient expired because of lung metastasis after 14 months following left nephrectomy. In our opinion, this case would be the first report of a renal metastasis from a cholangiocarcinoma clinically and was treated with nephrectomy.
PMCID: PMC3623539  PMID: 23596614
Neoplasm metastasis; Carcinoma, squamous cell; Nephrectomy
14.  Stent fractures after superficial femoral artery stenting 
Stent fracture is one of the major factors compromising implanted stent patency due to its consequences including in-stent restenosis, thrombosis, perforation, and migration. Stent fracture can occur from stress (extrinsic or intrinsic) and biomechanical forces at different implantation sites. We report on 2 cases of stent fractures and pertinent literature. One patient, a 75-year-old male, presented with recurrence of claudication 14 months after superficial femoral artery stenting; a femoral artery occlusion with stent fracture was found, and he underwent femoropopliteal bypass. The other patient, a 72-year-old male presented with recurrence of claudication; a stent fracture was found without femoral artery occlusion, and he was treated with additional femoral artery stenting to secure the fracture site.
PMCID: PMC3433557  PMID: 22977767
Stents; Vascular patency; Femoral artery; Early intervention
15.  Association between Serum Cholesterol Level and Bone Mineral Density at Lumbar Spine and Femur Neck in Postmenopausal Korean Women 
Korean Journal of Family Medicine  2012;33(3):166-173.
Blood lipid profiles have been suggested to be a risk factor for osteoporosis. However, the association between lipid profiles and bone mineral density (BMD) is still unclear. This study aimed to evaluate an association between blood lipid profiles and BMD through both a cross-sectional and a longitudinal study.
Study subjects were 958 postmenopausal Korean women who have repeatedly undertaken laboratory tests and BMD measurements at lumbar spine and femur neck with an interval of 7.1 years. The associations between lipid profiles and BMD were examined using Spearman correlation analysis with an adjustment for age, smoking, alcohol drinking, physical activity, body mass index, and follow-up duration.
Lumbar spine BMD was not associated with total cholesterol (TC), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), and high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HLD-C) regardless of when the measurement was performed. In an analysis using data measured at the beginning of the study, femur neck BMD was not associated with TC and LDL-C. However, femur neck BMD showed weak but significantly positive correlation with HDL-C (correlation coefficient, 0.077; 95% confidence interval, 0.005 to 0.149). When the analysis was repeated with data measured at the end of the follow-up, there was no significant correlation between femur neck BMD and any lipid profile. In addition, change in femur neck BMD during follow-up was not associated with the change in lipid profiles.
Although further study with a consideration of calcium intake and osteoporosis medication seems necessary, this study found no association between serum lipid profiles and BMD in postmenopausal Korean women.
PMCID: PMC3391642  PMID: 22787539
Bone Density; Cholesterol, LDL; Cholesterol, HDL; Osteoporosis
16.  Anterior vaulting of single piece in-the-bag intraocular lens after blunt trauma 
Journal of Optometry  2012;5(1):6-8.
A 64-year-old man complained of difficulty with far vision in the right eye after blunt trauma by his hand during sleep. He had undergone uneventful phacoemulsification and intraocular lens (IOL) implantation of both eyes one week before the event. On slit lamp examination, the anterior chamber was shallow compared to postoperative one day or the left eye. After mydriasis, IOL position was perfect, within the capsulorrhexis margin, and no haptics were protruded. SE of his right eye was −4.00 diopter after trauma, although spherical equivalent (SE) of both eyes was near emmetropia one day after cataract surgery. We decided on IOL reposition or exchange. Intraoperatively, we pushed the IOL posteriorly; the IOL was vaulted posteriorly, as expected. After surgery, his SE was +0.25 with the same diopter IOL. We report the case on the possibility of 4-point haptic IOL vaulting anteriorly by blunt trauma within the capsular bag.
PMCID: PMC3861315
Blunt trauma; Intraocular lens (IOL); Traumatismo contuso; Lentes intraoculares (IOL)
17.  Macintosh laryngoscope vs. Pentax-AWS video laryngoscope: comparison of efficacy and cardiovascular responses to tracheal intubation in major burn patients 
Korean Journal of Anesthesiology  2012;62(2):119-124.
Patients with major burns accompanied with airway edema need more attention for airway management. Although the Pentax-AWS has an advantage in managing endotracheal intubation more easily, its usefulness cannot be assured if it does not maintain hemodynamic stability in burn patients. The aim of this study was to compare cardiovascular responses and general efficacy of the Pentax-AWS and Macintosh laryngoscopes in burn patients.
American Society of Anesthesiologists physical status 2 or 3 adult patients with major burn injury were randomly assigned to group P (AWS, n = 50) or group M (Macintosh, n = 50). Fifty-nine patients assigned to the Macintosh group and no patient to AWS group were excluded because of failure to first intubation. Hemodynamic data at baseline, just before and after intubation as well as 3, 5 and 10 minutes after intubation and grade of sore throat were recorded in two groups. Intubation time, success rate of intubation, number of intubation attempts and the percentage of glottic opening (POGO) scores were also observed and analyzed in all patients.
A statistically significant increase in heart rate just after laryngoscopy was seen in group M. The success rate of the first attempt in group P (100%) was greater than with the group M (46%). POGO scores were higher in group P (97 ± 4%) than in group M (48 ± 29%)
The use of Pentax-AWS offers a reduced degree of heart rate elevation compared with the Macintosh laryngoscope and better intubation environments in major burn patients.
PMCID: PMC3284732  PMID: 22379565
Burns; Hemodynamics; Intratracheal; Intubation; Laryngoscopes
18.  Acute Postoperative Pain after Ureteroscopic Removal of Stone: Incidence and Risk Factors 
Korean Journal of Urology  2012;53(1):34-39.
Ureteroscopic removal of stones (URS) has been widely used to treat ureteral stones because it is comparatively safe, has a high success rate, and enables patients to rapidly return to their daily routines. However, some patients experience pain after URS, but the incidence of acute post-URS pain remains largely unknown. This study aimed to investigate the incidence of acute postoperative pain after URS and the associated risk factors.
Materials and Methods
Data for 143 consecutive patients who underwent URS from June 2008 to December 2010 were collected. After excluding 8 patients who developed intraoperative complications, the patients were divided into two groups according to postoperative pain on the first postoperative day. Acute postoperative pain was defined as a pain score greater than 4 on a visual analogue pain scale (normal range, 0 to 10). Various factors were analyzed to identify the risk factors that could predict acute postoperative pain after URS.
The stone-free rate without URS intraoperative complications was 95.5%. A total of 21 (14.6%) patients experienced postoperative pain on the first postoperative day. Young age, psychiatric illness, history of urinary tract infection, use of a stone basket, large stone size, and prolonged operation time were identified as risk factors for acute postoperative pain.
The incidence of acute postoperative pain is not that low and should not be overlooked, because it is associated with postoperative complications that could result in an unscheduled hospital admission or visit. Active pain control should be contemplated after URS in young patients and in those with a history of urinary tract infection, psychiatric illness, large stone size, and prolonged operation time.
PMCID: PMC3272554  PMID: 22323972
Pain, postoperative; Ureterolithiasis; Ureteroscopy
19.  Anti-Arthritic and Analgesic Effect of NDI10218, a Standardized Extract of Terminalia chebula, on Arthritis and Pain Model 
Biomolecules & Therapeutics  2012;20(1):104-112.
The fruit of Terminalia chebula Retzius has been used as a panacea in India and Southeast Asia but its biological activities have not been fully elucidated. Here we report anti-arthritic and analgesic effect of NDI10218, a standardized ethanol extract of Terminalia chebula, on collagen-induced arthritis and acetic acid-induced writhing model, respectively. Arthritis was induced in DBA/1J mice by immunizing bovine type II collagen and mice were treated with NDI10218 daily for 5 weeks after the onset of the disease. NDI10218 reduced the arthritis index and blocked the synovial hyperplasia in a dose-dependent manner. The serum levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-1β were significantly reduced in mice treated with NDI10218. Production of the inflammatory IL-17, but not immunosuppressive IL-10, was also inhibited in splenocytes isolated from NDI10218-treated arthritis mice. Administration of NDI10218 markedly decreased the number of T cell subpopulations in the regional lymph nodes of the arthritis mice. Finally, NDI10218 reduced the number of abdominal contractions in acetic acid-induced writhing model, suggesting an analgesic effect of this extract. Taken together, these results suggest that NDI10218 can be a new therapeutic candidate for the treatment of rheuma-toid arthritis.
PMCID: PMC3792193  PMID: 24116282
Terminalia chebula; Arthritis; Pain; Anti-inflammatory; Analgesic
20.  Effects of Spinal and Peripheral Injection of α1A or α1D Adrenoceptor Antagonists on Bladder Activity in Rat Models with or without Bladder Outlet Obstruction 
Antagonists of α1-adrenergic receptors (α1ARs) relax prostate smooth muscle and relieve voiding and storage symptoms. Recently, increased expression of α1ARs with change of its subtype expression has been proved in bladder outlet obstruction (BOO). To search for the evidence of changes in α1ARs subtype expression and activity in the peripheral and spinal routes, the effects of spinal and peripheral administration of tamsulosin (an α1A/D-selective AR), naftopidil (an α1A/D-selective AR), and doxazosin (non-selective AR) on bladder activity were investigated in a rat model with or without BOO.
A total of 65 female Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into the BOO surgery group (n=47) and the sham surgery group (n=18). After 6 weeks, cystometry was assessed before and after intrathecal and intra-arterial administrations of tamsulosin, naftopidil, and doxazosin.
After intra-arterial administrations of all three drugs, bladder capacity (BC) was increased and maximal intravesical pressure (Pmax) was decreased in both BOO and the sham rat models (P<0.05). After intrathecal administration of all three drugs, BC was increased and Pmax was decreased in only the BOO group. The episodes of involuntary contraction in the BOO rat models were decreased by intra-arterial administration (P=0.031). The increase of BC after intrathercal and intra-arterial administrations of α1ARs was significantly greater in the BOO group than in the sham group (P=0.023, P=0.041). In the BOO group, the increase of BC and decrease in Pmax were greater by intra-arterial administration than by intrathecal administration (P=0.035). There were no significant differences of the degrees of changes in the cystometric parameters among the three different α1ARs.
Up-regulations of the α1ARs in BOO were observed by the greater increases of BC after α1AR antagonist administrations in the BOO group than in the sham group. However, there were no subtype differences of the α1ARs in functional parameters of bladder activity. In addition, α1ARs also act on the lumbosacral cord which implies that the sensitivity of α1ARs is increased in pathologic models such as BOO. Further evaluation including differential expression of α1ARs in BOO models are need.
PMCID: PMC3256304  PMID: 22259733
Urinary bladder; Urinary bladder neck obstruction; Adrenergic alpha-antagonists; Rats
21.  Voiding Dysfunction after Total Mesorectal Excision in Rectal Cancer 
The aim of this study was to assess the voiding dysfunction after rectal cancer surgery with total mesorectal excision (TME).
This was part of a prospective study done in the rectal cancer patients who underwent surgery with TME between November 2006 and June 2008. Consecutive uroflowmetry, post-voided residual volume, and a voiding questionnaire were performed at preoperatively and postoperatively.
A total of 50 patients were recruited in this study, including 28 male and 22 female. In the comparison of the preoperative data with the postoperative 3-month data, a significant decrease in mean maximal flow rate, voided volume, and post-voided residual volume were found. In the comparison with the postoperative 6-month data, however only the maximal flow rate was decreased with statistical significance (P=0.02). In the comparison between surgical methods, abdominoperineal resection patients showed delayed recovery of maximal flow rate, voided volume, and post-voided residual volume. There was no significant difference in uroflowmetry parameters with advances in rectal cancer stage.
Voiding dysfunction is common after rectal cancer surgery but can be recovered in 6 months after surgery or earlier. Abdominoperineal resection was shown to be an unfavorable factor for postoperative voiding. Larger prospective study is needed to determine the long-term effect of rectal cancer surgery in relation to male and female baseline voiding condition.
PMCID: PMC3212591  PMID: 22087426
Urination; Postoperative complications; Rectal neoplasms; Rectal surgery
22.  Anti-obesity effects of Lysimachia foenum-graecum characterized by decreased adipogenesis and regulated lipid metabolism 
Experimental & Molecular Medicine  2011;43(4):205-215.
Lysimachia foenum-graecum has been used as an oriental medicine with anti-inflammatory effect. The anti-obesity effect of L. foenum-graecum extract (LFE) was first discovered in our screening of natural product extract library against adipogenesis. To characterize its anti-obesity effects and to evaluate its potential as an anti-obesity drug, we performed various obesity-related experiments in vitro and in vivo. In adipogenesis assay, LFE blocked the differentiation of 3T3-L1 preadipocyte in a dose-dependent manner with an IC50 of 2.5 µg/ml. In addition, LFE suppressed the expression of lipogenic genes, while increasing the expression of lipolytic genes in vitro at 10 µg/ml and in vivo at 100 mg/kg/day. The anti-adipogenic and anti-lipogenic effect of LFE seems to be mediated by the inhibition of PPARγ and C/EBPα expression as shown in in vitro and in vivo, and the suppression of PPARγ activity in vitro. Moreover, LFE stimulated fatty acid oxidation in an AMPK-dependent manner. In high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obese mice (n = 8/group), oral administration of LFE at 30, 100, and 300 mg/kg/day decreased total body weight gain significantly in all doses tested. No difference in food intake was observed between vehicle- and LFE-treated HFD mice. The weight of white adipose tissues including abdominal subcutaneous, epididymal, and perirenal adipose tissue was reduced markedly in LFE-treated HFD mice in a dose-dependent manner. Treatment of LFE also greatly improved serum levels of obesity-related biomarkers such as glucose, triglycerides, and adipocytokines leptin, adiponectin, and resistin. All together, these results showed anti-obesity effects of LFE on adipogenesis and lipid metabolism in vitro and in vivo and raised a possibility of developing LFE as anti-obesity therapeutics.
PMCID: PMC3085739  PMID: 21389766
adipocyte differentiation; fatty acid oxidation; fatty acid synthesis; lipid metabolism; Lysimachia foenum-graecum; obesity
23.  Initial Biopsy Outcome Prediction in Korean Patients-Comparison of a Noble Web-based Korean Prostate Cancer Risk Calculator versus Prostate-specific Antigen Testing 
We developed and validated a novel Korean prostate cancer risk calculator (KPCRC) for predicting the probability of a positive initial prostate biopsy in a Korean population. Data were collected from 602 Koreans who underwent initial prostate biopsies due to an increased level of prostate-specific antigen (PSA), a palpable nodule upon digital rectal examination (DRE), or a hypoechoic lesion upon transrectal ultrasound (TRUS). The clinical and laboratory variables were analyzed by simple and multiple logistic regression analysis. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) was computed to compare its performance to PSA testing alone. Prostate cancer was detected in 172 (28.6%) men. Independent predictors included age, DRE findings, PSA level, and prostate transitional zone volume. We developed the KPCRC using these variables. The AUC for the selected model was 0.91, and that of PSA testing alone was 0.83 (P < 0.001). The AUC for the selected model with an additional dataset was 0.79, and that of PSA testing alone was 0.73 (P = 0.004). The calculator is available on the website: The KPCRC improved the performance of PSA testing alone in predicting the risk of prostate cancer in a Korean population. This calculator would be a practical tool for physicians and patients.
PMCID: PMC3012855  PMID: 21218035
Prostate Neoplasms; Biopsy; Forecasting; Asian Continental Ancestry Group
24.  Variation of the Infrahyoid Muscle: Duplicated Omohyoid and Appearance of the Levator Glandulae Thyroideae Muscles 
Yonsei Medical Journal  2010;51(6):984-986.
The embryologic origin of the omohyoid muscle is different from that of the other neck muscles. A number of variations such as the absence of muscle, variable sites of origin and insertion, and multiple bellies have been reported. However, variations in the inferior belly of the omohyoid muscle are rare. There have been no reports of the combined occurrence of the omohyoid muscle variation with the appearance of the levator glandulase thyroideae muscle. Routine dissection of a 51-year-old female cadaver revealed a duplicated omohyoid muscle and the appearance of the levator glandulae thyroideae muscle. In this case, the two inferior bellies of the omohyoid muscle were found to originate inferiorly from the superior border of the scapula. One of the inferior bellies generally continued to the superior belly with the tendinous intersection. The other inferior belly continued into the sternohyoid muscle without the tendinous intersection. In this case, the levator glandulae thyroideae muscle appeared on the left side, which attached from the upper border of the thyroid gland to the inferior border of the thyroid cartilage. These variations are significant for clinicians during endoscopic diagnosis and surgery because of the arterial and nervous damage due to iatrogenic injuries. The embryologic origins of the omohyoid and levator glandulae thyroideae muscles may be similar based on the descriptions in the relevant literature.
PMCID: PMC2995959  PMID: 20879073
Variation; omohyoid muscle; levator glandulae thyroideae muscle; infrahyoid muscle
25.  Nanocomposite ZnO–SnO2 Nanofibers Synthesized by Electrospinning Method 
Nanoscale Research Letters  2010;5(4):747-752.
We report the characterization of mixed oxides nanocomposite nanofibers of (1 − x) ZnO-(x)SnO2 (x ≤ 0.45) synthesized by electrospinning technique. The diameter of calcined nanofibers depends on Sn content. Other phases like SnO, ZnSnO3, and Zn2SnO4 were absent. Photoluminescence studies show that there is a change in the blue/violet luminescence confirming the presence of Sn in Zn-rich composition. Present study shows that the crystalline nanocomposite nanofibers with stoichiometry of (1 − x)ZnO-(x)SnO2 (x ≤ 0.45) stabilize after the calcination and possess some morphological and optical properties that strongly depend on Sn content.
PMCID: PMC2893948  PMID: 20672145
Nanofibers; Electrospinning method; Coupled oxide; ZnO; SnO2

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